Week 3 Notes
Week 3 Notes IS 2054
Popular in Intro to World Politics
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lian Joseph on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to IS 2054 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Courtney Thomas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Politics in International Studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Intro to World Politics (Lecture 3) Professor Thomas 8/29/16 Treaties of Westphalia 1648 (starting point of international systems) A series of treaties marked the end of the 30 Years War between Spain and the Dutch Republic (gives us the doctrine of sovereignty**) o **Created to establish a better principle of international relations. Gave European powers diplomatic powers/freedom in order to establish peace and stability. Emergence of an international system that closely represents modern Europe o Initiated a new period in political history that would be based upon the supremacy of sovereign states Napoleonic Wars (18031815) An extension of the French Revolution Napoleon was the first to express nationalism to encourage/entice soldiers and people to conquer Europe; identity politics Winter led to Napoleon’s defeat First use of conscription based on nationalism Defeat after rebellion in Haiti and invasion of Russia o Haitian rebellion influenced the European wars especially the Napoleonic Wars Led to collapse of the Spanish Empire in the New World (French occupation of Spain) Dissolved the Holy Roman Empire Peace of Vienna (1815) At the end of Napoleonic Wars, the leaders of Europe met at the Congress of Vienna to reestablish order across Europe o This initiated the Age of Metternich (18151914) 100 year period during which relative peace across Europe emerged due to the Great Power System Great Power System: France, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria maintained peace through diplomacy, balance of power, and luck Great Britain: Most important country out of the GPS due to their advancement and control in the world; economic importance (balancer of European power) Increased focus on colonization, industrialism, and new ideas formed; people began seeing politics differently Prussia and Bismarck Prussia sought to unite “Germany” o Began to meddle with small affairs to get a sense of “Germany” Leadership of Bismarck AustroPrussian War (1866) o Starts to bring German states together FrancoPrussian War (18701871) o France loses badly results in a critical piece of territory: AlsaceLorraine AlsaceLorraine (territory within France): Industrial heartlandcoal and iron > produces steel, which results in weapons, airplanes, infrastructure, warfare, rail networks; need it for industrialization Mercantilism: Using colonies to produce raw materials; self sufficiency for Europe (needed colonies) German Unification (1871); ends the FrancoPrussian War World War I (Example of how bad politics can get) o Marked the end of the Age of Metternich The causes and consequences of this conflict Leaders of Europe: “The Cousins” Victorians grandchildren (familial conflict) Family members vying over political control and power o Total war primarily among European powers o Many causesnationalism, arms races, imperialism, alliances, industrialization, military planning, failure of diplomacy, and arrogance o Led to the destruction of the remaining European empires and the establishment of sovereign states throughout Europe o No structure or place to talk about issues regarding the balance European powers; alliance system was so secretive that no one had any idea what was happening Industrialization transformed political power and diplomacy o War starts: Assassination of Archduke of AustriaHungary by the Serbian Blackhand Serbia declares independence from AustriaHungary; Allies with Great British and the French o 1917: United States enters WWI; have no conception of how hideous WWI really was o Woodrow Wilson: (14 Points) points of diplomacy, post war order (that wouldn’t punish any country); Treaty of Versailles Peace of Versailles Not based upon President Wilson’s 14 Points Designed to cripple Germany to prevent the outbreak of future war War Guilt Clause: take blame for entire WWI (paid off WWI debt about three years ago) Reparations: o Lost territory (AlsaceLorraine), strict military limitations, fueled German motivation throughout the Interwar Period and going into WWII Established the League of Nationsa very weak institution with little power of influence The Interwar Period (early 1930s) Economic boom followed by bust Isolation of the United States Rise of Hitler and fascism in Europe along with the outbreak of WWII o Germany tries to build itself into a stronger country Germany will only get Sudetenland Appeasement “Only makes the aggressor more aggressive” To stall the outbreak of war and give themselves more time to prepare, France and Great Britain gave into some of Germany’s early demands o Annexation of the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia o Anschluss with Austria o Remilitarization Outbreak of War End of WWII At the end of WWII the Allies were determined NOT to repeat the mistakes of 1918 This focus would shape the next phase in international history o Often associated with the Cold War o But ALSO with the end of colonialism, the establishment of what would become the European Union, and the emergence of the United Nations Germany ceases to exist in 1945 (split up amongst the Soviet Union, the United States, and Great Britain) Post War Europe Decolonization, demilitarism etc
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