Stat 210: Test 1 Study Guide
Stat 210: Test 1 Study Guide Stat 210
Virginia Commonwealth University
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vania Notetaker on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Stat 210 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Dr. Darcy Mays in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Basic Practice of Statistics in Statistics at Virginia Commonwealth University.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
Study Guide!! Basic Practice of Statistics September 09, 2016 Introduction and basic Definition, and Producing Data What I need to help me study: -Parameter is represented with Greek letters and statistics is represented with a combination of symbols and English letters. -A controlled experiment is determined by ability to give placebo to experimental units and compare results and experimenters watching the experimental units as they are, without interference determines an observational experiment. Important Vocabulary Words to Study: Population Entire group of subjects that the research is about Parameter Measurable attributes of the population such as proportion or average Sample Examined portion of the population that information about research is taken from ~Haphazard Sample non-random selection of sample through convenient mechanism (mall/campus survey) ~Volunteer Response Sample subjects choose to participate in the study (Call-in polls, internet survey) ~Random Sample Random selection of subjects for research *Simple Random Sampling list individuals in the population then randomly choose n of subjects, giving each equal chance of selection *Stratified Random Sample put the population in groups, use simple random sample to select from each group *Multistage Random Sampling put the population in groups, use simple random sample to select from each group then, use simple random sample to select from those groups Statistics Calculated number/information gotten from the sample Inference Using information from the sample to say something about the entire population Distribution Possible values a characteristic has and number of times it occurs Descriptive Statistic Statistic having to do with numbers and graphs Inferential Statistic Using data and statistics from a sample to make assumptions about a population (Descriptive stat. is used to make inference stat.) Replication/Repetition Repeat measurements on a single subject or measurements made on many different subjects Constant Non-changing measurements in repeated trials Variable Varying measurements in repeated trials Qualitative/Categorical Variable Measurements varying in kind but not value Quantitative Variable Measurements varying in value ~Discrete only countable number ~Continuous Uncountable number usually calculated (average, rate, percentage) Bias occurs when certain subjects or outcomes are favored over others ~Selection Bias Certain subjects are continuously excluded from sample ~ Nonresponse Bias failure to contact or receive response from selected sample of population ~ Response Bias the giving of incorrect information or interviewer influencing response Undercoverage Inference cannot be made about entire population because certain subjects are not included in the sample Experimental Units Subjects the measurement came from Treatment Condition given to experimental units Response Measured characteristic of each experimental unit Comparison Compare results of one group with another’s Treatment Group Experimental units getting treatment Control group Experimental units not getting treatment Placebo Fake treatment given to control group Randomization Experimental units should be randomly picked and put into groups using table of random digits Blinding Prevent experimental units from knowing what group they’re in. Double-blinding Prevent administrates from knowing what groups experimental units are in. Important Information I Need to Study: Because populations are too large to conduct an experiment on it as a whole a sample is taken to represent them. Data about the sample is then used to make assumptions about the population The sample and population should resemble Placebo is used to prevent inaccurate data collection, by preventing influence of control group’s actions by allowing them to know which group they are There should be more then one experimental unit to avoid chance variation Confounding is when something else other then the treatment differentiates the treatment and control group Disadvantages of observational studies is most of the time it has confounding factors because groups can’t be assigned to experimental units ^Also it shows association not causation Additional Notes/ Reminders: Watch these videos to be even better prepared! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gs-gLeYuDZw - Sampling https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k40ReCV2vhY - Design of Experiment Also don’t forget to review previous tests posted by our professor on blackboard!!
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