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BIOE 2010 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Sara Littlejohn

BIOE 2010 Exam 1 Study Guide BIOE 2010

Marketplace > Clemson University > Bioengineering > BIOE 2010 > BIOE 2010 Exam 1 Study Guide
Sara Littlejohn
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

This study guide covers all the material that will be on Exam 1.
Intro to Biomedical Engineering
Dr. Alexis and Dr. Webb
Study Guide
BIOE, 2010
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara Littlejohn on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOE 2010 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alexis and Dr. Webb in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biomedical Engineering in Bioengineering at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/01/16
BIOE 2010 Exam 1 Study Guide Red text- material will be on exam Highlighted text- important material Biomaterials: Properties and Characterization Biomaterials: a nonviable (non-living) material used in a medical device, intended to interact with biological systems Selection Criteria:  Availability  Ability to be processed into desired form  Mechanical properties o Fatigue strength: related to cyclic mechanical load o Wear resistance: related to loss of material when exposed to mechanical action on the surface  Non-toxic o Corrosion resistant  Biocompatible  Serializable  Stability/Degradability Metals  (Mostly) crystalline solids composed of elemental, positively charged ions  High strength and stiffness o Stiffness: related to how the material returns to its original shape after wear o Strength: related to how much force a material can take before it breaks  High conductivity  Isotropic properties  Properties are well known  Relatively bio inert (will cause no biological reaction)  All metals used as biomaterial are alloys o Advantage: alloys prevent/reduce corrosion  Metals are rarely found in nature in pure form and purification requires tremendous energy input.  Corrosion is energetically favorable because it transforms the pure metal back to the lower energy oxidized form.  Gold and Platinum have little reactivity with oxygen and water so they experience very little if any corrosion (Noble Metals). o Occur in nature in pure forms o Limitations: expensive, poor mechanical properties Ceramics  Corrosion resistant  Low conductivities  Stiff and brittle  Bioactive (Has a biological response in contact with cells or tissue)  Mostly used as a coating for metal implants (corrosion resistant, bioactive, semi-conductors) Polymers Limitless variety of chemical, physical, and biological properties that can be tailored to specific biomedical applications Proteins are polymers made of Amino Acids Polymer Structures: o Linear o Branched o Networks Polymer Composition: o Homopolymers: composed of a single monomer o Co-Polymer: composed of two monomers  Can be random, alternating, block, or graft  Polymer Thermal Properties: o Melting Temperature: temperature are which polymer transforms form an ordered structure to an amorphous structure o Glass Transition Temperature: temperature at which a polymer transforms form rigid to rubbery state  Plasticizers are small molecules that can be added to a polymer to lower its glass transition temperature. o Two types:  Polyols  Organic esters  GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography) or SEC (Size Exclusion Chromatography) are used to find molecular weight of a polymer. o Long chains are represented by tall humps in the graph because long chains flow around the beads and come out before the short ones that enter the beads and diffuse before exiting. o If the peak is wide- multiple MWs o If the peak is narrow- 1 MWs  Semi crystalline structures: have both crystalline and amorphous regions  Increased Crystallinity= o Increased melting point o Increased strength o Decreased permeability  DSC (Dynamic Scanning Calamity) tells us thermal properties Biodegradation: chemical degradation of a material resulting for the activity of a biological agent Bioerodible: a water-insoluble material that is converted under physiological condition into water soluble material without regard to a specific mechanism The most common polymers are called polyesters. - The ester bond can be broken down by water or enzymes Factors Governing Degradation - Chemical composition o Molecular weight  High molecular weight polymer degrades slower because there is more to be degraded o Crystallinity  Sections of the polymer are called oligomers.  An oligomer is water soluble so now they can diffuse out and into the water, causing a loss in mass.  A crystalline polymer degrades slower because it is very difficult for water to enter the structure and react with the polymer due to its unorganized structure. o Hydrophilicity/Hydrophobicity  Hydrophobic polymer degrades slower because it repels water (the water can’t get to the polymer to start the reaction) - Geometry Natural Polymers as Biomaterials - Typically degrade quickly - To change the degradation properties, it requires some kind of chemical reaction o To do this people usually use cross-linking - Examples: o Collagen o Hyaluronic Acid  Lubrication  Wound healing o Chitosan  Wound healing o Cellulose  Plant polysaccharide  Filtration membranes Polymer Synthesis - Addition Polymerization o Chain reaction o Initiation involves a chemical o Double bonds are usually involved in this reaction - Condensation Polymerization o Formation of a covalent bond o Release of a small molecule o Some chemical can be used to stop the reaction Mechanical Forces/Loading - Tension: force from different directions - Compression: force in the same directions - Shear: opposing directions - Bending: combination of tension and compression - Torque: twisting in opposite directions Stress-Strain Curve - As stress is applied width decreases and length increases - If you increase force, you increase the length - Modulus of elasticity (Slope of the Stress-Strain curve) - Stresses and Strains can be: o Elastic: recoverable deformation o Plastic: permanent deformation o Viscoelastic: time-dependent deformation - Stress = Force/Area - Modulus of Elasticity = Stress/Strain - Yield Stress: stress at which plastic deformation begins o 0.2% offset Brittle vs. Ductile - Brittle materials o Only elastic deformation up to failure o Ceramics, some metals - Ductile materials o Elastic then plastic deformation before failure o Metals, some polymers Polymer Processing - Molding o Compression Molding  Can cause defects  Can’t make fibers o Injection Molding:  More precise and clean than compression molding  No defects  Can’t make fibers o Blow Molding  Allows you to have a hollow sample unlike the previous two methods - Extrusion o Can make fibers o Types:  Melt Spinning Fibers  Starts with polymer chips  Dry Spinning Fibers  Starts with a polymer solution - Machining o Micromachining  Must be done in a controlled environment because the material produced is so small even dust can ruin the process  Micromolding is typically used for soft materials.  It is important to control the channel length in drug delivery materials because that controls the amount of drug the patent gets.  Example:  Microneedle: used to make small holes in the skin to administer medication (causes no pain)  Microstructures are used on implants to give structure and organization. o Photolithography  Disadvantage: the material has to be a photoactive polymer - Printing o Nanoprinting:  Goal is to precisely control the shape of the particle  This allows you to make the material into a shape that matches other nanoparticles like viruses  The shape of the particle determines where they go in the body


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