Each new settlement in colonial New England drew up a covenant to formalize settlers’ commitment to unity and harmony.
The influence of provincial governors in colonial America was limited.
Colonial assemblies were formed because royal government was so far away, and to run the political affairs of local communities.
Most of the early English settlers in the North American colonies were laborers. Common artisans in the North included cobblers, blacksmiths, and printers.
“Goodman”/”Goodwife”: The alternative term for “Lady” and “Gentleman” for the lower classes in colonial America
Skin color determined whether an individual was subject to 18th century laws limiting the rights of blacks.
Ports in Philadelphia and New York had populations larger than most English urban centers.
Between 1650 and 1775, the sex ratio of the white settlers in North America gradually improved because more women chose to immigrate, and birth rates rose.
New England experienced a high rate of natural populate increase in the 17th century because there were extremely high birth rates, and exceptional longevity within the colonies.
The flow of immigrants from England to the American colonies declined in the early 18th century because of better economic conditions in England.
Church of England: The official faith in many colonies If you want to learn more check out What is Behavior Modification?
Puritans: Had a growing tendency for different congregations to affiliate with different denominations
Dutch Reformed: A Calvinist denomination represented in parts of New York and New Jersey American Baptists: A variety of sects united by belief in total immersion for mature believers
Protestant Germans who were driven to North America and settled in Pennsylvania, where they became known as Pennsylvania Dutch.
John Wesley: Cofounder of Methodism
George Whitefield: Powerful openair preacher who made several tours
Jonathan Edwards: New England Congregationalist who attacked the doctrine of easy salvation for all
Settlers in America adopted an attitude of religious toleration because many religious traditions existed in close proximity to one another, and conditions virtually required it.
The Great Awakening: The first major American religious revival, occurred in the 1730s and 1740s (appealed most to women).
The basis of the Chesapeake economy in the 17th and 18th centuries was tobacco.
Life in the Chesapeake:
Family life was much less stable and traditional than in New England.
The sex ration was less balanced than it was in New England.
Women could expect to pop out a ton of babies and rarely remain unmarried.
After completing their terms of service, male indentured servants often did not receive what they had been promised, and found themselves unprepared and illequipped for independence. We also discuss several other topics like Aldehyde means what?
In the Chesapeake, indentured servitude was replaced by African slavery.
Middle Passage: The journey to the New World for Africans bound for slave markets in the Americas (the second leg of the triangular trade) Don't forget about the age old question of what is anatomical position?
Africans during the middle passage could expect to be chained, and to be given little food or water. Don't forget about the age old question of How science is used to study life?
The system of slavery became firmly established in the early 18th century because Africans: Had no contractual protections
Were not under a fixed term of servitude
Created new laborers through natural increase
Slaves were able to develop a society and culture of their own when they lived in larger communities.
Characteristics of the distinct slave culture:
A blending of Christianity and African folklore
Strong and elaborate family structures
A slave might learn carpentry, midwifery, sewing, or blacksmithing in order to be hired out to other planters.
Midwives tended to threaten male physicians, dealt with other health issues in addition to child birth, and tended to be more popular than physicians.
Uniquely, female slaves had difficulties such as unwanted sexual advances from white planters and overseers, and raising mulatto children whose white fathers refused to acknowledge them.
The Stono Rebellion in 1739 was the largest colonial slave revolt.
There was relatively little industry in America in the 18th century.
Causes of the rise of an entrepreneurial merchant class in colonial America: Trade protections under England’s Navigation Acts
Access to markets in England and West Indies
High English demand for American products
To facilitate the new consumer appetites, merchants and traders began advertising their goods in newspapers, and sent agents out into the countryside to visit wealth landowners.
Due to dependence on largescale cash crops such as rice and tobacco, the southern economy was less robust and diversified, and developed less of a commercial base than the northern economy. If you want to learn more check out What is the “boomerang model” and what can it achieve?
Though the tobacco economy was a potentially lucrative one, it was prone to sharp drops in prices caused by increased production.
Africa imported manufactured goods and exported slaves
The West Indies imported agricultural products and exported slaves
North America imported manufactured goods and exported agricultural products Europe imported agricultural goods and exported manufactured goods
The Enlightenment: An 18th century movement that celebrated human reason and scientific inquiry.
Colonial Americans placed high value on education despite their difficulties in gaining access to educational resources.
The most vigorous promoters of science and scientific knowledge in colonial America were amateur scientists.
Harvard: The first American college
William and Mary: Institution established by Anglicans in Williamsburg, Virginia Yale: University founded by Congregationalists We also discuss several other topics like What did Avery's experiment prove?
Princeton: University that emerged out of the Great Awakening as the College of New Jersey
Material taken from The Unfinished Nation, 7th edition by Alan Brinkley