History of Holocaust: Exam 1 notes
History of Holocaust: Exam 1 notes History 261
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History of the Holocaust Lecture 1: Germans and Jews – Assimilation and Antisemitism - What did it mean to be a German Jew before 1933? o German Jews were relatively integrated into the society around them Medieval Period - Jews numbers growing in areas around the Rhine River o Had a clear legal status o Laws defined rights and obligations they had and did not have • Social, practical boundaries • Contributed to cohesiveness of Jewish community ▪ Corporate Society • When society was made of different groups defined by law • Ex. Nobles, Jews, Peasants, Kings, etc. Jewish law o Where they can live o What they can and cant not do ▪ How to earn a living ▪ Taxes only Jews pay ▪ Govern themselves according to faith o State was MOST concerned with Jews paying taxes ▪ They did not care about how they governed themselves religious, socially, politically, etc. - Specific kinds of clothing would set Jews apart visually o Hat, yellow circle on clothing - Ghettos (Frankfurt am Main) o Judengasse ▪ “Jew Alley” o Gated communities where Jews were forced to live ▪ Could not be in any other part of the city th th - Persecution (13 16 centuries) o Usually at moments of social and economic upheaval The Black Death ▪ Christians turned on Jews and blamed them as being the magnets of Gods anger ▪ Jews Burnt at the Stake (drawing) o Expulsion of Jews from Germany and most places in central Europe (14 th century) Jews are a completely separate group than others around them from medieval times until the Holocaust - By the 1600s Jews resettled in German Society o Return in the presence of whoever the Ruler was Germany was not untied o Many kings ruled and all in a different way ▪ Jews received permission to live in some areas and not others Jews were allowed to partake in money lending o But could NOT own land o Could NOT partake in any economic activity that would affect Christians negatively COULD make a living in trade • No laws governing the sale of livestock, old clothes, coffee, tea, etc. • Frequent participants in the buying and selling of goods across vast areas, traveled much distance Friction with Christian Neighbors - Rise of Jewish merchants combined with Jewish money lending o Frankfurt Riots – 1614 ▪ Local guilds were upset with their town governors over small economic matters • Claimed Jews were receiving more opportunities than Christians o Christians pressed money lenders to abolish their debts ▪ Christian population gets so enraged that they ransack the Jewish ghetto in Frankfurt - How did the Jewish community in Germany live in this period? o Over 75% of Jews partake in small trading activity o Peddler ▪ Go door to door selling products ▪ Travel from place to place, buy from local merchants Live on the very edge of destitution • The hope was to turn this into a small shop in the ghetto o About 2% were Jews of the Court ▪ Agents of princes and rulers • Crucial to the economic development in the states that they lived o Use their connections to secure loans for the operation of the state o Have economic expertise that can have great influence ▪ Can become very wealthy and create dynasties o They can influence the princes however can be removed at any time Mayer Amschel Rothschild o Born in Frankfurt ▪ Studied the Talmud, but broke off his studies when his parents died ▪ Got a job with ▪ Returned to Frankfurt to set up a coinage shop ▪ Developed relationships with the prince of pasha o Had 5 sons, continued the family business The Enlightenment o “The Age of Reason” o Skeptical of religious authority o Question everything, follow the principle of utility ▪ If something is good for the population then it is good, not because it is written in the bible 1. Religious toleration is an absolute virtue a. We should say that all religions have some aspects of good and truth b. Toleration begins being theorized 2. Service to the state is a high ideal a. Comes from the Rulers themselves i. King of Prussia – The point of being a king was not to have people serve you, but you yourself as a king is a servant to the state ii. You should use all the resources of the state in the best interest of the state b. Patriotism is being realized i. If a ruler practices good government, he can expect the loyalty of his subjects because of good government 3. Education and Culture (central idea of enlightenment) a. “Bildung” i. The idea that becoming an educated and cultured person also makes you a morally better and virtuous person 1. By appreciating art, literature, 2. YOU BECOME MORE CIVILIZED Jewish Response to Toleration, Service to State, and Education and Culture Moses Mendelssohn o Tried to combine the ideas of enlightenment with traditions of Jewish ▪ Believed the Jewish faith could be modernized and revived o This was essential to improving economic condition of Jews in Germany o Became a consistent advocate for equal rights in the German state ▪ Jews should modernize and engage with others ▪ Society around them should embrace ideas of enlightenment and open up the rights of ultimately citizenship to the Jewish people ▪ This would be possible by meeting on the foreground of the enlightenment Assimilation o Infusing into the society around you 1. Acculturation a. The laws and customs that kept Jews apart might not be rational i. They were at least open to criticism ii. Could be changed, reformed, abolished iii. As laws were abolished, Jews could interact with Christians in new ways b. Jews felt the need to conform to society around them i. Language 1. Switch from Yiddish to German ii. Form of Religious Observance 1. Changes in dress, less strict observance, for some people abandon faith all together c. The New Synagogue in Berlin (1866) i. Built to mirror cathedrals in a way 2. Belief in a Secular State a. The state could be a neutral party that judged between different groups i. All citizens were first and foremost a citizens b. Germans of the Israelite Faith i. Conveys that they are Germans first and Jews second 1. Religious belief is a private matter 3. Faith in Education a. Belief that it is a second religion i. You worship something that is good and beautiful b. If you learn how to appreciate what is beautiful, you become a better person 4. German Jews believe themselves to be members of middle class a. “Bourgeoisie” – proper, respectable, certain professions i. Becomes their identity b. Having come from a middle class home i. Value of hard work ii. Middle class dress iii. Certain habits like having coffee ready when people come visit you at home become tradition c. Having fully integrated into the society around you Anti-Semitic Resistance - Believe they are losing control Emperor Wilhelm II o Prime example of an aristocratic government in Germany o Respect nobility because of tradition not because of achievement ▪ Certain resistance to the changes going on in society around the image of the Jews - Jews were still not allowed to be military officers o Officer core in Germany comes from nobility ▪ Had a sense of themselves as the natural ruling people - By late 1800s o Antisemitism is no longer theological ▪ It becomes a cultural code ▪ A way of talking about social change, complex economic developments, globalization o The Jew becomes a way to discuss all of these ideas - Assimilation is a farce - If you unmask assimilated Jews, you get a real Jews o Very different from Germans o Jews remain fundamentally loyal to themselves ▪ “Global Jewish Conspiracy” • Jews have an international identity, their power spans the globe • Their ultimate goal is world domination Tremendous transformation of Jewish life - (1900) A real sense among German Jews that the last century was nothing but optimism th o Believed the 20 century would be even better New Anti-Semitic Way in Germany - “The only Jew free hotel in Frankfurt” - Assimilation and its Limits o German Jewish Fraternity ▪ Frats tend to be very nationalistic and right wing • Therefore German Jews began their own frats ▪ Structured them very similar to other fraternities • Dress, elections, ▪ This German Jewish frat represents their desire to do what other Germans are doing Lecture 3: Excluding Jews - Inclusion of desirables, Exclusion of undesirables Process of Exclusion (1933) – 525000 Jews living in Germany - Jewish community was visible, and antiSemites claimed they had too much power in Germany even though they were only 1% of the population o Germans knew how to look for them/distinguish them - High rate of intermarriage, business, and social life between Jews and non Jews o Nazi’s accepted there was a Jewish problem and that they would do SOMETHING about it ▪ Had to do with excessive Jewish Power politically, economically, socially, and culturally ▪ The solution is unclear • The Nazis themselves do not know how to solve the problem yet o Mein Kampf ▪ Discusses various aspects of the “Jewish Problem” • Addresses the Jewish enemy - Challenge for Nazis o Have to persuade the German population that the Jews were either to be tolerated or completely exiled ▪ Had an issue early on with earning middle class votes • The Brown shirts do not seem respectable to the bourgeoisie because they are not law abiding citizens • People were not in favor of violence o Pogrom – took place in Russian, mass killings and rampages o First attempts to stir antiSemitic feelings failed Organized Boycott of Jewish Shops o April 1, 1933 ▪ Minister of Propaganda calls for complete boycott of Jewish owned store ▪ Meant to deprive German Jews of their income and break their socioeconomic position • Thought it would teach Germans to not ever buy Jews ▪ PLOT FAILS • Some people simply ignore it • Others go out of their way to buy from Jewish stores • Reflects terribly on Nazis ▪ Nazi rulers believe that there is an international Jewish conspiracy – Jews in America will o Minister declares it successful Law for the Restoration of the Civil Service (1933) o Discriminates directly at German Jews o Illegal for Jews to hold any state jobs ▪ Does not touch the private sector o More Popular because ▪ It is a law therefore it is legal ▪ Creates economic opportunity • Allows those who benefit from it to get jobs, improve their situation o “Restoration” ▪ Nazi language is very specific in that they believed that Jews had too many positions in the state department and were becoming increasingly powerful • In order to restore Germany back to health they needed to cleanse their Civil Service o First law that distinguishes between Germans and Jews ▪ Defines who is Jewish • Who will be discriminated against ▪ State will participate in and enforce discrimination - People see an incentive to support these laws (1935)- Nazi rule basically owns the political arena No opposition whatsoever, Germany has become a one party state - Grassroots Antisemitism (1935-1936) o Organize persecution of Jews in order to gain recognition from the State government ▪ Humiliation at School – “The Jews is our greatest enemy” • Written on the board in a classroom • Do this to attract favorable attention from the Nazi leaders • Advantageous for school officials, could possibly be promoted ▪ Sign at the edge of town – “Jews not wanted here” • Sign not being issued from Berlin • The town could possibly want to show that they are the better Nazis, new ways to show yourself to be loyal ▪ On Bench: “For Aryans only” Racially defining Germany o Nazis want a better definition between Germans and Jews o Nuremberg Laws (1935) Citizenship law: distinguishes between a citizen and a subject • Citizen: German blood, faithful to the Reich • Subjects: Have to obey the law, have no rights Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor: • Outlawed marriage between German and Jews to protect German blood for the continued existence of the German people • Mixing the two will weaken the nation, the blood must remain pure - Needed paperwork to o When you were born in Germany you were registered with a specific religious denomination ▪ To determine the Jews, go back to peoples grandparents • If All four grandparents were registered Jewish then you were Jewish o RELIGION BECOMES RACE *** • People with a mixture of blood were called o Mischling – “Half breed” (negative connotation) ▪ Using these laws Nazis could affect peoples lives very differently - Ancestor Passport o Proof of Racial Ancestry o Forced to present when acting with State officials ▪ Allowed for the state official to know what he could and could not do to you ▪ Could bribe officials if there was a blank spot on their passport o Puts people at the mercy of the Nazi officials Before WW2 only full Jews were seriously racially persecuted - this changes after the war begins (1930s) - Nazis hoped to solve the Jewish problem by o Forcing them to leave ▪ Many believed it would be possible to legalize the theft of Jewish property ▪ If this was done, the Jews would willingly leave • To leave Germany you need an exit visa, to get into a country you need an entry visa • Cost money, and assuming you can buy one based on quota, you then have to show that you will be able to support yourself financially ▪ Nazi regime is so enthuastic about robbing Jews that it frequently leaves Jews with little money to even buy the visas 1936 Attempt from then on to” Aryanize” Jewish property o Aryanization o To destroy Jewish economic standing, deplete their money supplies ▪ Forced to sell business at a fraction of their value, the money that he received was subject to taxation ▪ Applied over time • Eased from small to larger businesses in the private sector • Done in large part to mitigate any disruption in the business climate o Investors see this as advantageous ▪ Buy cheap Jewish businesses and make profits of it Background info Hitler holds a very aggressive foreign policy Annexation of Austria (1938) - 96% of population speaks German - Consider themselves culturally and racially German - US forbade Austria from joining Germany because they did not want to reward Germany after the war in 1918 o Austria is overwhelmed with joy when Nazis take over o Hitler dares the world to do something if he marches on Austria ▪ They did nothing - Austria felt like they were finally part of something bigger, the world was open to them o Hitler speaks to 200,000 people Outbreak of violence against Jews the same night Nazis took over o Spontaneous public humiliation, burglaries, throwing acid on the faces of Jews, ▪ Local people carrying out acts of humiliation against their neighbors having nothing to do with the Nazis • Nazis had just gotten there o This violence impresses the Germans ▪ “The Viennese have succeeded to do in one night what we in the North could not get done” ▪ “We do not need to organize persecution of the Jews, the people themselves start it” • The apprehension of people to persecute Jews that held true in 1933 has drastically changed o Climate of Terror ▪ Viennese flea ▪ Nazis take advantage of the situation • Try new ways of persecution • Adolf Eichlein o Works in the special branch of the SS that works with the Jewish problem o Brought to Vienna to force Jews to emigrate o Within 6 months 45,000 Jews left Austria ▪ Dramatic exodus out of Austria that hadn’t been replicated in Europe Kristallnacht ▪ Meant to indicate the shards of glass on German streets o November 910 1938 o In Paris a Nazi official is assassinated by a Polish Jew ▪ He was very upset because his father was kicked out of Germany but also not allowed in Poland so he was living in a refugee camp and died of pneumonia o Nazis take to this and say that this is a signal and the German people must rise up ▪ Must take part in a systematic destruction of Jewish property o Party members go through the streets of German towns breaking into home, looting and pillaging, killing people, breaking windows, setting fires ▪ Nazis made sure to burn down the synagogues but not to let the fire spread ▪ Burnt the Torah scrolls o The Bystanders ▪ Almost every German had accepted this basic point • This is happening to the Jews no the Germans so it is not happening to “us” therefore it is not good but accepted • These two groups were now completely separate races ▪ Not taking part but not preventing these actions Purifying the Social Body During the 20t century, for many people, race was interchangeable in culture Count Arthur de Gobineau (1816-1882) - Tried to theorize race ▪ Idea of a ruling race and inferior race ▪ Hierarchy of races o Developed the theory of the Aryan Master Race o Basic idea: Race determines culture ▪ When civilizations are rising or strong they are flourishing because the racial foundation is strong ▪ When it declines it is because of the mixing of races or the mixing of upper and lower races o Racial mixing is a sign of weakness o If you know the purity of a race you could determine its rise and fall Charles Darwin (1809-1882) - He is a liberal, very against slavery - The Theory of Evolution o Survival of the Fittest ▪ Works by natural selection, certain favorable traits survive, adapt or die ▪ Applies ideas to human development - Discuses ideas that could draw a link between him and Gobineau o What if you apply this theory to human society? o Social Darwinism ▪ Society is an organism • People began saying then we should think of nations as organisms • Nations live in a survival of the fittest world similar to animals ▪ What happens to society in a rapidly evolving world • Societies evolve in a positive or negative direction ▪ People are influenced by this idea o New fields of study were invented because of this idea ▪ Ex. Criminology What makes a society strong? What makes a society degenerate? Implications of Social Darwinism - Eugenics o The science of managing the transfer of genetic of material from one generation to another, you could shape the course of civilization ▪ Positive: if you can determine the desirable traits in society, you could try to give incentives to the people with those traits to mate with one another to ensure those traits will be passed down • Ex. Excellent prenatal/postnatal care for a woman ▪ Negative: Isolate undesirable traits in society, and attempt to prevent these traits from being past on • Ex. Congenital/physical defects, mental disabilities • Ex. Sterilizing men and women, euthanasia state controlled massacre of undesirables o Ways in which the ways the “unfit” can be prevented from passing their traits on Mein Kampf Lebensraum o Living space, the geographical space o Military conquests of Germany “The Nazi State: Race and Space” o The foreign policy of “volkisch” or a state that is for a particular race ▪ Sole ▪ Purpose of a state is to secure the existence of the race • NOT the rights of an individual ▪ Strength of a nation depends on • The health of the people who make up that race • Its population size – a healthy society is a growing society “Nazi Germany: A Racial State” o People need to be inspired by the “racial idea” ▪ Wants people to think about the purity of their blood The ideal Aryan Family Volksgemeinschaft o The family was the foundation of the nationalracial community ▪ Appearance • White, Fairskinned, blonde hair ▪ Many Children ▪ The mother and father have very clear roles • Husband is the bread winner • Mother breast feeding child, expresses every maternal image - “Germany grows through strong mothers and healthy children” o Central idea of the Nazi party in building the Aryan race Rewarding Motherhood - If you were a mother of five or more children o You received a medal of a cross Goebbels Family - The model family of Germany during the 1930s o Had 5 children o Magda the mother, killed her children in May 1945 Policies towards the threats to Racial Healthy The Roma (gypsies) o Trans natural people, have no homeland o Tend to live in more eastern Europe, tend to be migrants ▪ Organized in large kinship clans o Traditionally speak Romany (form of Indian) o Live on the margins of society and subsistence ▪ VERY poor, sell goods, beg, and steal o Nazis begin regulating these people ▪ Officials go out and survey where they are moving, living, and what they are doing ▪ During WWII there was an effort was made to eliminate this racial threat • Deported many to Poland for slave labor, gassed many to death ▪ Porajmos – Roma Holocaust Homosexuals o Illegal since 1871 in German ▪ After WWI flourishing gay subculture o 1920s in Berlin ▪ First research institute for sexual science and try and understand it without being prejudice o Nazis immediately shut down all social gay places o Heinrich Himmler ▪ Gay problem is a “question of national security” ▪ Sex you have with other people affects national security and therefore the state has a right to regulate who you have sex with • Job of the state to create a healthy and growing population • Must have offspring to be strong • Men and Women who are not heterosexual are useless and are suspect and must be punished accordingly o Morally wrong ▪ Nazis also say it’s a state security problem o ONCE NAZIS ARE IN POWER ▪ Prosecutions increase rapidly ▪ Imprisonment, marked with a pink triangle, sent to concentration camps ▪ Subjected to physical experiments • Injection with testosterone, castration The Disabled o Physical and mental o Laws to prevent pollution of the race ▪ Nuremberg Law • Forbade sexual relations between Aryans and Jews ▪ (1933) Made compulsory sterilization legal • If you had hereditary diseases • 300,000 people ▪ Marriage health law • Required hereditary health tests before receiving a marriage license • Could ban marriages if you had diseases o “Life unworthy of life” ▪ Nazis embraced this idea • Want to contemplate of euthanasia on a massive scale to guarantee racial purity ▪ Cost benefit analysis of the handicapped • Asks people to think about the value of a human life • Is a mentally disabled person worth 60,000 rm a year ▪ Gave children word problems in school • “Calculate the value of the disabled” o State sponsored euthanasia ▪ State has the final decision about your life • Has ultimate power to kill you ▪ (1938) Children with disabilities • A man has a problem with a child with severe physical deformities and wants the child killed, asks the state to help him • Hitler reads this letter, sends his personal physician to approve this and expand euthanasia ▪ Begin killing children with disabilities – TOP SECRET • MODEL for killing adults with • Secrecy o Concern about a public out cry o Number of people involved was kept as small as possible o Deeds carried out at the Chancellery o No laws, announcements made o Set up a front for it ▪ Set up a fake research organization • Who was involved o Could you get doctors to do this? o Doctors chosen based on personal connections or ideological beliefs ▪ Given the chance to say no but most did not because this would be a huge career boost and it was top secret ▪ Procedure • Registration cards sent into Berlin • Panel reads cards and determine life or death • Children removed from wards and put into the fake front o Doctors would then write letters to the parents and inform them that their child died • 5,000 children murdered this way ▪ Precursor to the murder of adults o T-4 Project ▪ Hitler orders the killing of disabled adults ▪ First time their was concern by the doctors • Fear prosecution in the future • Hitler refuses to publish a law ▪ Hitler issues a paper • Not a law or order, Has a fake date on it • Dated to the state of WWII o When Germany invaded Poland (1939) • Prepared on personal stationary • Never published ▪ Patients removed to killing sites • Techniques to kill will be implemented later on in concentration camps • Idea of Killing centers ▪ Concern that the killing be humane • Has to be a way that was believed to be humane • GASSING = most humane way to kill o Built shower rooms in an attempt to lull the idea of death ▪ An attempt to make these mass killings look normal to the outside world • Public outcry emerged in 1940 • Led by Bishop Clemens August Graf con Galen (1878 1946) o Spoke out forcefully against forced sterilization and euthanasia policies • Nazi regime put a halt to it because of public outrage Pursuing Enemies – The SS and the Security State Who is the SS? - Not every Nazi member is a part of the SS - Have identifiable look o Black leather uniform - Reputations o Were obsessed with ancient Germanic peoples, and finding lost city of Atlantis – they were very crazy, fanatics - Wewelsburg Castle o Himmler wanted it to be the center for the “SS cult” ▪ Most sacred rituals would be preformed o A center for German Paganism - Characterized as the most brutal o Josef Mengele ▪ Joined SS in 1933 • Promoted through ranks became captain in 1943 ▪ Became Auschwitz camp doctor • “The Angel of Death” • Infamous for brutal human experiments and being one of the officials who appeared on the ramp o Divided people into who would live and work or die o Interested in the pigmentation of the eyes and collected eye balls ▪ Served as a symbol of o Adolf Eichmann ▪ The “Banality of evil” • Joined the SS and became a lieutenant colonel o In charge of transportation of the final solution o Coordinated train routes to bring Jews to the death camps in Poland ▪ Headed the subdepartment of RSHA in charge of Jewish affairs and evacuation ▪ “Desk murderer” – efficient bureaucrats • Never physically killed any one or was stationed • Responsible for the machinery that brought people to be murdered Heinrich Himmler - Reichsfuhrer SS (1929) o The second in command next to Hitler o Reich leader of the SS - Interested in history of the cult, difficulty dealing with people socially o HOWEVER, completely efficient bureaucrat - He mad the SS into what it became at the end of WWII o It originally began as a political guard of the Nazis and didn’t really do anything - Wanted the SS to stand out and look a certain way o Begins this in 1929 o Gives men striking black uniforms with profound insignia ▪ Deaths head symbol etc. o At the formal moment of initiation ▪ SS members signs the oath of loyalty to Hitler ▪ Deaths head ring: Himmler gave these as gifts - Made SS applicants prove their racial Aryan heritage for centuries before acceptance o Had to be extensively documented for several generations o Supposed to be the racially purest of the pure ▪ Importance of the SS to be the superior Aryan purity ▪ SS weddings • To marry an SS women had to be the same kind of Aryan • Cult of Racially purity - Established themselves as Experts in Racial Purity o Lebensborn Home ▪ To assist Aryan mothers in providing homes and care for single pregnant women ▪ Wanted to ensure that no Aryan child would be aborted ▪ Grew in 1939 when Germany invaded Poland • SS was interested in whether or not there were children who were losing their “Germanness” o If they were in a mixed home of Poland and German • Basically a program of kidnapping o Taken from their biological parents and given to adopted parents in a racially pure setting - German Paganism o Wanted to do away with Christianity ▪ Install different euoll ceremonies o Himmler was obsessed with finding origins of Aryan people ▪ Sent people to try and find Atlantis o Cosmic Ice Theory ▪ The universe is controlled by forces of ice • Ice was fundamental force that shapes the cosmos Nazi Police forces - The Gestapo (the secret state police) o The group that enforces laws ▪ Perception that they had spies everywhere • Knew what you were doing at all times ▪ However they did not actually have that many people • They really worked off denudations o Waited for your neighbor to turn you in - The Security Service (SD) o The SS men involved in a security division - The Reich Security Main Office o All aspects of the police in one place o Created in 1939 to combat al enemies of the Reich inside and outside Germany o Himmler is in charge of this - SS as a whole works outside the law o Heinrich Himmler: The purpose of the police ▪ If your security police exists to protect the good of the racial nation then there should be no restrictions placed on their actions SS was authorized by 2 things: Enabling act (1933) o Passed after the Reichstag o Hitler and Nazis given special powers ▪ The police got extraordinary powers to restore and maintain security ▪ There was no time limit on this law Fuhrer Order o Order from the leader o Concept in Nazi law ▪ Taught this idea in German law schools o There is no law more powerful than the Fuhrer order ▪ Carried the weight of written law ▪ If Hitler approved a law or liked a law that idea immediately became policy • Chain of Verbal Command o A series of verbal suggestions that become policy on the ground o Interpreted and passed on through the ranks of command ▪ No direct order needed to begin action ▪ No written ordinance needed Men in SS are not supposed to be apolitical o They are supposed to be specially selected to view problems in an ideological context o Not about facts, its about one world view and every problem is viewed through that lens ▪ They review ideological problems not legal problems Reinhard Heydrich - Second in command to Himmler in the SS - Real and Potential Enemies o By 1934 all political opponents no longer exist ▪ They have either been killed, fled Germany, or are so frightened they have joined the Nazis 1933 and 1934 o Most people in Nazi party believed that our opponents have disappeared ▪ Heydrich says that you may have gotten rid of the real enemies but there is still potential enemies • Yes they got rid of communism but they did not get rid of the idea of communism o SS believes the Jewish spirit is behind it o Believed for Germany to be permanently secure ▪ Complete absence of a threat ▪ Must get rid of those parties that are threats but also the forces behind those parties ▪ Must get rid of potential threats in the future - Enemies of the Organic Folk o Racial Nation is an Organic folk ▪ The police is not defending individuals freedom but rather the total body of people • Thinking of Germany literally as a body o Treat the enemies as an infection to the body o To fight infection you must eliminate existence of the disease o PERMANENT SECURITY ▪ Eliminating the existence of a disease Otto Ohlendorf - Early 30s when WW2 starts o Studied economics and law o 1925 became an early Nazi member ▪ Embraced the party early on – is a real believer o 1926 member of the SS ▪ Began working in research institutes ▪ Planned economic future of Germany after the war ▪ Committed to the cause • Believes in power of entrepreneurship o 1931 beginning of war ▪ In charge of security squad • “Einsatzgruppe” or special squads • Leads it through a series of massacres, directly responsible for 90,000 deaths o Had the mission to protect the rear of the troops by killing the Jews, Romani, Communists, Slavs and all persons who would endanger security o Put on trial and still believed that he was right in what he did Marin Sandberger - Early 30s when WW2 starts o Studies law, son of chemical director of a large company - 1936 became SS officer o Became very successful after initiation by making a lot of contacts very quickly o Help him become an assistant judge and prominent political officials - During the war leads a security squads o Directly responsible for massacre - Put on trial after war o Knew people and they were able to lobby for him so that he did not die and instead spent years in prison o Died in 2010 Final Points - You joined the SS because you believed in the cause AND become a part of an elite force that would forward your career o SS were the people that ran things - SS is full of young, ambitious men o Want to be the force behind the new German society ▪ You had to embrace the Nazi ideas AND be very smart - SS cult o Active, decisive leadership ▪ If you were in the SS you had the training and perspective to make decisions on the spot - SS carefully selected/vetted: o Combine a proper ideological and professional approach ▪ Murderous “Objectivity” • By Himmler (1943) • Means by using the word decent that you have carried out your duties not in a crazed frenzy, but in a calm, cold, objective manner o You have see your target, recognized the threat, and took steps to eliminate it FUNDAMENTALLY IMPORTANT - That SS members were selected in this way because they were the members who carried out the policies of Hitler The Emergence of the Final Solution I How war and genocide go together September 1, 1939 – Germany conquers 2/3 of Poland territory, WWII begins - Warsaw ghetto o October 1940 ▪ Walled off area were Jews were kept ▪ Border crossing that was manned by Police • No one was allowed in or out without paperwork o All the Jews in the city were ordered to pack a small amount of belongings and move from their homes into the ghettos ▪ 470,000 Jews at one point in a 1.3 square mile area ▪ NO exceptions – had to move there • 83,000 Jews died from disease and hunger o Opened ghettos to German businesses ▪ So the ghettos became filled with starving people and German shops ▪ Germans were ready to capitalize on this opportunity o Disease was contracted easily ▪ Typhus carried by lice Why did the Germans create a ghetto? - Why quarantine people in a space when there is no hope for survival and at the same time try and use those people for labor? Causes for creation of Ghettos - Illogical Policy of Emigration o Deprived Jews of financial resources which made it IMPOSSIBLE to emigrate ▪ At the same time pressure them to leave with violence ▪ Kristallnacht - Cultural o Poland is east of Germany and to Germans the east has many important meanings attached to it ▪ Thought of as the land of possibility • Similar to the idea of American Wild West o East is a symbol of expansion and settlement ▪ Going back to the middle ages, Germans went east to find economic opportunities o Teutonic Knights ▪ Christian crusaders ▪ Many German nationalists looked back on this to justify the idea of dominating eastern Europe, that it was just another chapter in the book • History of playing a role in the east o Germans believed they brought culture to the East who were uncultured ▪ There was a civilizing mission that Germans believed they had World War I o Idea that Germany had lost because it made many mistakes ▪ Huge discussion of what went wrong • Decided that the German population was too small o Bigger army = victory o More people would give Germany a bigger world presence and would have a bigger voice • Germany did not have enough food o British installed a blockade and starved Germany into defeat ▪ Germany somehow has to be selfsufficient • This will happen if it has more territory so it can draw on those materials in time of need - Poland and Ukraine become the area designated for colonial expansion o The “Lebensraum” or living space - Strategists look at Eastern European economy for Germans to settle o Already people living in these areas o Expansion means many different things ▪ Idea that it will be a settlement area for Germans • Expansion of Germany means that the German speaking people around Europe will be able to come home and resettle • They would add to the population, bring ethnic Germans back • Create an expanding German culture as the empire expands east o Resettlement Action ▪ German Speaking peoples will be uprooted and sent to western Poland to live indefinitely • This was not a choice • Moved people from Russia & Romania ▪ Lebensraum meant increasing German population o NON GERMANS ▪ 32 million people • Only 2% of population was German • Majority were Roman Catholic Polish ▪ Poland becomes lab for RATIAL ENGINEERING • Will strategically assess how useful individuals are • Occupation that will allow Germans to transform the society ▪ Heinrich Himmler is in charge of racial engineering • Racial sifting: o Evaluating every community, rank their worth as individuals o Split them into fragments and part to break communities down ▪ Involves getting rid of resistance ▪ The poles are made into a strictly source of labor • Not educated past the 4 grade Emergence of the Final solution o It was a process – no plans were made in the beginning to set up death camps - Massive campaign to round up community leaders and imprison them in concentration camps o Many executed o Having gotten rid of these leaders, the Poles would be so without guidance that they would be easy to control with no threat of resistance - Poles were expelled from their villages o Land given to resettled Germans - Public Polish executions (1942) o To intimidate people to abandon hope of resistance The Final Solution - At times principles were very contradictory - Guiding Principles o Jews had to be punished for the “crimes” they committed against Germany o Jews were racial security problem ▪ Real and Potential threats o Jews must be removed from territory under German control o Jews could be a source of slave labor Occupation of Poland - German forces begin to terrorize the Jews o ALL army units assaulted, robbed, killed, and humiliated Jews without any due process o A wave of theft of Jewish property ▪ Classify the population by the principles in the Nuremberg laws ▪ Organize boycotts of business ▪ Impose taxes on the Jews ▪ Seize Jewish property • In months 75% of Jewish property had been liquidated o Humiliation ▪ Polish Jews blamed for causing the war o Degradation: ▪ Germans had a fascination with the beards of Jewish men • Cutting the beard has symbolism o Attacking “The Jew” – the abstract face of the Jewish enemy - Nazis have spread the idea of the “Face of the Jewish enemy” o Face of the Jew: Orthodox Jewish man, full beard - Plans to get rid of jews o Plans to resettle them in reservations ▪ Similar to those of the Native Americans in the US ▪ Abandon this plan but it was serious o Idea to send Jews to Madagascar ▪ Himmler believed that this was a feasible idea • Abandoned eventually because the seas were still controlled by Britain o “Deportation to the East” ▪ The overall long term solution ▪ Best solution would be deporting Jews somewhere in the East • Sending them would be possible after Germany achieved some sort of major victory - Short Term Solution o Jews would be contained into walled off areas within cities known as ghettos ▪ Nazi historians were fascinated by the medieval ghettos ▪ The idea of putting Jews back in ghettos would be the ideal solution o Conditions inside the ghettos ▪ Disease – described ghettos in terms of racial hygiene • Nazi planners believed Jews were polluters and health less people o Idea that Jews in eastern Europe are dirtier and poorer • In order to achieve security Jews of Poland had to be set apart from Aryan society and kept from spreading disease • Ghettos became self fulfilling prophecies – by pursuing unsanitary conditions o Jews began contracting disease because they did not have the right sanitation o Leads Nazis to believe that they were right in setting up the quarantine because they Jews were contracting Cholera and Typhus ▪ Ghettos understood as a temporary holding place for Jews o Sewing Uniforms: a ghetto workshop ▪ Picture was used for propaganda to show that conditions were not that bad • Was completely inaccurate - Officials saw a short term possibility o If ghettos could remain stable, Jews could work in the war economy and be paid a small amount in ghetto currency to buy themselves some kind of food to continue to work - End result of this policy o See ghettos as completely unsatisfactory solution to the Jewish question ▪ Completely temporary o Hundreds of thousands die of disease ▪ 1 million people o The potential to do work held out this cruel hope to those who were in the ghettos ▪ They believed that by working there was a chance to stay alive Emergence of the Final Solution II - Ukrainian boy lived in 1941 in a town that had 60,000 people o Half were jewish, other half were polish and Ukrainian ▪ This area of land had a tumultuous political history o Germans captured this town 6 days after they invaded Russian o November 7 and 8 1941h ▪ 23,000 Jews were taken into a pine forest and forced into a marching rank to a clearing • Forced to undress and then were shot • So many people that it took 2 days ▪ This little boy at 6 years old watched all these events o Describes the “earth moving” ▪ People were thrown in to the pit alive and as they were trying to get out the earth was said to be moving - Explains how people were killed that were by no means partisans o It was women, children, elderly, etc. Invasion of Soviet Union - Sparked the emergence of the final solution as we know it today Nazi-Soviet Division of Poland - Germany and Russia sign non aggression pact o Hitler still thinks about the possibility of invading German assumptions about war with Soviets – June 1941 - Will be very different than invasion of France or Scandinavian invasions ▪ Those were much more conventional • Invasion of France was a war where you invade a country with a history you can respect o Will be a war
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