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Anatomy & Physiology Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Courtney Luber

Anatomy & Physiology Exam 1 Study Guide 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001

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Courtney Luber

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This study guide covers the notes taken in lecture up until 09/01. These do not include what will be discussed on Tuesday, 09/06.
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
John R Cummings
Study Guide
anatomy, Physiology
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Friday September 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Anatomy & Physiology Study Guide Exam 1  Anatomy o Greek  Anatome – dissect  Only way to figure out what was inside the body was to cut open the outside of the body o Definition - the study of structure and the relationship among structures  Looking at what the parts are, not what they do o Subdivisions – approaches to studying anatomy  Gross anatomy – macroscopic; big things  Bone, muscles, big organs (heart, lungs, brain)  Regional anatomy – looking at a specific region of the body  Thoracic, abdominal, leg, etc  Used by advanced med school students with specialties  Systemic anatomy – looking at specific organ systems  Cardiovascular, muscular, skeletal, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, digestive, etc  Surface anatomy – study of form and markings on the surface of the body  Has led to forensic reconstruction  Includes parts that are visible with the naked eye  Microscopic anatomy – things we can’t see without a microscope  Parts that are smaller than ½ mm  Cytology – the study of cells  Histology – the study of tissues  Developmental anatomy – the study of changes in anatomy from the fertilized egg until death  Embryology – deals with the time of fertilization until birth  Pathological anatomy – study of change to structure due to disease  Radiographic anatomy – the study of structure using socialized imaging technology  Medical imaging o X-ray – passing short light waves through the body; gamma radiation  Things that absorb the most light energy show up the brightest (bones)  Can see broken bones, tumors, abnormal calcification o CT scan – computerized tomography; using light energy in sections; basically an x-ray in different sections; can break apart an x-ray  Use for brain scans  looking for tumor, additional nasal tissue, etc o Xenon CT – xenon is a gas that is radioactively labeled; gives off gamma radiation; colorized CT  Patient inhales xenon gas  lungs  bloodstream  delivered to most active tissue  Can diagnose what’s happening in the brain without cutting open  Computer interprets the xenon o DSR scan – dynamic spacial reconstruction; light energy is being used to take pictures all the way around the body so we get a 3D image that we can rotate o DSA – digital subtraction angiography (angiography = related to blood vessels)  Before picture  inject contrast medium (dye)  take second picture  Use computer to subtract everything from first picture from second picture  Can diagnose blood vessel blockages, concussions, thrombosis, etc o PET scan – positron emission tomography; injecting a radioisotope into body  Radioisotope travels and cells that are most active will pick it up  Look at metabolic processes  Can look at Parkinson’s disease (basal nuclei, which fine tune muscle contractions, don’t work, so patient gets tremors) o All of the above use light energy o Ultrasound – uses sound waves; high frequency sound travels through the body and is picked up by the receiver  Used to look at embryological development  Can do a 3D ultrasound, or 4D ultrasound o MRI – magnetic residence imagery; uses magnetic waves  Magnetic energy passes through the body and it becomes polarized  Uses hydrogen ions  most prevalent in soft tissue  No bone tissue shows up  Great at showing soft tissue  see if an ACL is torn, etc  Sometimes computer can go back in and put the bone tissue back in o MRS – magnetic residence spectrography; use a pulse of magnetic field but it goes after ions other than water  Kidneys – full of sodium  Muscle – full of calcium o M2A – pill that has a camera in it; digital camera with light source; takes pictures as it moves through the digestive tract; pictures get stored on a small SD card  Battery light in camera is less than 18 hours  Light burns out around the small intestine  Physiology o Greek  Physis - function  Logos – study of o Definition – the study of functions of body parts  Includes chemical and physical processes o The Big Integration  Structure can dictate function  Function can regulate structure o Levels of organization  Chemical  All of the chemicals that are essential to life and what roles they play in our body  i.e. How does bicarbonate function in our body?  Cellular  The cell is the structural and functional unit of life  Cells are comprised of a bunch of different chemicals  Tissues  Two or more cells working collectively toward a specific task  Neurons function together to make the nervous system work  Organ  Two or more tissues working collectively toward a specific task  Organ system  Two or more organs working together toward a specific system o i.e. muscular system, nervous system, digestive system, etc  Organismic level  An organism’s entire body  Life processes o Living things possess certain attributes o Limiting boundaries – barrier for humans is skin  The inside of our bodies have a different environment than the outside o Excitability – the ability to sense change within or around our bodies  We respond to stimuli  i.e. when the light goes down, the pupils in our eyes will dilate o conductivity – connecting one part to the other o metabolism- the sum total of all of the chemical reactions that occur in our body  catabolism – breakdown pathways (i.e. we eat a meal and break it down chemically)  anabolism - we build things up (i.e. we take amino acids in our body and build them up to make muscle) o digestion – intake and breakdown of food o excretion – the elimination of waste  fecal, urine, sweat, exhale o movement – the contraction of muscle  locomotion – movement of skeletal movement  pump blood- cardiac muscles o growth – an increase in size; increase in number of cells; increase in size of cells  born with all of the muscle cells we will ever have – muscle cells just grow as we age  born with all of the adipose cells we will ever have as well o reproduction – cells reproduce themselves – mitosis; the production of new individuals – procreation  Survival needs (need to have in the correct amount) o nutrients – all of the chemical substances that are used for energy or cell production  get our nutrients from the food we eat o oxygen – electron acceptor for cellular respiration o water – body is made of between 60-80%  get water from the things we drink and the food we eat  we are also constantly losing water  sweating, urination  constant water balance o normal body temperature – 37 degrees C is the human body temp; 96.8 degrees F  below 95 degrees metabolic system slows down  above 99 degrees and proteins start to denature o atmospheric pressure – without this we couldn’t breathe; changes with elevation  homeostasis o homios – like o stasis – the same o “standing still” in Greek o Definition – condition of stable internal body environment  Never constant, rather a dynamic equilibrium o We need all of our survival needs to be at optimal level o Requirements for homestasis  When survival needs are at optimum  Stress o Old French  Estresse – narrowness o Definition – any stimulus causing an imbalance in the internal environment  All stimuli cause a response, not all disturb homeostasis  Can be internal and external stresses  Stress regulation o Nervous system - we detect stress messages and send electrical messages to counteract  Integrator-brain or spinal cord, affector o Endocrine system - chemical messages (hormones)  Feedback systems o Anglo saxon – british empire  Fedan – food  Baec – back o Greek  Systema o Definition – any circular situation where info about the status of something is continually report back to a central control region  Feedback is a circular system  Info about anything – irritation in bladder, skin detecting that it is warm, etc  Central control region is usually the CNS (brain/spinal cord) o general terms  1. Stimulus produces change in variable  2. Change detected by receptor  3. Input: info sent along different pathway to control center  4. Output: info sent along efferent pathway to effector  5. Response of effector feeds back to influence magnitude of stimulus and returns variable to homeostasis o Negative feedback – response of the feedback cycle is to reverse the initial condition  i.e. thermostat – equilibrium is 75 degrees, if it gets hotter than that, the AC comes on and reverses the condition  i.e. blood glucose is too low, so our body reverses the condition o positive feedback – the response is to intensify the condition & we continue to intensify the condition until the stimulus is gone  i.e. child birth, consumption of alcohol affects the brain which says send more alcohol  throw up Chemistry  Matter o Latin – materia (timber, substance) o Definition – anything that occupies space and has mass o Is composed of chemical elements  Elements o Substances that cannot be decomposed into smaller substances by ordinary chemical reactions  Chemical elements o 118 chemical elements recognized  92 occur naturally  Other 16 are manmade in particle accelerators  Not very stable o Human body contains 24  O, C, H & N = 96%  These plus Ca & P = 99%  Others called trace elements – the other elements that occur but not in very high quantities  Can’t have any nervous contraction without sodium or potassium  States of matter o Solid – form of matter that has a definitive shape  i.e. crystal, teeth, bones  all atoms that make up matter are constantly moving, but solids have atoms that move most slowly o liquid – assume the shape of the container that holds them  can go from a solid to liquid by changing the speed of the atoms  atoms moving faster  i.e. plasma takes the shape of the blood vessels that contain them; urine takes the shape of the bladder which contains it o *solids and liquids have a definite volume* o Gas – no definitive shape or volume  Expands to the volume of the container  Highest speed of molecular motion  i.e. air in lungs take the shape of lungs; when we breathe, lungs expand and gas inside expands as well  Energy o Greek  en – within  ergon – work o definition – the ability to do work; the ability to put matter into motion  energy allows molecules to move o forms of energy  potential – stored energy  i.e. a rollercoaster car sitting on top of a hill  kinetic – the energy of motion  i.e. a rollercoaster going down a hill  chemical – the energy that is present in chemical bonds (the bonds between elements)  if we break a bond between elements, we release energy; when we create a bond, we take energy  electrical – the energy that results from the flow of charged particles  charged particles in body; as particles move around, it creates electrical energy  sodium and potassium are most important charged particles  mechanical – the energy of motion; the energy required for movement  i.e. wind turbine – wind causes turbines to spin; mechanical energy converted to electrical energy  electromagnetic – energy that travels in waves  light and sound waves  “radiant” energy – heat/temperature travels in waves also; light and sound plus heat  Energy conversions o Thermodynamics  First law states that energy cannot be created or destroyed  energy is transformed from one type to another  Second law – none of the transfers is 100% efficient; energy gets lost to the environment primarily as heat  Changing the motion of molecules  changes the form of energy  changes the state of matter  Atom o Greek  Atomos – indivisible o Definition – the smallest unit of matter that can enter into a chemical reaction o All elements are composed of atoms o Atoms allow elements to be reactive o Composition  Nucleus – center of the atom; where most of the mass of the atom exists  Protons – positively charged particles o Number of protons in the nucleus is equal to the number of electrons floating around  Neutrons – neutrally charged particles  *charge is not equal to mass*  Electrons – negatively charged particles o Atomic number  The number of protons that exists of the nucleus  Protons = electrons  So, we know the number of electrons as well o Atomic mass  Sum of the number of protons plus the number of neutrons o Isotope – atoms that have the same number of protons and electrons, but different numbers of neutrons  Unstable and usually radioactive o Periodic table  Developed by Russian chemist  He put atoms or elements that have similar properties close to each other  Noble gases – nonreactive  Each element has an atomic symbol which is an abbreviation for what it is  Energy levels o Regions in which the electrons move around the nucleus o Identified as orbitals or shells  Chemical definition - the region around the nucleus where the electron could be found most of the time o Each has a maximum number of electrons it can hold o First shell can hold two, others can hold eight  Valence electrons o The number of extra or deficient electrons in the outermost energy level o Reactivity, the ability to engage in chemical reactions, is determined by valence electrons o Deficiency or excessiveness determines how the element is going to work  Chemical reactions o Combining or breaking apart of atoms forming new products with different properties from the originals o Exchange of outer electrons to produce new products that have different properties than the originals o Atoms always try to fill their outermost energy level  Accomplished by giving up, accepting, or sharing electrons  Molecule o Combination of two or more atoms from a chemical reaction  Compound o Substance that can be broken down into two or more others by a chemical means  Always contain two or more different elements  Chemical bonding o Attractive forces that hold together the atoms of a molecule o Types of bonds  Ionic – opposites attract; positive and negative charge are attracted  Ion – charged substance; extra or deficient electron; positively or negatively charged particles which result when an atom gains or loses electrons o Positive charge – electron deficiency  Cation – electron donor; number of protons exceeds number or electrons o Negative charge – extra electron  Anion – electron acceptor; number of protons is less than number of electrons  Results in polar compounds  Covalent – atoms share the electrons  Single covalent bond – share one bond of electrons  Double covalent bond – share two pairs of electrons; stronger  Triple covalent bond – share three pairs of electrons; strongest  Result in nonpolar molecules  Polarity determines whether or not the particle can get through the wall of a cell  Can have partially polar covalent bonds o Electronegativity  Hydrogen – attractive force between atoms; not really a bond; very weak bond that exists due to partial negativity  Between a hydrogen bond and something else  Usually nitrogen and oxygen  “bond to one but attracted to another”  Chemical reactions o Making or breaking of bonds o Number of atoms remains the same but are rearranged o Can change chemical structure o Reactants combine to make products which have different properties than the originals o Types  Synthesis reactions – two or more atoms or elements combined to make something bigger; anabolic reactions  Decomposition – big things are broken down into smaller ones; bonds in a large molecule are broke into yield smaller ones; catabolic  Number of atoms isn’t changed; everything is balanced  Exchange – synthesis and decomposition reactions happen at the same time  Oxidation-reduction – “redox”; the transfer of electrons  When something gives up an electron, it is oxidized  When something accepts an electron, it is reduced  Electron transport chain depends on oxidation and reduction  Reversible – end product of the reaction can become the reactants for a breakdown; can revert back to the original  Amount of stability determines which direction the reaction will go  Exergonic – the products have less energy than the reactants; catabolic; oxidative; energy is liberated to do something else  Endergonic – energy absorbing reactions; products are at a higher energy level than the reactants  Collision theory o Explains how and why chemical reactions occur o All particles are in constant motion and continually collide with one another o If collision provides activation energy, bonds are broken or formed  Atoms will ultimately bump into each other  Activation energy o Collision energy needed for a chemical reaction o Amount of energy needed to rearrange the electrons of a molecule  Factors affecting chemical reactions o Velocity of colliding particles  Temperature – heat makes molecules move faster  The faster things are moving, the higher velocity o Energy of colliding particles  Temperature  Size – smaller particles move faster than bigger ones; more collisions; big particle will have more energy when it hits o Concentration of colliding particles o Catalysts  Something that speeds up a chemical reaction but doesn’t get used up in the chemical reaction  Enzymes in the human body Biochemistry  Definition – chemical composition and reactions of living matter  Biocompounds o Inorganic – no carbon  Water, salts, acids, bases  They dissociate; do not form electrolytes o Organic – do contain carbon  Potential to form covalent bonds  Do not dissociate; give us electrolytes  Important inorganic compounds o Water  60-80% of human body is water; most abundant  Properties:  High heat capacity – resistant to changes in temperature (we have a homeostatic body temp)  High heat of vaporization – water requires a lot of heat to turn it from a liquid to a gas o Has cooling powers when vaporizes  Universal solvent – a lot of things can dissolve in water o Ionic molecules & polar compounds can dissolve in water o Ability to transport these ions o For anything to biologically active, it has to be in a solution o *solution – a solute dissolved in a solvent  Hydrolysis/condensation – all reactions in the body are catabolic or anabolic; anything is either a decomposition or synthesis reaction o Involves water most of the time o Dehyrdation – take water away o Hydrolysis – add water  Cushion – water is a cushion between the bones and joints; cerebral spinal fluid that protects us from head trauma o Salts  Substances that dissociate to form cations and anions (electrolytes); salts create electrolytes when they dissociate  Movement of charged particles gives us electrical energy  Kidneys regulating and maintaining salt balance o Acids  Substances that dissociate and increase hydrogen ion concentration  Hydrogen ion will have a positive charge (more protons)  Acids are proton donors  Can also create electrical currents through dissociation  Increase hydrogen ion concentration of a solution o Bases  Reduces hydrogen ion concentration  proton accepter  pH – measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution o expressed on a scale from 0-14 o 0-6 acidic o 7 neutral o 8-14 basic o Measurement of hydrogen ion concentrations in a solution in moles/liters o Is homeostatic – maintained by neutralization and buffering o Different organs have different optimal pH’s but have to be within homeostatic pH o Neutralization – the addition of an acid and a base  When we combine, we get water and salt (neutral solution) o Buffering – a process in which the addition of small amounts of acid or base do not result in pH change  Resists pH changes by accepting or liberating hydrogen ions  We constantly flood our bodies with acidic or basic food (i.e. coca-cola)  Organic compounds o Carbohydrates  Sugars and starches  Cell is made up of between 1-2% carbohydrates  Main function is to be a source of energy  Major player in energy production is glucose  most easily enters glycolysis  We can get energy from any form of biocompounds, but the most common source is glucose  Monosaccharides –  the smallest forms of sugar; individual units; simple sugars; taste sweet; can be absorbed immediately along the wall of the digestive tract; can be immediately used to provide energy when in bloodstream  Named based on the number of carbons they contain  5 carbons pent-  6 carbons hex-  Always have a ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen (1-2-1)  Disaccharides  2 sugars o Glucose + glucose = maltose o Galactose + glucose = lactose o Glucose + fructose = sucrose  Have to be digested before absorbed  Polysaccharides  Many sugars  Long chains  Also have to be broken down to release monosaccharides  Don’t taste sweet  Not water soluble  Stored differently in plants and animals o Animals store them as glycogen o Plants store them as starch  Humans then build own monosaccharides o Lipids  Can exist as liquids or solids at room temp  Solid – fat  Liquid – oil  Not water soluble, though they can be dissolved by other solvents such as other lipids  Neutral fats  “triglyceride”  Consists of glycerol + 3 fatty acids  Nonpolar  Function primarily as energy storage molecules  Function in insulation  Kidneys are packed in fat because they are close to the skin  They also protect organs  Classes o Saturated – any triglyceride in which the fatty acids do not contain any double bonds between the carbons  Predominantly animal fats – meat  Solid at room temperature  Consumption increases cholesterol levels in our body o Unsaturated – contains a single double bond in one of the fatty acids  Oils at room temp  Predominantly plant based  Do not cause any increase in cholesterol; no effect o Polyunsaturated – 2 or more double bonds  Plant based  Oil at room temp  Reduce cholesterol o Trans fats -  Oil that has been solidified in a lab by flooding it with hydrogen ions  Take unsaturated fat and make them saturated  Chips have more flavor when saturated fats are used  Grossly increase cholesterol and heart disease o Omega 3 fatty acids  Omega – far edge of the fatty acid chain  Has a double bond at the third carbon from the tail  Shown to reduce cholesterol  Predominantly fish oils o Omega 6 fatty acids  “ “  But double bond on sixth carbon  Phospholipids  Triglyceride but one of the fatty acids has been switched with a phosphate  Polar head and nonpolar tail  Double layer of phospholipids (plasma membrane; phospholipid bilayer)  Amphipathic molecule – molecule with polar and nonpolar parts  Steroids  Made from 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings  i.e. testosterone, progesterone  steroids are part of endocrine system regulation  fat based & fat soluble steroid hormones)  Eicosanoids  local signaling molecules  produced in one part of the body and affect that place  modified triglyceride o Proteins  10-30% of the mass of the cell  Made up of amino acids  Linked together, they’re called polypeptides  Peptide bonds link proteins together  Nitrogen contained in protein  Proteins in human body made of 20 amino acids  Some are only available from animals  Roles: structural, functional  Primary structure – linear sequence of all of the amino acids that make up the protein given its primary structure  All of these primary structures will twist, forming a secondary structure  Beta pleated sheet – fold  Alpha helix – twist  i.e. straight hair (beta pleated sheet) and curly hair (alpha helix)  tertiary structure – 3D structure; contains active sites  quaternary structure  if we have more than one peptide chain linking together, we get a complex protein  i.e. hemoglobin (4 peptide chain)  types of proteins:  structural/fibrous – give form to body parts o i.e. collagen  regulatory – regulate processes generally as a hormone  contractile – proteins in muscle that can contract o i.e. myosin, actin  immunological – help prevent infection or disease  transport – carrier molecules o i.e. hemoglobin carries oxygen  catalytic – enzymes  enzymes  protein that functions as a biological catalyst  binds to certain and only certain substrates o has specific substrates  catalyst speeds up a reaction without being used in a reaction  denaturation  loss of a protein’s 3D shape due to high temperature or changes in pH o each enzyme has an optimal temp and pH o structural proteins tend not to denature but functional proteins do o nucleic acids  largest molecules in the body  comprise of nucleotides  bound using phosphate bonds  DNA  Found in the nucleus of a cell  Contains codon segments called genes  Sugar – deoxyribose  Double stranded molecule  A, G, C , & D  RNA  DNA stays in nucleus and RNA is the messenger that takes the info to the body  Single stranded molecule  Different nucleotide formation o Adenosine triphosphate  “ATP”  Adenine which is bound to a phosphate in which 2 additional phosphates are attached  Currency of energy in our body Cell Structure  Cell o Latin – cella – chamber/storehouse o Definition – the basic living, structural and functional units of all organisms o If not made of cells, not living o 200 different types of cells in human body o 1 x 10 cells in the human body o Smallest cell is 2 microns (1 millionth of a meter) o Largest cell is more than a meter in size (neuron)  Cell Theory o Cell is structural and functional unity of life o Activity of organism is combined results of individual and aggregated cells o Activity of cells depends on subcellular composition  Structure and function  Principle of complementarity – the action of the cell is determined by the things the cell possesses o Cells are responsible for the continuity of life  Parts of a cell o Plasma membrane – separates inside from outside; limiting boundary  inside can have a different composition o Organelles – no cell possesses all organelles  Each carries out a specific function o Cytoplasm – fluid on inside of cell; intracellular fluid  Organelles suspended in this fluid  In order to be biologically active, all chemicals have to be in solution – cytoplasm keeps cells functional  Composition of Plasma Membrane o Phospholipid bilayer  Glycerol attached to phosphate and two fatty acids; polar heads (hydrophilic) and nonpolar tails (hydrophobic)  Half of the mass of the mass of the plasma membrane is the phospholipids, while the other half is from proteins o Integral proteins  Protein that goes through both parts of the bilayer  Mostly transport proteins – allow polar things to move into and out of the cell o Peripheral proteins  Protein that is only on one side of the bilayer; usually on inside  Mechanically natured – usually act as enzymes o Some proteins have a carbohydrate extension – glycoprotein  Carb part is basically a receptor o Carbohydrate chain can also attach to lipid – glycolipid  Still a receptor o Width of plasma membrane is 7-10 nm in size (7-10 billionths of a meter)  Very thin and fragile; proteins help hold it together  Functions of Plasma Membrane o Separate cells from the external environment o Insides can have a different chemical environment than outside o Facilitate contact with other cells or foreign substances o Provide receptor sites o Controls flow into and out of cell  Selectively permeable – allows some things to pass and prevents other things from passing o Determines what the internal environment is going to be like because of selectively permeable membrane  Determining Factors o Molecular size of the molecule  if too big, it generally can’t get in o Solubility  fat soluble substances can pass directly across the lipid part of the plasma membrane; water soluble things can’t o Ionic charge  something that has the same charge gets pushed away from the cell, while things with opposite charges get pulled near o Carrier molecules  Integral proteins that allow thing to pass  Membrane Transport Processes o Passive  No assistance from the cell; no energy needed  Follow a concentration gradient (high concentration  low concentration)  Small things move faster than big things o Active  Cell has to assist movement; provides ATP as energy for the process  Moves against the concentration gradient (low  high)  Passive Processes o Simple diffusion – the passive movement of a substance (liquid, solid, gas) from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until we reach equilibrium; then continued movement, but no net change  Nonpolar substances and lipids  Affected by molecular size, temperature o Facilitated diffusion – involves either a carrier or channel protein  No energy required, but protein is  Glucose, ions  Carrier proteins are specific to certain things; channel proteins are not – just has to fit o Osmosis – movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane  Is regulated by solute concentration and osmotic pressure  Tonicity  Isotonic o If the concentrations are equal o Net movement of water is 0  Hypertonic o The more concentrated solution  Hypotonic o The less concentrated solution o Water always moves from hypo- to hyper- o Tries to make the two solutions equal  Osmolarity o The tonicity (concentration; # of particles) * the number of particles we get when the substance dissociates o 1 molar saline solution is a 2 osmol solution o It’s the number of particles, not type of particle, that determines the movement of water o Filtration – movement across the membrane that is caused by pressure or gravity  Follows pressure gradient  Blood is filtered; higher blood pressure  filtered more  Active processes o Active transport – requires a carrier protein (specific to certain molecules)  Energy is required to change the shape of the protein  40% of energy produced by a cell is used by active transport  Low  high concentration o Exocytosis – cell has to create a vesicle  Vesicular transport – transport requiring a vesicle  Our cells produce something, a vesicle surrounds it, vesicle is phospholipid bilayer, and now since the bilayer is made of lipids, it meshes with the cells and is able to move out o Endocytosis – same process but used to move something inside the cell  Phagocytosis – engulfing of large solid molecules  i.e. macrophage consuming blood clots  Pinocytosis – engulfing liquid that contains some solid molecule(s)  “cell drinking”  Receptor-mediated endocytosis – when cell brings in something specific via receptors  i.e. want to bring in insulin, iron, or enzyme  there is a specific receptor for it  clathrin – protein coating on cytoplasmic face of vesicle o “clathrin-coated vesicles”  This is how flu gets into our cells  it binds to clathrin  Plasma Membranes Specializations o Microvilli – tiny projections on the free surface of the cell; increase surface area of cell  i.e. surface of intestines or kidneys o Tight junctions – when integral proteins bind to one another, it creates this  “impermeable junctions”  nothing can pass across these junctions o Desmosomes – when filaments on cell intertwine and hold each other together  “anchoring junctions”  See these in sheets of tissue where the cells are being exposed to tension such as friction  i.e. in heart, skin o Gap junctions - facilitate exchange between adjacent cells  “communicating junctions”  Can move from one cell directly into another cell; allow faster exchanges  Connexon – where the gap junction occurs  Allows cells to work as a group instead of as individuals  Membrane potentials o Differences in electrical charges across a membrane o Results from distribution of ions on both sides of membrane’  Predominantly potassium, sodium, and chloride o Can result in a voltage difference  Resting membrane potential o Sodium potassium pump- pumps potassium ions inside and sodium ions outside  More potassium inside than outside; more sodium outside than inside  More positive outside the cell than inside the cell – cell is negative; charge is negative o Cell is polarized, with inside negative compared to outside  Unequal movement of ions creates a polarity on each side of the cell which is regulated by plasma membrane  Parts of a Cell o Plasma membrane o Organelle  Organelle o Latin – organelle – tool; instrument o Specialized portion of cell that has a particular shape and does a particular task o Types:  Nucleus – largest intracellular structure; most cells only have 1; some don’t have any; some have more than 1 ; brain of the cell  Components: o Genetic material – material that controls structure and activity of cell o Nuclear envelope – phospholipid bilayer o Pores – holes in the membrane; things pass into and out of the nucleus o Nucleoplasm – solution inside of the nucleus o Nucleoli – spherical body inside nucleus; some have more than 1; assemble ribosomes which will then pass out of the pores into the cytoplasm (ribosomes - where proteins are made); does not have a membrane  Mitochondria – powerhouse of the cell; ATP producer; phospholipid bilayer  Can self-replicate  Possess their own DNA – mitochondrial DNA comes from only mom  Mitochondrial DNA can be used for relatability studies


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