ART 3683 QUIZ 1 STUDY GUIDE
ART 3683 QUIZ 1 STUDY GUIDE ART 3683
Popular in History of 20th Century Art
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nichole Pike on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ART 3683 at Oklahoma State University taught by Dr. Siddons in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see History of 20th Century Art in Art at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
ART 3683: HISTORY OF 20 CENTURY ART QUIZ 1: STUDY GUIDE DISCLAIMER: THIS STUDY GUIDE SHOULD BE USED TO AID IN YOUR OWN STUDYING AND IS IN NO WAY COMPREHENSIVE, BUT SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH CLASS MATERIALS PROVIDED BY THE PROFESSOR. Describe each of the major movements we’ve discussed in class in terms of its primary national affiliation, two or three concepts, one or two artists and one or two key artworks associated with them. Academic Art Concepts o academic painting is produced because of governed sponsor o male centric art world th o new emerging middle class in early 19 century o urbanization is well underway at this point o nostalgia for country of people living in city o academic art was essentially for assuring rich people that everything will be okay Artists JacquesLouis David, Oath of the Horatii, pg. 4 o most famous historical painting o for public audiences JeanAugsteDominique Ingres, Grande Odalisque, pg. 7 o catering to wealthy patrons seeking leisure o made to look Persian/Turkish because of those who saw exoticism o conveyed a status of perhaps welltraveled, but maybe not REALISM JeanFrancois Millet, The Angelus, pg. 13 o looks for local realism rather than foreign o not realistic realism o vision of rural France and oldtimey values o for personal satisfaction POSTIMPRESSIONISM Concepts Artists o Henri Matisse (French, 18691954) The Dinner Table, early in his career Luxe, calme et volupte, 190405 Le Bonheur de vivre, 19056 Dance, 1909 Book spread GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM Concepts o thought color as a design element rather than descriptive o associated with nihilismthat there is no point or meaning to livethought as a free for all o it doesn’t have to be violence but rather leads extentialism that we can have our own purposewe can create our own moral system with logic and separate from outside responsibility o science has displaced religion through discovery o prompted by revolution against monarchies which are justified by religious beliefschosen by God o some reacted to science displacing religion by emerging themselves even more into science o huge explosion of a variety of religions o there is a rise in nationalisminterest in folk culture Artists o Ernest Ludwig Kirchner (German, 18801939) Founded The Bridge, 1905 Street, Dresden, 1908 Seated Girl o Emile Nolde (German, 18671956) The Last Supper 1909, was engaged with folk and craft movements Masks Female Dancer Watercolor Flower Paintings o Franz Marc (German, 18801916) The Large Blue Horses Stables o August Macke (German, 18871914) o Gabriele Munter (German, 18771962) MODERNISM Concepts o thinking about architecture o during talks about architecture, artists began talking about nonobjectivity o new inventions made skyscrapers possible and the U.S. became a pioneer for skyscrapers o New York becomes the focus for skyscraper development; Chicago begins to compete o not just building them but it was also about what tall buildings are supposed to look like o simplification Artists o Louis Sullivan (18561924) Wayne Wright building in St. Louis, MO RUSSIAN EXPRESSIONSIM Concepts o Germany is politically unstable and economically challenged o interested in progressive arts education but also reconstructive approach to economy Artists o Walter Gropius (German 18831969) Shoe Factory RUSSIAN CONSTRUCTIVISM Concepts o In Russia, we have artists interested in the revolution and so we have non objectivity o paintings are based on themselves and not actual objects o nonobjectivity is revolutionary and is associated with Russian Revolution as they are trying to invent an entirely new art form o we see this influence in typography Artists o Kandinsky (Russian, 18661944), o Point and Line to Plane, 1926 Composition VII Concerning the Spiritual in Art, 1911 CUBISM Concepts o not a movement with a manifesto o between Picasso and Braque o mainly talk about Picasso o these men developed them together so it’s not clear whose idea it is; collaborate on solution o taking things we think we know and turn it into something else o the goal should be a thing and pictorial fact o what if painting is a visual tool Artists o Picasso, Les Demoiselled d’Avigon (The Young Ladies of Avignon), 1907 ANALYTIC CUBISM Concepts o doesn’t last very long o fragment things into different sections to create an illusion of time o say they are painting the 4 dimension Artists o Picasso, Lady with Mandolin SYNTHETIC CUBISM Concepts o changes when they incorporate collage o synthetic meaning bringing different things together (combination)both things we recognize and things that we don’t started incorporating real world objects in order to really change the face of art SUPREMATISM Concepts o “The supremacy of pure feeling in creative art.”definition from Malevich Artists o Kazimir Malevich (18781935) black square on field of white painting o El Lissitzky (18901941) Proun Space Discuss the core values of modernism that I identified at the beginning of the semester and give two specific examples of how artists engaged with those values (i.e. make references to specific people and works of art). series of debates, conversations and challenges about existing definitions and assumptions regarding art and its purpose core values authenticity direct experience purity people wanted to be modernists Debates technological advance individualism vs. collectivism cultural exchangecollision of cultures social commentary vs. aesthetics biomorphic vs. geometric abstraction realism vs. abstraction technology vs. primitivism Abstraction vs. nonobjectivity we’re going to be nonreferential design is just about making a building (purity in what it’s trying to do) Cezanne is promoting abstraction Nonobjectivity is thinking of things in their own way CEZANNE READING abstract thingssee geometry instead of the object itself he is arguing for abstraction, geometric abstraction, technology, aesthetics, cultural exchange thinking about local identity by using French objects GAUGUIN trying to escape Frenchness degenerate racesthinking of decline in agriculture he’s for abstract, invested in content, biomorphic, primitivism and individualism, not accessible to everyonethinking about the fact that Gauguin went to Tahiti himself. Those who argue in the view of supporting the three core values can argue both sides Different ideals have allowed for drastically different paintings that are both considered modernistic. Discuss a significant historical event and how it influenced a specific work of modern art (ex. WWI; Russian Revolution; European Colonialism; the invention of paint tubes) Define and discuss key terms from lectures/assigned readings. Genre: various categories Still life: a genre which represents inanimate objects Genre painting: a picture of everyday life Relief: sculpture with forms that project from the ground; options are high relief, low relief or basrelief Frieze: the middle entablature; any sculptured or decorative horizontal band Plastic: term used to describe a material that can be molded, sculpted or carved; flexible Impasto: thickly applied oil paint th Rococo: artistic style in Europe during the 18 century; characterized by curved and ornate surfaces and garden painted scenes Etching: a print on a metal plate which design has been etched or eaten away with acid Lithography: process of printmaking with oily crayon and stone Naturalism: approach to art that emphasizes observable nature Chiaroscuro: the manipulation of light and shade in painting Daguerreotype: photographic process Combination prints: photographic technique in which the final print is created by combining 2 or more negatives Cyanotypes: photographic technique that uses iron salts to produce a deep blue image Academicism: term referring to conservative artists with the mindset of the Academy Oil paint: pigment mixed with oil that creates a film when dried Planarity: having the quality of a flat plane Empiricism: describes the approach that artwork should only show what can be seen by the eye Armature: framework which sculpture and clay are supported Facture: manner in which artwork is made Pleinair painting: painting executed outside rather than inside Divisionism: another term for pointillism Pointillism: small areas of unmixed pigments that combine optically when seen from a distance Mosaic: a pictorial composition of small colored stones or glass Formalism: emphasizes quality of visual form, color and composition with narrative or biographical meanings Old Masters: any great European painter or painting prior to19th century Monochrome: tones of a single color Atelier: French term for studio or workshop Sfumato: a soft, misty effect in oil painting by the use of glazes Synthetism: term used by Gauguin to describe the antiRealist approach to his art Primitivism: tendency of Western artists to emulate motifs or techniques with so called “primitive” cultures Romanesque: refers to medieval European culture and architecture characterized by monumental scale Stucco: various types of plaster used as a protective and decorative covering for walls Reinforced concrete: concrete that is reinforced with steel or mesh to strengthen it Balustrades: series of pillars that support a rail Arabesque: intricate surface decoration of plant forms Nave: the congregational area of a church which is flanked by aisles Woodcut: a print made from a block of wood Drypoint: technique in printmaking where the copper plate is scratched which creates a soft, feathery line Arcadian: refers to rustic peace and plenty in classical, Renaissance and later art and literature Contrapposto: pose of classical antiquity with weight of figure on one leg Panchromatic: substance that is sensitive to all colors of the spectrum Secularism: philosophy that morality should be based on the contributions to human wellbeing Theosophy: metaphysical formulation which combines elements of a variety of religions and the pursuit of spiritual knowledge Spiritism: system of religious beliefs united in the belief that the spirit survives and communicates with the living Triptych: painting on 3 panels Mimesis: the action of imitation or mimicry Commedia dell’arte: semiimprovisational Italian comic theatre Papier colle: college of various colored paper Functionalism: the theory that the object should be designed to fill its functional purpose Cantilevers: a horizontallyprojecting architectural element such as a beam Basilica: ancient Roman colonnaded room for public use Apse: vaulted semicircular termination of a building, usually a church Kinetic: artwork that moves either by a mechanical device or art whose purpose is to convey a \ sense of movement Volutes: decorative element shaped in a spiral scroll Architectonic: term used to refer to art with architectural qualities Automatist: artistic approach where the artist relinquishes the conscious to allow unconscious impulses to direct the form
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