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Week 3 Notes

by: Lian Joseph
Lian Joseph
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

These notes will cover our first exam
Intro to World Politics
Courtney Thomas
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lian Joseph on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to IS 2054 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Courtney Thomas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Politics in International Studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 09/01/16
Intro to World Politics (Lecture 3)  Professor Thomas  8/29/16 Treaties of Westphalia 1648 (starting point of international systems)  A series of treaties marked the end of the 30 Years War between Spain and the Dutch  Republic (gives us the doctrine of sovereignty**) o **Created to establish a better principle of international relations. Gave European  powers diplomatic powers/freedom in order to establish peace and stability.  Emergence of an international system that closely represents modern  Europe o Initiated a new period in political history that would be based upon the supremacy of sovereign states  Napoleonic Wars (1803­1815)  An extension of the French Revolution  Napoleon was the first to express nationalism to encourage/entice soldiers  and people to conquer Europe; identity politics   Winter led to Napoleon’s defeat  First use of conscription based on nationalism   Defeat after rebellion in Haiti and invasion of Russia  o Haitian rebellion influenced the European wars especially the Napoleonic Wars   Led to collapse of the Spanish Empire in the New World (French occupation of Spain)  Dissolved the Holy Roman Empire  Peace of Vienna (1815)  At the end of Napoleonic Wars, the leaders of Europe met at the Congress of Vienna to  re­establish order across Europe  o This initiated the Age of Metternich  (1815­1914) 100 year period during which relative peace across Europe  emerged due to the Great Power System   Great Power System: France, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and  Austria maintained peace through diplomacy, balance of power,  and luck   Great Britain: Most important country out of the GPS due  to their advancement and control in the world; economic  importance (balancer of European power)  Increased focus on colonization, industrialism, and new ideas  formed; people began seeing politics differently  Prussia and Bismarck  Prussia sought to unite “Germany” o Began to meddle with small affairs to get a sense of “Germany”   Leadership of Bismarck  Austro­Prussian War (1866) o Starts to bring German states together  Franco­Prussian War (1870­1871) o France loses badly results in a critical piece of territory: Alsace­Lorraine  Alsace­Lorraine (territory within France): Industrial heartland­­coal and  iron ­­­> produces steel, which results in weapons, airplanes,  infrastructure, warfare, rail networks; need it for industrialization   Mercantilism: Using colonies to produce raw materials; self  sufficiency for Europe (needed colonies)   German Unification (1871); ends the Franco­Prussian War  World War I (Example of how bad politics can get)  o Marked the end of the Age of Metternich   The causes and consequences of this conflict   Leaders of Europe: “The Cousins” Victorians grandchildren (familial  conflict)  Family members vying over political control and power o Total war primarily among European powers  o Many causes­­nationalism, arms races, imperialism, alliances, industrialization,  military planning, failure of diplomacy, and arrogance  o Led to the destruction of the remaining European empires and the establishment  of sovereign states throughout Europe o No structure or place to talk about issues regarding the balance European powers;  alliance system was so secretive that no one had any idea what was happening   Industrialization transformed political power and diplomacy  o War starts: Assassination of Archduke of Austria­Hungary by the Serbian  Blackhand  Serbia declares independence from Austria­Hungary; Allies with Great  British and the French o 1917: United States enters WWI; have no conception of how hideous WWI really  was o Woodrow Wilson: (14 Points) points of diplomacy, post war order (that wouldn’t  punish any country); Treaty of Versailles  Peace of Versailles  Not based upon President Wilson’s 14 Points   Designed to cripple Germany to prevent the outbreak of future war   War Guilt Clause: take blame for entire WWI (paid off WWI debt about three years ago)  Reparations: o Lost territory (Alsace­Lorraine), strict military limitations, fueled German  motivation throughout the Interwar Period and going into WWII  Established the League of Nations­­a very weak institution with little  power of influence The Interwar Period (early 1930s)  Economic boom followed by bust   Isolation of the United States  Rise of Hitler and fascism in Europe along with the outbreak of WWII  o Germany tries to build itself into a stronger country   Germany will only get Sudetenland Appeasement  “Only makes the aggressor more aggressive”   To stall the outbreak of war and give themselves more time to prepare, France and Great  Britain gave into some of Germany’s early demands  o Annexation of the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia  o Anschluss with Austria  o Remilitarization   Outbreak of War  End of WWII  At the end of WWII the Allies were determined NOT to repeat the mistakes of 1918  This focus would shape the next phase in international history  o Often associated with the Cold War  o But ALSO with the end of colonialism, the establishment of what would become  the European Union, and the emergence of the United Nations   Germany ceases to exist in 1945 (split up amongst the Soviet Union, the United States,  and Great Britain)  Post War Europe  Decolonization, demilitarism etc


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