Psyc 301 Exam 1 Notes Chapters 1-3
Psyc 301 Exam 1 Notes Chapters 1-3 PSYC 301
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brynna Sower on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 301 at Boise State University taught by Scott Armentrout in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Boise State University.
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Boise State University Abnormal Psychology Dr. Scott Armentrout Chapters 1-3 Study Guide Chapter 1 Terms 1) Abnormal Psychology: the application of psychological science to the study of mental disorders (page 22) 2) Case Study: A careful description and analysis of the problems experienced by one person (page 38) 3) Clinical Psychology: the profession and academic discipline that is concerned with the application of psychological science to the assessment and treatment of mental disorders (page 34) 4) Comorbidity: The simultaneous manifestation of more than one disorder (page 33) 5) Culture: the shared way of life of a group of people; a complex system of accumulated knowledge that helps the people in a particular society adapt to their environment (page 27) 6) Epidemiology: the scientific study of the frequency and distribution of disorders within a population (page 31) 7) Hypothesis: A prediction about the expected findings in a scientific study (page 39) 8) Harmful Dysfunction: a concept used in one approach to the definition of a mental disorder. A condition can be considered a mental disorder if it causes some harm to the person and if the condition results from the inability of some mental mechanism to perform its natural function (page 26) 9) Incidence: The number of new cases of a disorder that appear in a population during a specific period of time (page 31) 10) Null Hypothesis: the prediction that an experimental hypothesis is not true. Scientists must assume that the null hypothesis holds until research can contradict it (page 39) 11) Prevalence: an epidemiological term that refers to the total number of cases that are present within a given population during a particular period of time (page 31) 12) Psychiatry: the branch of medicine that is concerned with the study and treatment of mental disorders (page 34) 13) Psychopathology: the manifestations of (and the study of the causes of) mental disorders. Generally used as another term to describe abnormal behavior (page 22) 14) Psychosis: a term that refers to several types of severe mental disorder in which the person is out of touch with reality. Hallucinations and delusions are examples of psychotic symptoms (page 24) 15) Social Work: a profession whose primary concern is how human needs can be met within society (page 34) 16) Syndrome: a group of symptoms that appear together and are assumed to represent a specific type of disorder (page 24) Chapter 1 Main Points 1) More than one symptom must be present to facilitate an accurate diagnosis. Oftentimes multiple symptoms must be observed before a diagnosis can be made. 2) Mental illnesses are typically persistent and get worse with time if no treatment is administered. 3) Abnormal behavior is typically identified by the lack of ability to maintain relationships, both professionally (work, school, etc.) and personally (friends, family, etc.) 4) Identifying the level of abnormal behavior includes comparing two factors: how great the person’s level of distress is and how frequently this type of behavior is seen in the population. a. These factors will us how intense the abnormality is to the person experiencing it, and how common the behaviors in question are. 5) Culture has a continuous impact on the discussion about abnormal behavior. 6) Definitions of abnormal behavior are almost constantly changing 7) Women are most likely to experience major depression, anxiety, and eating disorders while men are most likely to experience alcoholism, and antisocial disorders. 8) Psychiatrists are mental health professionals who combine medications and psychological sciences. Psychiatrists typically depend more on medications than psychotherapies (Doctorate level) 9) Clinical psychologists depend on the applications of psychological techniques to help diagnose and treat mental disorders (Doctorate level) 10) Social workers tend to depend more on environmental resources and community programs to help people reach a high level of psychological well- being (Master’s level) 11) Hippocrates believed that psychological abnormalities were due to imbalance of four humors: blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. 12) Before asylums and mental hospitals, mentally ill were often place in jails or poor houses and received little to no treatment. 13) Urbanization helped increase the ability of communities to provide for the mentally disabled. 14) Dorothea Dix advocated for the creation and promotion of mental hospitals as the main method of care for the mentally disabled. 15) Case studies are beneficial for learning more about rare conditions, but are very difficult to compare to other cases. Chapter 2 Terms 1) Attachments: selective bonds that develop between infants and their caregivers, usually their parents, and are theorized to be related to later development. Analogous to the process of imprinting, which has been observed in many animals (page 64) 2) Attributions: perceived causes; people’s beliefs about cause-effect relations (page 66) 3) Autonomic Nervous System: the division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the functions of various bodily organs such as the heart and stomach. The actions of the autonomic nervous system are largely involuntary and it has two branches, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems (page 59) 4) Behavior Genetics: the study of broad genetic influences on individual differences in normal and abnormal behavior, usually by studying twins or other family members who differ in terms of shared genes and/or experiences (page 59) 5) Biopsychosocial model a view of the etiology of mental disorders that assumes that disorders can best be understood in terms of the interaction of biological, psychological, and social systems (page 45) 6) Cerebral Cortex: the uneven surface of the brain that lies just underneath the skull and controls and integrates sophisticated memory, sensory, and motor functions (page 58) 7) Cerebral Hemispheres: two major structures of the forebrain and the site of most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processes. The functions of the cerebral hemispheres are lateralized. The left hemisphere is involved in language and related functions, while the right hemisphere is involved in spatial organization and analysis (page 58) 8) Chromosomes: chainlike structures found in the nucleus of cells that carry genes and information about heredity. (page 59) 9) Classical Conditioning: Pavlov’s form of learning through association. A conditioned response eventually is elicited by a conditioned stimulus after repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus (which produces an unconditioned response) (page 50) 10) Concordance Rate: the rate, often a percentage, at which two related individuals are found to both have a disorder or problem or neither has a disorder or a problem, i.e., they are concordant (page 60) 11) Correlational Study: a scientific research method in which the relation between two factors is studied in a systematic fashion (page 53) 12) Correlation Coefficient: A number that always ranges from -1.00 to +1.00 and indicates the strength and direction of the relation, while a correlation coefficient of 0 indicates no relation between two variables. A higher absolute value indicates a stronger relation. The sign indicates the direction of the correlation (page 53) 13) Defense Mechanism: Unconscious processes that service the ego and reduce conscious anxiety by distorting anxiety-producing memories (page 49) 14) Developmental Psychopathology: an approach to abnormal psychology that emphasizes the importance of normal development to understanding abnormal behavior (page 53) 15) Developmental Stages: Distinct periods of development focused on certain central “tasks” and marked by boundaries defined by changing age or social expectations (page 66) 16) Diathesis: a predisposition to a disorder; only causes abnormal behavior when it is combined with stress or a challenging experience (page 52) 17) Dizygotic (DZ) Twins: fraternal twins produced from separate fertilized eggs; share an average of 50% of their genes (page 60) 18) Dominance: the hierarchical ordering of a social group into more and less powerful members. (page 64) 19) Dualism: philosophical view that the mind and body are separate (page 55) 20) Ego: one of Freud’s three central personality structures. In Freudian theory the ego must deal with reality as it attempts to fulfill id impulses as well as superego demands. The ego operates on the reality principle, and much of the ego resides in conscious awareness (page 49) 21) Emotions: States of arousal that are defined by subjective feeling states, such as sadness, anger, and disgust. Emotions are often accompanied by physiological changes, such as in heart rate and respiration rate (page 65) 22) Endocrine System: a collection of glands found at various locations in the body; releases hormones that sometimes act as neuromodulators and affect responses to stress. Plays a key role in growth and development (page 58) 23) Evolutionary Psychology: the application of the principles of evolution to understanding the mind and behavior and identifying species-typical characteristics, that is, genetically influenced traits that people or animals share as part of their nature. Evolutionary psychologists assume that animal and human psychology, like animal and human anatomy, has evolved over time (page 62) 24) Extinction: gradual elimination of a response when learning conditions change. (page 50) 25) Gender Roles: roles associated with social expectations about gendered behavior (page 68) 26) Genes: Ultramicroscopic units of DNA that carry information about heredity; found on chromosomes (page 59) 27) Gene-Environment Correlation: the empirical and theoretical observation that experience often, perhaps always, is correlated with genetic makeup (page 62) 28) Gene-Environment Interaction: Genetic risk and an environmental experience working together to produce a given outcome (page 62) 29) Genotype: an individual’s actual genetic structure, usually with reference to a particular characteristic (page 59) 30) Hormones: Chemical substances that are released into the bloodstream by glands in the endocrine system. Hormones affect the functioning of distant body systems and sometimes act as neurotransmitters (page 58) 31) Hypothalamus: a part in the limbic system that plays a role in sensation, but more importantly that it controls basic biological urges, such as eating, drinking, and activity, as well as much of the functioning of the autonomic nervous system (page 57) 32) Id: One of Freud’s central personality structures. The id is present at birth and is the sources of basic drives and motivations. House to the biological drives, as well as psychosocial drives (page 49) 33) Identity: Erikson’s term for the broad definition of self; answer to the question “Who am I?” (page 66) 34) Lateralized: functions or sites that are located primarily or solely in one hemisphere of the brain (page 58) 35) Limbic System: a variety of brain structures, including the thalamus, and hypothalamus, that are central to the regulation of emotion and basic learning processes (page 57) 36) Modeling: a social learning concept describing the process of learning through imitation (page 65) 37) Monozygotic (MZ) Twins: Identical twins produced from the same fertilized egg; genetically identical (page 60) 38) Neurons: the nerve cells that form the basic building blocks of the brain. Each neuron is composed of the soma, dendrites, axon, and terminal buttons (page 54) 39) Neurotransmitters: chemical substances that are released into the synapse between two neurons and carry signals from the terminal button of one neuron to the receptors of another (page 54) 40) Non-Shared Environment: the component of a sibling’s environment inside or outside the family that is unique to that sibling; contrasts with the shared environment, family experiences that are common across siblings (page 61) 41) Operant Conditioning: A learning theory that asserting that behavior is a function of its consequences (page 50) 42) Paradigm: a set of assumptions about the substance of a theory and about how scientists should collect data and test theoretical propositions (Thomas Kuhn) (page 45) 43) Phenotype: the observed expression of a given genotype or genetic structure (page 59) 44) Polygenic: caused by more than on gene. Characteristics become normally distributed as more genes are involved in the phenotypic expression of a trait (page 60) 45) Premorbid History: a pattern of behavior that precedes the onset of an illness (page 53) 46) Probands: index cases; in behavior genetic studies, probands are family members who have a disorder, and the relatives of the index cases are examined for concordance (page 60) 47) Prognosis: predictions about the future course of a disorder with or without treatment (page 53) 48) Psychoanalytic Theory: a paradigm for conceptualizing abnormal behavior based on the concepts and writings of Sigmund Freud (page 49) 49) Psychophysiology: the study of changes in the functioning of the body that result from psychological experiences (page 58) 50) Receptors: sites on the dendrites or soma of a neuron that are sensitive to certain neurotransmitters (page 54) 51) Reductionism: the scientific perspective that the whole is the sum of its parts and that the task of scientists is to divide the world into its smaller and smaller components (page 51) 52) Reuptake: the process of recapturing some neurotransmitters in the synapse before they reach the receptors of another cell and returning the chemical substances to the terminal button (page 55) 53) Reverse Causality: Indicates that causation would be operating in the opposite direction (Y causes X instead of X causing Y) (page 53) 54) Risk Factors: Variables that are associated with a higher probability of developing a disorder (page 52) 55) Self-Control: appropriate behavior guided by internal rules (page 66) 56) Shared Environment: the components of the family environment that offers the same or highly similar experiences to all siblings (page 60) 57) Social Support: the emotional and practical assistance received from others (page 68) 58) Stress: an event that creates physiological or psychological strain for the individual (page 52) 59) Superego: One of Freud’s central personality structures, roughly equivalent to the “conscience”. Contains societal standards of behavior. The superego tries to control the id’s impulses (page 49) 60) Synapse: a small gap filled with fluid that lies between the axon of one neuron and a dendrite of or soma of another (page 54) 61) Systems Theory: an innovation in the philosophy of conceptualizing and conducting science that emphasized interdependence, cybernetics, and especially holism (page 51) 62) Temperament: characteristic styles of relating to the world that are often conceptualized as inborn traits (page 64) 63) Third Variable: an unmeasured factor that may account for a correlation observed between any two variables (page 53) 64) Ventricles: four connected chambers in the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The ventricles may be enlarged in some psychological and neurological disorders (page 58) Chapter 2 Summary 1) The biological paradigm focuses on the role that genetics and body/brain chemistry play in the development of psychological disorders. 2) The psychodynamic paradigm believes that psychological disorders stem from the unconscious problems that developed during childhood. This school of thought was developed by Sigmund Freud. a. Proponent of the psychoanalytic theory that involves the three levels of personality: the id, ego, and superego. b. Includes Freud’s theory of psychosexual development stages (oral, anal, genital, latency, and phallic) 3) Isaac Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning focuses on learning by association. 4) Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning focuses on behavior as a function of punishments and rewards. 5) The humanistic paradigm believes that behavior is the product of free will, and therefore cannot be accurately measured or predicted. 6) Systems theory focuses on the contributions and interdependence of the different theories. 7) Correlation does not mean causation 8) Developmental psychology focuses on the change in behavior as we age. 9) The brain is separated into two hemispheres, the left and the right 10) The right hemisphere is associated with analytical functions, and the left is associated with language and creative processes. 11) Psychophysiology refers to the effect our psychological state has on our physiological state. 12) The six basic emotions are love, joy, surprise, sadness, anger and fear. 13) Good relationships = good psychological health; poor relationships = poor psychological health 14) If a person does not agree with the gender roles of the society in which they live they may be stigmatized and be more prone to delinquency and criminality 15) People who regularly face stressors, like poverty and prejudice, are more likely to turn to criminality Chapter 3 Terms 1) Allegiance Effect: a characterization of psychotherapy outcome research such that investigators commonly find the most effective treatment is the one to which they hold a theoretical allegiance (page 88) 2) Client-Centered Therapy: Carl Rogers’ humanistic therapy that follows the client’s lead. Therapists offer warmth, empathy, and genuineness, but clients solve their own problems (page 84) 3) Cognitive Therapy: a psychotherapy technique and important part of cognitive behavior therapy that was developed by Aaron Beck specifically as a treatment involves challenging negative cognitive distortions through a technique called collaborative empiricism (page 83) 4) Cognitive-Behavior Therapy: The expansion of the scope of behavior therapy to include cognition and research on human information processing. Includes various general techniques, such as cognitive therapy and RET (page 80) 5) Control Group: the group of participants in an experiment that receives no treatment (page 82) 6) Couple Therapy: partners who are involved in an intimate relationship are seen together in psychotherapy (page 92) 7) Dependent Variable: the outcome that is hypothesized to vary according to manipulations of the independent variable (page 82) 8) Electroconvulsive Therapy: a treatment that involves the deliberate induction of a convulsion by passing electricity through one or both hemispheres of the brain. Can be effective in in treating severe depression. (page 77) 9) Empathy: emotional understanding; involves understanding other’s unique feelings and perspectives (page 84) 10) Experiment: a powerful scientific method that allows researchers to determine cause-and-effect relations (page 82) 11) Experimental Group: the group of participants in an experiment who receives a treatment that is hypothesized to cause some measured effect (page 82) 12) Family Therapy: treatment that might include two, three, or more family members in the psychotherapy session (page 93) 13) Group Therapy: The treatment of three or more people in a group setting; often using group relationships as the central part of therapy (page 93) 14) Humanistic Psychotherapy: an approach that assumes that the most essential human quality is the ability to make choices and freely act on them. (page 84) 15) Independent Variable: the variable in an experiment that is controlled and deliberately manipulated by the experimenter (page 82) 16) Insight: self-understanding; the extent to which a person recognizes the nature of his or her disorder (page 79) 17) Interpersonal Therapy: an evidence-based approach to treatment emphasizing the historical importance of close relationships to the development of both normal and problematic emotions and patterns of relating to others (page 80) 18) Interpretation: a tool in psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in which the therapist suggests new meanings about a client’s accounts of his or her past and present life (page 79) 19) Meta-Analysis: a statistical technique that allows the results from different studies to be combined in a standardized way (page 85) 20) Placebo Effect: the improvement in a condition produced by a placebo. An overriding goal of scientific research is to identify treatments that exceed placebo effects (page 87) 21) Psychoanalysis: promoting insight by uncovering the unconscious conflicts and motivations that cause psychological difficulties (page 78) 22) Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: an “uncovering” form of psychotherapy in which the therapist typically is more engaged and directive; the process is considerably less lengthy than in psychoanalysis (page 79) 23) Psychopharmacology: the study of the effects of psychoactive drugs on behavior (page 75) 24) Psychotherapy: the use of psychological techniques in an attempts to produce change in the context of a special, helping relationship (page 73) 25) Random Assignment: any of several methods of ensuring that each subject has a statistically equal chance of being exposed to any level of an independent variable (page 82) 26) Statistically Significant: a statistical statement that a research result has a low probability of having occurred by chance alone (page 82) 27) Systematic Desensitization: a treatment for overcoming fears and phobias developed by Joseph Wolpe. Involves learning relaxation skills, developing a fear hierarchy , and systematic exposure to imagined, feared events while simultaneously maintaining relaxation (page 81) 28) Therapeutic Alliance: The emotional bond of confidence and trust between a therapist and client believed to facilitate therapy (page 84) Chapter 3 Summary 1) Biological treatments approach the treatment of psychological disorders similarly to how medical conditions would be treated. They focus on making symptoms more manageable, therefore lessening the disease burden. a. Psychopharmacology focuses mainly on the use of medications b. Electroconvulsive therapy applies controlled amounts of electricity to certain parts of the brain; helpful for treating stubborn chronic depression c. Psychosurgery is a very rarely used form of treatment which involves operating on areas of the brain. Past operations have not been very successful. 2) Psychodynamic treatments focus on resolving conflicts in the subconscious; based on Sigmund Freud’s theories a. Freudian psychoanalysis focuses catharsis (release of emotional pressure by talking) and free association (just letting the patient talk about whatever they were thinking of at the moment) i. Focused on dream analysis and the “deeper meaning” of thoughts b. Ego analysis focuses on how the person perceives the world and how their ego (one of Freud’s levels of consciousness) interprets that perception c. Psychodynamic therapy focuses on the ego, but is also much more hands-on and present-day focused 3) Cognitive-behavior treatment uses concepts from both previously mentioned models to help patients gain a new perspective and become more aware of their psychological state and the stimuli that might cause it 4) Systematic desensitization (Wolpe) focuses on exposing a person to their fears in systematic intervals to slowly get the person over the fear 5) Aversion therapy is the opposite of systematic desensitization. It makes the person fear a certain stimulus (drugs, alcohol, etc.) by associating it with something they already fear. 6) Social skills training gives clients resources that help them function within society. 7) Humanistic therapies focus on the joining of concepts between psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral. Primary goal is emotional awareness and a close therapist-patient relationship 8) Client-centered therapy focusses on empathy and the self-disclosure that is brought about by a close psychologist to patient relationship. Self-acceptance is key. 9) Psychological efficacy is whether or not the treatment can work, effectiveness is whether or not the drug does work 10) Therapy is typically more helpful in the earlier sessions References Oltmanns, T.F., Emery R.E. (2015). Abnormal Psychology 8th Edition. Pearson. New Jersey.
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