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Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Jenny McCabe

Exam 3 Study Guide BIOL240

Marketplace > Kansas > Biology > BIOL240 > Exam 3 Study Guide
Jenny McCabe
GPA 4.0
Fundamentals of Human Anatomy
Dr. Gonzalez

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Fundamentals of Human Anatomy
Dr. Gonzalez
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenny McCabe on Thursday March 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL240 at Kansas taught by Dr. Gonzalez in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 455 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Human Anatomy in Biology at Kansas.


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Date Created: 03/26/15
Exam 3 Study Guide 1 Nervous System a What are the differences between afferent vs efferent sensory vs motor and somatic vs visceral Afferent vs Efferent o Afferent sensory o Efferent motor Sensory vs Motor 0 Sensory signals are picked up by sensor receptors and carried by nerve fibers of PNS to the CNS 0 Motor signals are carried away from the CNS and innervate muscles and glands Somatic vs Visceral somatic body region and visceral body region 0 Somatic sensory skin proprioception vision hearing etc 0 Visceral sensory viscera tasted smell hunger 0 Somatic motor contractions of skeletal muscles 0 Visceral motor ANS contraction of smooth and cardiac muscles glandular secretion What are the functions of the nervous system What is the role of sensory input integration and motor output Functions of the nervous system 0 Sensory input receptor monitor stimuli inside and outside body 0 Integration process interprets assimilates experiences 0 Motor output responds muscle contraction glandular secretion What is it included in the CNS What is it included in the PNS CNS brain and spinal cord PNS nerves cranial and spinal and ganglia collection of neuron cell bodies What are the differences between sensory aka afferent signals and motor aka efferent signals Sensory afferent signals are picked up by sensor receptors and carried by nerve fibers of PNS to the CNS Motor efferent signals are carried away from the CNS and innervate muscles and glands Structural amp functional classifications What parts and target organs are included You need to know the difference between nuclei amp ganglia between tracts and nerves and between gray and white matters Nuclei and Ganglia 0 Nuclei clusters of neuron bodies in CNS 0 Ganglia clusters of neuron bodies in PNS Tracts and Nerves 0 Tracts bundles of axons in CNS 0 NerveFibers bundles of axons in PNS Gray and White Matter 0 Gray matter short nonmyelinated interneurons cell bodies of interneurons and motor neuron neuroglia 0 White matter fiber tracts of myelinated and nonmyelinated axons neuroglia f What are the differences between somatic sensory visceral sensory somatic motor and visceral motor subdivisions Which subdivisions are associated with autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system Somatic sensory skin proprioception vision hearing etc Visceral sensory viscera tasted smell hunger Somatic motor somatic nervous system SNS contractions of skeletal muscles Visceral motor ANS contraction of smooth and cardiac muscles glandular secretion g What are glial cells Know the main features and functions of each type astrocytes ependymal cells microglia oligodendrocytes satellite cells and neurolemmocytes Glial cells found in both CNS and PNS smaller and capable of mitosis protectnourish neurons provide organized supporting framework more abundant than neurons not capable of impulse transmission CNS 0 Astrocytes star shaped most abundant glial cells connect neurons to blood vessels control ow of substances control chemical composition provide framework and support replace neurons resynthesize neurotransmitters regulate neuron connection fetal brain forms bloodbrain barrier BBB along with capillaries which controls substances entering the brain from the blood stream 0 Ependymal cells cuboidal epithelial cells basal projections and cilia produce cerebrospinal uid CSF o Microglia small cells with projections phagocyte activity remove debris 0 Oligodendrocytes large cells with globular bodies and slender projections form myelin sheaths around multiple axons insulations protection nourishment 0 Satellite cells attened cells around neuronal body in ganglia regulate nutrient and waste exchange similar in function to astrocytes 0 Neurolemmoctyes form myelin sheaths that surround individual axons insulate protect nourish similar in function to oligodendrocytes h What are the features and functions of neurons What are the anatomical and functional classifications for them How are they functionally and anatomically related FeaturesFunctions of neurons 0 Capable of transmitting electrical impulses 0 High metabolic rate abundant mitochondria 0 Need glucose and oxygen 0 Can live and function for a life time 0 Cannot divide mitotically exceptions olfactory neurons hippocampus Functional classifications 0 Sensory afferent neurons originate in sensory receptors respond to stimuli travel to CNS 0 Motor efferent neurons originate in CNS travel to an effector muscle or gland 0 Interneurons located between motor and sensory neurons found in CNS make up 9998 of neurons in body Anatomical structural classifications 0 Unipolar neuron o Bipolar neuron o Multipolar neuron most common type cell body mostly in CNS Functional and Anatomical relation 0 Sensory neurons are typically unipolar 0 Motor and interneurons are multipolar What is myelination Why is it important Process by which part of an axon is wrapped with myelin sheath mostly fat lipoprotein gives white color in CNS and PNS Important because it provides insulation protection and nourishment increases rate of conduction of impulses and decreases energy Know the structure of a nerve Nerves cablelike organs in PNS consists of numerous axons wrapped in connective tissue most nerves contain both myelinated and nonmyelinated sensory and motor axons axon is surrounded by Schwann cells What are synapses What are the different types electrical and chemical synapses Synapses specialized junctions where axons contact other neurons muscle cells or glands usually axondendrite Electrical synapse both membrane of pre and post synaptic neuron bound together closer than in chemical synapse bidirectional fast secure ow of ions not common in brain tissue found in smooth muscle and cardia muscle in intercalated discs Chemical synapse more common signaling molecule neurotransmitter Ach is the most common unidirectional What are factors that in uence rate of conduction Axon diameter greater diameter faster conduction Presenceabsence of myelin Continuous conduction nerve impulse must travel entire length of axon Salutatory conduction only exposed regions node of ranvier less energy What are the differences between monosynaptic and polysynaptic re exes Monosynaptic one synapse quick re exinstinctive Polysnaptic two or more synapse slowerrequires some thought 2 The Central Nervous System CNS a What are the general and specific regions of the brain Cerebrum Cerebellum Diencephalon o Thalamus o Epithalamus o Hypothalamus Brainstem o Midbrain o Pons o Medulla oblongata b What are the structures and functions of the cranial meninges Dura mater 0 Outermost tough membrane 0 Outer periosteal layer against bone 0 Forms dural venous sinuses draining blood from brain 0 Supportive structure falx cerebri tentorium cerebelli Arachnoid mater 0 Spiderweb filamentous layer Pia mater 0 Thin vascular layer adherent to contours of brain What are the ventricles of the brain What are their functions Ventricles spaces of the brain Lateral ventricles 0 Third ventricle 0 Cerebral aqueduct 0 Fourth ventricle Function contain CSF What are the functions of the cerebrospinal uid What is hydrocephalus In what part of the brain does the cerebrospinal uid ow inside What makes CSF Functions 0 Circulate within brain ventricles 0 Buoyancy oats brain so it is neutrally buoyant Protection cushion brain from hitting inside of skull 0 Chemical stability rinses away wastes Hydrocephalus develops if CFS cannot circulate or drain properly uid buildup causes increased pressure on the brain Flow of CSF choroid plexus 9 circulates through ventricles 9 down central canal of spinal cord 9 subarachnoid space of cord and brain 9 back up to be absorbed by the arachnoid villi of the dural sinus The choroid plexus makes CSF What are gyri sulci and fissures Gyri are the elevated folds of the cerebrum Sulci are the shallow grooves of the cerebrum Fissures are deep grooves of the cerebrum What are the functions of the cerebral hemispheres Left cerebral hemisphere speech verbalization math logic Right cerebral hemisphere visualspatial skills intuition emotion What are the functions of the cerebral lobes Frontal contains voluntary motor for planning mood smell and social judgement Parietal integrates sensory in shapes textures speech Occipital optical Temporal contains areas for hearing emotional behavior learning memory smell Insula apparently involved in memory and taste What consists of gray matter What consists of white matter Gray matter neuron bodies dendrites unmyelinated axons glial cells White matter dendrites myelinated axons glial cells How are fibers classified in the white matter of the cerebrum Commissural fibers connecting cerebral hemispheres Association fibers connecting different parts of the same hemisphere Projection fibers running vertically ascending fibers carrying sensory information descending carries motor information What are basal nuclei What are its functions Basal nuclei masses of gray matter deep to cerebral cortex Function involved in motor control start stop and regulate intensity of voluntary movements ordered by cerebral cortex What are the functions of the gray matter Basal forebrain nuclei associated with memory learning arousal motor control associated with synthesis and release of Ach Gray matter of cerebral cortex area of complex functions memory abstraction creativity judgement etc What are the functional areas of the cerebral cortex Sensory areas conscious awareness of sensation parietal temporal occipital Association areas integrate information Motor areas control voluntary motor functions frontal Where is the primary motor cortex precentral gyrus and primary somatosensory cortex postcentral gyrus Where are they located What are their functions Primary motor cortex precentral gyrus 0 Location frontal lobe in front of central sulcus 0 Function controls movement Primary somatosensory cortex postcentral gyrus 0 Location parietal lobe behind central sulcus 0 Function controls movement What are the Brocca and Wernicke s areas What happens when these areas are inured Broca s area generates motor program for larynx tongue cheek lips transmits that to primary motor cortex for action When injured non uent aphasia you know what you want to say but can t say it inability to coordinate muscles controlling speech Wemicke s area permits recognition of spoken and written language When injured uent aphasia words are easily spoken but those used are incorrect What is the diencephalon brainstem and their specific regions Know the locations and major functions Diencephalon 0 Epithalamus on top of thalamus helps regulate the circadian rhythm pineal gland secretes melatonin 0 Thalamus located superior to the midbrain serves as a relay station for all sensory impulses except smell to the cerebral cortex 0 Hypothalamus inferior to the thalamus relay station for smell links nervous system to endocrine system via pituitary gland major regulations of homeostasis Brainstem 0 Midbrain between diencephalon and pons mediate visual and auditory re exes 0 Pons pathways between cerebellum and cerebral cortex relay nerve impulses related to voluntary skeletal movement from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum 0 Medulla oblongata inferior cerebellar peduncle connects medulla to cerebellum heart rate respiratory rate adjust blood vessel diameter re ex center for coughing sneezing gagging swallowing vomiting and hiccupping p What are the functions of the spinal cord What does the gross anatomy look like conus medullaris cauda equine etc How are neurons functionally organized in the spinal cord Functions 0 Involved in sensory and motor innervation of body below head 0 White matter 2way conduction pathway 0 Gray matter major center of re exes Gross anatomy o Extends from foramen magnum to 2nd lumbar vertebra 0 Segmented cervical thoracic lumbar sacral 0 Connected to 31 pairs of spinal nerves all are mixed nerves contain both sensory and motor fibers 0 Not uniform in diameter throughout length 0 Cervical enlargement supplies upper limbs o Lumbar enlargement supplies lower limbs 0 Conus medullaris tapered inferior end 0 Cauda equina origins of spinal nerves extending inferiorly from lumbosacral enlargement and conus medullaris individual spinal nerves within spinal canal o Filum terminale filamentous end of meninges tiedown o Dura arachnoid pia mater Neuron functional organization 0 Dorsal root has a ganglion 0 Ventral root no ganglion q Know the organization of the gray and white matter What does SAME DAVE stand for White divided into 3 foniculi columns posterior lateral and anterior each column contains several fiber tracts bundles of axons ascending carry sensory info towards brain descending carry motor commands to spinal cord and commissural tracts carry info from one side of spinal cord to other has roots dorsal with ganglion and ventral no ganglion two roots merge laterally and form the spinal nerve Grey anterior horns cell bodies of somatic motor neurons lateral horns cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons posterior horns axon of sensory neurons and cell bodies of interneurons SAME DAVE Sensory Afferent Motor Efferent Dorsal Afferent Ventral Efferent 3 The Peripheral Nervous System PNS What are exteroceptors interoceptors and proprioceptors Exteroceptors sensitive to stimuli arising from outside body Interoceptors detects stimulus within internal viscera Proprioceptors monitor degree of stretch in skeletal muscles tendons joints and ligaments What are mechanoreceptors baroreceptors thermoreceptors chemoreceptors photoreceptors and nociceptors Mechanoreceptors respond to touch pressure vibrations Baroreceptors respond to changes in blood pressure Thermoreceptors respond to temperature changes Chemoreceptors respond to molecules tasted and smelled and changes in blood chemistry Photoreceptors respond to light Nociceptors respond to harmful stimuli extreme heat and cold result in pain How many spinal nerves do we have 31 pairs What are dermatomes Why they are clinically important Dermatome area of skin innervated by a single spinal nerve used in determining level of spinal injuries anesthetic injection shingles Branches of spinal nerves What are posterior dorsal rami and anterior ventral rami What types of axons and information are these structures carrying Posterior dorsal ramus innervates deep muscles of the trunk responsible for movements of the vertebral column and the connective tissue and skin near the midline of back Anterior ventral ramus what they innervate depends upon which part of the spinal cord is considered thoracic form intercostals nerves that innervate the intercostals muscles and skin over thorax remaining spinal nerves form 5 plexuses What are the differences between the innervation of the muscles of the back and the innervation of the muscles of the upper and lower limbs Back innervated by posterior ramus and also by anterior ramus in the thoracic region Limbs innervated by anterior ramus and the formation of plexuses What are the different plexuses What are their functions Cervical formed by spinal nerves C1C4 innervates muscles of neck Brachial formed by spinal nerves C5Tl serves upper limbs and shoulder girdle Lumbar formed by spinal nerves LlL4 serves anterior thigh and leg Sacral formed by spinal nerves L4S4 serves posterior thigh and leg Coccygleal formed by spinal nerves S4 and SS You should know the following most important nerves from the nerve plexus phrenic axillary radial musculotaneous ulnar medial femoral and sciatic nerves Which nerve goes with which plexus Which is the longest and thickest nerve in the body Phrenic cervical plexus innervates diaphragm Axillary brachial plexus motor innervates deltoid and teres minor sensory from skin of lateral shoulder Radial brachial plexus motor stimulates extensor muscles of arm forearm and hand sensory from skin on posterior surface of arm forearm and lateral 23 of back of hand Musculocutaneous brachial plexus motor exors in anterior arm sensory from skin along lateral surface of forearm Ulnar brachial plexus motor stimulates exor muscles in anterior forearm sensory from skin on medial surface of hand little finger and medial surface of ring finger hitting funny bone Medial brachial plexus motor innervates all but one of exors of wrist and fingers and thenar muscles of thumb sensory from skin of anterolateral 23 of palm thumb index and middle fingers lateral surface of ring finger Obturator lumbar plexus motor innervates adductor group of thigh and gracilis knee Femoral lumbar plexus motor innervates anterior muscles of thigh sensory from skin of the anterior and lateral thigh medial surface of leg and foot Sciatic sacral plexus thickest and longest nerve of body innervates posterior thigh and entire lower leg composed of 2 nerves tibial and common fibular in a common sheath which diverge just above the knee 4 The Autonomic Nervous System ANS a What are the anatomical and functional differences between the ANS and the SNS Know the differences between the two regarding their structure of motor neurons number of motor neurons myelin cover type of neurotransmitter presence or absence of ganglia and effector organ SNS voluntary somatic sensory neuron somatic motor neuron ACh motor neuron not associated with ganglion innervates skeletal muscle ANS involuntary visceral sensory neuron two motor neurons pre and postganglionic uses 2 to increase neural communication and control AChNE motor neurons associated with ganglion innervates viscera smooth muscle and glands b What are the anatomical and functional differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions Parasympathetic also called craniosacral only innervates internal organs ACh transmitter preganglionic axon longer than postganglionic ganglia close to effector organ Sympathetic also called thoracolumbar leads to every part of the body NE and ACh transmitters anatomically and functionally more complex 2 types of ganglia trunk and collateral preganglionic axons shorter than postganglionic ganglia close to vertebral column c Know the sympathetic pathways you should be able to trace the path of a stimulus from the gray matter of the spinal cord to the effector organ in each of the pathways discussed in class Spinal nerve synapsis occurs in sympathetic trunk postganglionic axon enters spinal nerves in grey ramus and integument receives innervations Postganglionic sympathetic nerve synapsis occurs in sympathetic trunk postganglionic axon leaves trunk and reaches organ forms plexus heart lung esophagus thoracic blood vessels Splanchic nerve synapsis in prevertebral collateral ganglion use splanchnic nerves abdominal and pelvic regions Adrenal medulla preganglionic axon synapse in secretory cells of adrenal medulla d What is the cranial out ow of the parasympathetic division What nerves are involved Which one carries the most information of the four Oculomotor facial glossopharyngeal and vagus Vagus carries the most information e What are the interactions between autonomic divisions dual innervations antagonistic and cooperative effects Antagonistic oppose each other can be exerted through dual innervations of same effector ex heart rate increasedecrease or because each division innervates different cells sympathetic controls pupil dilation muscle parasympathetic controls pupil constrictor Cooperative when 2 divisions act on different effectors to produce a unified effect ex parasympathetic fibers cause vasodilationerection and sympathetic fibers cause ejaculation f What are the effectors without dual innervation vasoconstrictionvasodilation Adrenal medulla arrector pili muscles sweat glands and many blood vessels receive only sympathetic Vasoconstriction narrowing of blood vessels increasing in firing frequency Vasodilation widening of blood vessels decreasing in firing frequency Nerves Spinal Nerves 31 total nerves Total number of pairs as well as number in each region of spine Cervical 8 Thoracic 12 Lumbar 5 Sacral 5 Coccygeal 1 Cervical Plexus Ventral rami of cervical spinal nerves C1C4 Phrenic nerve comes off of C3C5 comes off of cervical and brachial plexuses Nerves of the Thorax Phrenic nerve Vagus nerve CN X Right vagus nerve Left vagus nerve Recurrent laryngeal nerve Brachial Plexus upper limbs and shoulder girdle Roots9trunks9cords9main branches Starts from ventral rami of spinal nerves C5 T1 Starts with roots C5 C6 C7 C8 Tl Then goes to trunks Upper middle lower Then goes to cords posterior lateral medial From the cords it branches off into Axillary Radial Musculocutaneous Ulnar Median Lumbosacral Plexus Lower Limb Starts from ventral rami of Lumbar spinal nerves L1L4 4 major nerves exit and enter lower limb Obturator nerve Femoral nerve Sciatic nerve tibial and common fibular branch off from the sciatic nerve Tibial nerve Common Fibular nerve Cranial Nerves know if sensory motor or both 1 Olfactory Sensory sense of smell 2 Optic Sensory vision 3 Oculomotor Motor provides eye movement opening of eyelid pupil sphincter 4 Trochlear Motor moves eye down and out 5 Trigeminal Both largest of cranial nerves main sensory nerve to the face touch pain temp and muscles of mastication 6 7 10 11 12 Abducens Motor moves eye laterally abduction Facial Both facial expressions sense of taste on anterior 23 of tongue salivary tear nasal and palantine glands Vestibulocochlear Sensory hearing and balance Glossopharyngeal Both control over swallowing gagging sensations on posterior 13 of tongue control of BP and respiration Vagus Both innervations of organs of the body taste regulate heart rate some skeletal muscle only cranial nerve that extends beyond neck Accessory Motor innervates trapezius and sternocleidomastoid contracts upper trapezius Hypoglossal Motor provides tongue movements of speed food manipulation and swallowing


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