Week 3 Notes
Week 3 Notes IS 2054
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lian Joseph on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to IS 2054 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Courtney Thomas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Politics in International Studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Intro to World Politics (Lecture 4) Professor Thomas 8/31/16 Why was there a Cold War? Communism vs Capitalism o Competing ideology between the Soviets and Americans; democracy vs authoritarianism o Both U.S. style capitalism and Soviet communism cannot coexist with one another o Fight to the death that one or the two countries were going to cease to exist Both sides saw it necessary to establish mechanisms that were designed to guarantee a victory o Conflict between major powers is inevitable Arms race; dictates much of the war; cause and effect During the Russian Revolution (19171923): power struggle between Russia; catalyses Tsar (“whites”; America supports them) If you’re going to trample into another country’s sovereignty you better make sure your side wins; if not, there will be political conflicts o “The enemy of my enemy is my friend”: a common doctrine that describes the Soviet Union’s place in WWII The U.S. and the Soviet Union shared the same enemy: the Nazis o The Codes: an enigma machine that was able to decipher Germans “unbreakable codes” (Alan Turing helped to decode this; turned out to be gay and the British force fed him chemicals to cure him until he would later committed suicide) Millions of Soviets died and could have been saved had they known about The Codes o Dual power (“bipolar system”) o 1946 crisis in Iran; expressed lack of trust between the Soviets and Americans Soviets were supposed to control Iran, however, the Americans/British didn’t want to give up a main/important source of oil The Bomb Atomic weapons fundamentally change the way the world looks at war o WWII was defined by bombardment but Little Boy and Fat Man created the possibilities for a WWIII of annihilation rather than attrition Soviets Institute of 1945: a program to create their own nuclear weapons o Deterrence: the only thing that the Soviets could check the U.S. nuclear monopoly Three C’s: Communication, Capability, and Credibility Designed to check the power between the U.S. and the Soviets; prevention of using nuclear weapons for catastrophic effects The Arms Race and MAD Problem: one bomb is destabilizing (use it or lose itgives both sides the incentive to strike early) o Many nuclear weapons are stabilizing o The harder a nuclear arsenal is to destroy the more stabilizing it becomes Mutually Assured Destruction o You NEED a second strike capability to have a nuclear deterrent o This leads to a nuclear arms race, hair trigger alert, and the development of the nuclear triad The Triad and Targets Nuclear Triad: o Bombs, land based missiles, and submarine missiles 1st Strike Targets: Nuclear military and command targets (decapitation strike: completely destroys nuclear arsenal and military/civilian leadership) 2nd Strike Targets: cities, population centers, infrastructure 3rd Strike Targets: long term infrastructure and military capability The Iron Curtain Article 5 of the NATO Treaty (be familiar with this): attack on one is an attack on all o Part of the MAD clause (First World: US and Allies NATO) (2nd World: Soviets and Allies) (3rd World: everyone else) o Berlin: symbolically important for both sides; constant tipping point for the Cold War Crises The Cold War didn’t end with the destruction of all life on the planet, but that wasn’t for a lack of trying on the part of all parties involved The Berlin Crises Berlin became the flashpoint of the Cold War o West Berlin was a NATO enclave deep inside the Warsaw Pact o 1st Crisis (19481949): Soviets cut off NATO access to West Berlin Berlin Airlift o 2nd Crisis (1961): Soviets cut off NATO access to West Berlin Kennedy runs the blockade The construction of the Berlin Wall o Critical moment: building relationships despite all the pain/suffering Berlin Wall (symbol for oppression and everything the war represents) The Cuban Missile Crisis In 1961 the US placed Jupiter Missiles in Turkey o IRBM capable of hitting Moscow In 1961 the CIA invaded Cuba but FAILED to overthrow Castro In response to the Soviet Union put IRBMs in Cuba The US discovers the missiles while they are being constructed For the next 13 days, the US and the Soviet Union face offthis is the most dangerous moment of the Cold War Fundamentally critical moment for the U.S.; closest we ever came to full out nuclear war. Missiles were able to hit every major city except Seattle o Alvin Stevenson(?) to the UN: remove all missiles (U.S. from Turkey** and Soviet Union from Cuba) o **About 200 missiles currently being stored in Turkey The solution: a quarantine of Cuba; not allowing any ships to go pass the linegive time to figure out a solution (finish this on Canvas) The Emergence of Detente The realization that both military powers were actively subverting the diplomatic process. Detente allowed for a recommitment of diplomacy o The installation of the “red telephone system” to foster direct communication between the leaders of the USSR and the US o As a consequence, the leaders of the US and the USSR committed themselves to detentea diplomatic approach to avoid war o International security: assassination of Kennedy “red telephone system”; first time it was used for a major communication system The Proxy Wars The Cold War got hot in a series of proxy wars o The Korean War: the US and the USSR/the US and China (before SinoSoviet Split) o Vietnam: the US and China o Afghanistan: the US and the USSR o Latin America: the US and Soviet backed forces Proxy Wars were based on the idea that Soviet socialism had to expand or die (Kennan and the X Telegram) o Doctrine of containment o Justified intervention Rapprochement Detente brought an end to active hostilities and belligerence between the US and the USSR o In the late 1970s and throughout the very early 1980s we shifted toward rapprochementactive cooperation between the US and the USSR Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties (SALT) Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) o 80s saw a transformation of political policy; create and outrun the Soviets on an arms race The End of the War Two Schools of Thought The US’s rhetoric and military spending drove the USSR into an economic death spiral which fostered counterrevolutionary movements throughout the USSR and the 2nd world The USSR had been in a death spiral for decadesthe collapse was primarily caused by Gorbachev’s policies of glasnost and perestroika The Berlin Wall comes down
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