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by: Nichole Pike


Marketplace > Oklahoma State University > Art > ART 3683 > ART 3683 QUIZ 1 STUDY GUIDE
Nichole Pike
OK State
GPA 3.776

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About this Document

This study guide covers information from the first 3 weeks of class to prepare for the first quiz.
History of 20th Century Art
Dr. Siddons
Study Guide
Art, history, 20th, century
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nichole Pike on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ART 3683 at Oklahoma State University taught by Dr. Siddons in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see History of 20th Century Art in Art at Oklahoma State University.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
ART 3683: HISTORY OF 20  CENTURY ART QUIZ 1: STUDY GUIDE DISCLAIMER: THIS STUDY GUIDE SHOULD BE USED TO AID IN YOUR OWN  STUDYING AND IS IN NO WAY COMPREHENSIVE, BUT SHOULD BE USED IN  CONJUNCTION WITH CLASS MATERIALS PROVIDED BY THE PROFESSOR. Describe each of the major movements we’ve discussed in class in terms of its primary  national affiliation, two or three concepts, one or two artists and one or two key artworks  associated with them. Academic Art  Concepts o academic painting is produced because of governed sponsor o male centric art world th o new emerging middle class in early 19  century o urbanization is well underway at this point o nostalgia for country of people living in city o academic art was essentially for assuring rich people that everything will be okay  Artists  Jacques­Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, pg. 4 o most famous historical painting o for public audiences  Jean­Augste­Dominique Ingres, Grande Odalisque, pg. 7 o catering to wealthy patrons seeking leisure o made to look Persian/Turkish because of those who saw exoticism  o conveyed a status of perhaps well­traveled, but maybe not REALISM  Jean­Francois Millet, The Angelus, pg. 13 o looks for local realism rather than foreign o not realistic realism o vision of rural France and old­timey values o for personal satisfaction  POST­IMPRESSIONISM  Concepts  Artists o Henri Matisse (French, 1869­1954)  The Dinner Table, early in his career  Luxe, calme et volupte, 1904­05   Le Bonheur de vivre, 1905­6  Dance, 1909  Book spread GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM  Concepts o thought color as a design element rather than descriptive o associated with nihilism­that there is no point or meaning to live­thought as a free  for all o it doesn’t have to be violence but rather leads extentialism that we can have our  own purpose­we can create our own moral system with logic and separate from  outside responsibility o science has displaced religion through discovery o prompted by revolution against monarchies which are justified by religious  beliefs­chosen by God o some reacted to science displacing religion by emerging themselves even more  into science o huge explosion of a variety of religions o there is a rise in nationalism­interest in folk culture  Artists o Ernest Ludwig Kirchner (German, 1880­1939)  Founded The Bridge, 1905  Street, Dresden, 1908  Seated Girl o Emile Nolde (German, 1867­1956)  The Last Supper 1909, was engaged with folk and craft movements  Masks  Female Dancer  Watercolor Flower Paintings o Franz Marc (German, 1880­1916)  The Large Blue Horses  Stables o August Macke (German, 1887­1914) o Gabriele Munter (German, 1877­1962) MODERNISM  Concepts o thinking about architecture o during talks about architecture, artists began talking about non­objectivity  o new inventions made skyscrapers possible and the U.S. became a pioneer for  skyscrapers o New York becomes the focus for skyscraper development; Chicago begins to  compete o not just building them but it was also about what tall buildings are supposed to  look like o simplification  Artists o Louis Sullivan (1856­1924)  Wayne Wright building in St. Louis, MO RUSSIAN EXPRESSIONSIM  Concepts o Germany is politically unstable and economically challenged o interested in progressive arts education but also reconstructive approach to  economy  Artists o Walter Gropius (German 1883­1969)  Shoe Factory RUSSIAN CONSTRUCTIVISM  Concepts o In Russia, we have artists interested in the revolution and so we have non­ objectivity o paintings are based on themselves and not actual objects o non­objectivity is revolutionary and is associated with Russian Revolution as they are trying to invent an entirely new art form o we see this influence in typography  Artists o Kandinsky (Russian, 1866­1944),  o Point and Line to Plane, 1926  Composition VII  Concerning the Spiritual in Art, 1911 CUBISM  Concepts o not a movement with a manifesto o between Picasso and Braque o mainly talk about Picasso o these men developed them together so it’s not clear whose idea it is; collaborate  on solution o taking things we think we know and turn it into something else o the goal should be a thing and pictorial fact o what if painting is a visual tool  Artists o Picasso, Les Demoiselled d’Avigon (The Young Ladies of Avignon), 1907 ANALYTIC CUBISM  Concepts o doesn’t last very long o fragment things into different sections to create an illusion of time o say they are painting the 4  dimension  Artists o Picasso, Lady with Mandolin  SYNTHETIC CUBISM  Concepts o changes when they incorporate collage o synthetic meaning bringing different things together (combination)­both things we recognize and things that we don’t  ­started incorporating real world objects in order to really change the face of art SUPREMATISM  Concepts o ­“The supremacy of pure feeling in creative art.”­definition from Malevich  Artists o Kazimir Malevich (1878­1935)  black square on field of white painting o El Lissitzky (1890­1941)  Proun Space Discuss the core values of modernism that I identified at the beginning of the semester and  give two specific examples of how artists engaged with those values (i.e. make references to  specific people and works of art). ­series of debates, conversations and challenges about existing definitions and assumptions  regarding art and its purpose ­core values ­authenticity ­direct experience ­purity ­people wanted to be modernists Debates ­technological advance ­individualism vs. collectivism ­cultural exchange­collision of cultures ­social commentary vs. aesthetics ­biomorphic vs. geometric abstraction ­realism vs. abstraction ­technology vs. primitivism Abstraction vs. non­objectivity ­we’re going to be non­referential ­design is just about making a building (purity in what it’s trying to do) ­Cezanne is promoting abstraction ­Non­objectivity is thinking of things in their own way CEZANNE READING ­abstract things­see geometry instead of the object itself ­he is arguing for abstraction, geometric abstraction, technology, aesthetics, cultural exchange­  thinking about local identity by using French objects  GAUGUIN ­trying to escape French­ness ­degenerate races­thinking of decline in agriculture ­he’s for abstract, invested in content, biomorphic, primitivism and individualism, not accessible  to everyone­thinking about the fact that Gauguin went to Tahiti himself. Those who argue in the view of supporting the three core values can argue both sides Different ideals have allowed for drastically different paintings that are both considered  modernistic. Discuss a significant historical event and how it influenced a specific work of modern art  (ex. WWI; Russian Revolution; European Colonialism; the invention of paint tubes) Define and discuss key terms from lectures/assigned readings. Genre: various categories Still life: a genre which represents inanimate objects Genre painting: a picture of everyday life Relief: sculpture with forms that project from the ground; options are high relief, low relief or  bas­relief Frieze: the middle entablature; any sculptured or decorative horizontal band Plastic: term used to describe a material that can be molded, sculpted or carved; flexible Impasto: thickly applied oil paint th Rococo: artistic style in Europe during the 18  century; characterized by curved and ornate    surfaces and garden painted scenes Etching: a print on a metal plate which design has been etched or eaten away with acid Lithography: process of printmaking with oily crayon and stone Naturalism: approach to art that emphasizes observable nature Chiaroscuro: the manipulation of light and shade in painting Daguerreotype: photographic process Combination prints: photographic technique in which the final print is created by combining 2 or more negatives Cyanotypes: photographic technique that uses iron salts to produce a deep blue image Academicism: term referring to conservative artists with the mindset of the Academy Oil paint: pigment mixed with oil that creates a film when dried Planarity: having the quality of a flat plane Empiricism: describes the approach that artwork should only show what can be seen by the eye Armature: framework which sculpture and clay are supported Facture: manner in which artwork is made  Plein­air  painting: painting executed outside rather than inside Divisionism: another term for pointillism Pointillism: small areas of unmixed pigments that combine optically when seen from a distance Mosaic: a pictorial composition of small colored stones or glass Formalism: emphasizes quality of visual form, color and composition with narrative or  biographical meanings Old Masters: any great European painter or painting prior to19th century Monochrome: tones of a single color Atelier: French term for studio or workshop  Sfumato: a soft, misty effect in oil painting by the use of glazes Synthetism: term used by Gauguin to describe the anti­Realist approach to his art Primitivism: tendency of Western artists to emulate motifs or techniques with so called  “primitive” cultures Romanesque: refers to medieval European culture and architecture characterized by monumental scale Stucco: various types of plaster used as a protective and decorative covering for walls Reinforced concrete: concrete that is reinforced with steel or mesh to strengthen it Balustrades: series of pillars that support a rail Arabesque: intricate surface decoration of plant forms Nave: the congregational area of a church which is flanked by aisles Woodcut: a print made from a block of wood Drypoint: technique in printmaking where the copper plate is scratched which creates a soft,  feathery line Arcadian: refers to rustic peace and plenty in classical, Renaissance and later art and literature Contrapposto: pose of classical antiquity with weight of figure on one leg Panchromatic: substance that is sensitive to all colors of the spectrum Secularism: philosophy that morality should be based on the contributions to human well­being Theosophy: metaphysical formulation which combines elements of a variety of religions and the  pursuit of spiritual knowledge Spiritism: system of religious beliefs united in the belief that the spirit survives and  communicates with the living Triptych: painting on 3 panels Mimesis: the action of imitation or mimicry Commedia dell’arte: semi­improvisational Italian comic theatre  Papier colle: college of various colored paper Functionalism: the theory that the object should be designed to fill its functional purpose Cantilevers: a horizontally­projecting architectural element such as a beam Basilica: ancient Roman colonnaded room for public use  Apse: vaulted semicircular termination of a building, usually a church Kinetic: artwork that moves either by a mechanical device or art whose purpose is to convey a \ sense of movement Volutes: decorative element shaped in a spiral scroll Architectonic: term used to refer to art with architectural qualities Automatist: artistic approach where the artist relinquishes the conscious to allow unconscious  impulses to direct the form


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