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psy exam

by: Hawa Sheriff

psy exam PSYC 201

Hawa Sheriff
U of L
GPA 3.3467

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About this Document

important concept and ideas from chapter 1 and 6
Intro to Psychology
Dr. Edna Ross, James Edlin, Paul DeMarco
Study Guide
Intro to Psychology
50 ?




Popular in Intro to Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hawa Sheriff on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 201 at University of Louisville taught by Dr. Edna Ross, James Edlin, Paul DeMarco in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Louisville.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
KEY CONCEPTS CHAPTER 1  confounding When the independent variable of interest systematically covaries with a second,  unintended independent variable. (27) control A key component of the scientific method whereby the effect of various factors possibly  responsible for a phenomenon are isolated; three basic types of control are manipulation,  holding conditions constant, and balancing. (9) correlation A correlation exists when two different measures of the same people, events, or  things vary together; the presence of a correlation makes it possible to predict values on one  variable by knowing the values on the second variable. (24) dependent variable Measure of behavior used by the researcher to assess the effect (if any) of the independent variables. (10) empirical approach An approach to acquiring knowledge that emphasizes direct observation  and experimentation as a way of answering questions. (7) external validity The extent to which the results of a research study can be generalized to  different populations, settings, and conditions. (27) hypothesis A tentative explanation for a phenomenon. (17) independent variable A factor for which the researcher either selects or manipulates at least  two levels in order to determine its effect on behavior. (9) individual differences variable A characteristic or trait that varies consistently across  individuals (e.g., age, depression, gender, intelligence); individual difference variables (subject  variables) are often studied as independent variables in the natural groups design. Thus, these  variables are sometimes called natural groups variables. (10) internal validity The degree to which differences in performance can be attributed  unambiguously to an effect of an independent variable, as opposed to an effect of some other  (uncontrolled) variable; an internally valid study is free of confounds. (27) operational definition A procedure whereby a concept is defined solely in terms of the  operations used to produce and measure it. (13) reliability A measure is reliable when it is consistent. (16) these events; scientific theories guide research and organize empirical knowledge. (30) validity The "truthfulness" of a measure; a valid measure is one that measures what it claims to measure. (15) Psychology as a Science (3) ● The scope of scientific psychology has increased dramatically in the 100­plus years since its  inception. ● The American Psychological Association (APA) and the American Psychological Society (APS)  promote the science of psychology. The Scientific Method (5) ● Psychologists use the scientific method to gain knowledge about human and animal behavior. ● The scientific method differs from nonscientific ("everyday") approaches to gaining knowledge. Scientific and Nonscientific Approaches to Knowledge (5) ● The scientific method is empirical and requires systematic, controlled observation. ● To achieve control in a research situation, researchers manipulate independent variables or  select levels of individual differences variables to determine their effect on behavior. ● Dependent variables are measures of behavior used to assess the effects of independent  variables. ● Scientific reporting is unbiased and objective; clear communication of concepts occurs when  operational definitions are used. ● Scientific instruments are accurate and precise; physical and psychological measurement  should be valid and reliable. ● A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for a phenomenon; testable hypotheses have clearly  defined concepts (operational definitions), are not circular, and refer to concepts that can be  observed. ● Scientists adopt a skeptical attitude and are cautious about accepting explanations until  sufficient empirical evidence is obtained. Goals of the Scientific Method (20) ● The scientific method is intended to meet three goals: description, prediction, and  understanding. ● Psychologists seek to describe events and relationships between variables; most often,  researchers use the nomothetic approach and quantitative analysis. ● Correlational relationships allow psychologists to predict behavior or events, but do not allow  psychologists to infer what causes these relationships. ● Psychologists understand the cause of a phenomenon when the three conditions for causal  inferences are met: covariation, time­order relationship, and elimination of plausible alternative  causes. ● The experimental method, in which researchers manipulate independent variables to determine  their effect on dependent variables, establishes time­order and allows for a clearer  determination of covariation. ● Plausible alternative causes for a relationship are eliminated if there are no confoundings in a  study; a study free of confoundings has internal validity. ● External validity refers to the extent to which a study's findings may be used to describe  different populations, settings, and conditions. Scientific Theory Construction and Testing (28) ● Theories, proposed explanations for the causes of behavior, vary in their scope and their level  of explanation. ● A scientific theory is a logically organized set of propositions that defines events, describes  relationships among events, and explains the occurrence of events. ● Successful scientific theories organize empirical knowledge, guide research by offering testable  hypotheses, and survive rigorous testing. ● Theories frequently posit intervening variables to explain observed behavior. ● Researchers evaluate theories by judging the theory's internal consistency, observing whether  hypothesized outcomes occur when the theory is tested, and noting whether the theory makes  precise predictions based on parsimonious explanations. Scientific Integrity (32) ● Psychologists are obligated to conduct research of the highest integrity. ● The American Psychological Association (APA) has adopted a code of ethics to guide the  professional behavior of psychologists. 1. Definitions of Terms 1. Unconscious mind 1. a part of our mind over which we do not have conscious control 2. determines, in part, how we think and behave 2. Repression 1. the pushing down into the unconscious the events and feelings that our conscious mind can’t  handle Behaviorism 1. 1920s­1960s 1. Dominant school of thought 2. John Watson (1878­1958) 1. Studied Pavlov 2. For psychology to be a science, it must limit itself to observable phenomena 3. Behaviorist 3. Principles 1. Psychologists should look only at behavior and the causes of it 1. stimuli (environmental events) 2. responses (physical reactions) 3. NOT consciousness 4. B.F. Skinner (1904­1990) 1. Expanded behaviorism to include reinforcement 2. Reinforcement 1. environmental stimuli that either encourage or discourage certain responses Humanist Perspective 1. Principles 1. Stressed individual choice and free will 2. We choose most of our behaviors 1. these choices are guided by psychological, emotional, and spiritual needs 3. The theories are not easily tested by the scientific method 2. Figures 1. Abraham Maslow (1908­1970) 2. Carl Rogers (1902­1987) 3. Deterministic Behaviorists 1. Contrast with humanists 2. All behaviors are caused by past conditioning Psychoanalytic Perspective 1. Characteristics 1. Holds all of Freud’s beliefs 2. Very controversial Biopsychology (Neuroscience) Perspective 1. Principles 1. Explain human thought and behavior strictly in terms of biological processes 2. Human cognition and reactions 1. caused by genes, hormones, neurotransmitters Evolutionary (Darwanian) Perspective 1. Principles 1. Examine human thoughts and actions in terms of natural selection 1. traits that benefit survival get passed on 2. “Socialbiology” Behavioral Perspective 1. Principles 1. Explain human thought and behavior in terms of conditioning 2. Look strictly at observable behaviors and what reactions organisms get in response to them Cognitive Perspective 1. Principles 1. Examine human thought and behavior in terms of how we interpret, process, and remember  environmental events 2. The rules that we use to view the world are important to understanding why we think and  behave the way we do Social­Cultural (Sociocultural) Perspective 1. Principles 1. Look at how our thought and behaviors vary from people living in other cultures 2. Emphasize the influence culture has on the way we think and act Eclectic Perspective 1. Principles 1. Claims that no one perspective has all the answers to the variety of human thought and  behavior 2. Each perspective has valid explanation Observe and Theorize Observe a phenomenon and theorize, or develops a hunch, about what caused the  phenomenon. (Page 4) Theory "General principle or set of principles processed to explain how a number of separate facts are  related." (Page 4) Apply Results to the Hypothesis Given the results the researcher must replicate the study to ensure it is not a one time only  phenomenon. (Page 4) Replication "Process of repeating a study with different participants and preferably a different investigator to verify research findings." (Page 5) Basic Research "Seek new knowledge and to explore and advance general scientific understanding. Topics:  memory, brain function, motivation, and emotional expression." The Goals of Psychology Describe, Explain, Predict, and Influence Behavior and Mental Processes. (Page 5) Describe "Descriptions tell what occurred" (Page 5) Explain "Explanations tell why a given event or behavior occurred" (Page 5) Predict "When researches can specify the conditions under which a behavior or event is likely to occur." (Page 5) Influence "Being able to apply a principle or change a condition in order to prevent unwanted occurrences or bring about desired outcomes." (Page 5) Basic Research "Seek new knowledge and to explore and advance general scientific understanding. Topics:  memory, brain function, motivation, and emotional expression." (Page 6) Applied Research "Conducted specifically for the purpose of solving practical problems and improving the quality  of life. Topics: improve memory, increase motivation, therapies to treat psychological disorders,  ways to decrease stress, etc." (Page 6) Humanistic Psychology "Focused on the uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth, and  psychological health." (Page 10)/ Information Processing Theory "The brain interprets information rather than responding to it." "The brain processes information in sequential steps, in much the same way as a computer  does serial processing, that is one step at a time." "Many contemporary researchers are examining parallel processing, the management of  multiple bits of information at once, a type of processing that is commonly used in computers  today." (Page 11) Evolutionary Psychology "Focusses on how the human behaviors required for survival have adapted in the face of  environmental pressures over the long course of evolution." (Page 12) Founders of Psychology Earnest Weber, Gustav Fechner, Hermann con Helmholtz (Page 6) Father of Psychology (Structuralism) Wilhelm Wundt (Page 6) Charles Darwin (1809­1882) (Functionalism) "Increased the interest in animals in psychological experiments. Father of  evolution." (Page 7) William James (1842­1910) (Functionalism) First american psychologist: Functionalism: "mental processes are fluid and  have continuity rather than the rigid, or fixed, structure that structuralists suggested." (Page 7) Christine Ladd­Franklin (1847­1930) First women to gain a psychology degree. "Formulated an evolutionary theory of color vision."  (Page 8) Margaret Floy Washburn (1871­1939) Wrote several books and taught at Vassar College. (Page 8) Mary Whiton Calkins (1863­1930) "Established a psychology lab at Wellesley college and developed the paired association test,  important to memory. The first female president of the psychology association." (Page 8) Francis Cecil Summer (1895­1954) "First African american to earn a degree in psychology" (Page 8) Albert Sidney Beckham (1897­1964) Studied how intelligence is related to success in many occupational fields and created the first  psychology lab in an African american college. (Page 8) Kenneth Clark (1914­2005) "Nationally recognized for his writings on harmful effects of racial segregation" (Page 8) George Sãnchez (1906­1972) "Conducted studies on bias in intelligence tested during the 1930's" (Page 8) John B. Watson (1878­1958) Founded the ideas of Behaviorism. "Study of behavior because it is measure able and  observable and, therefore, objects and scientific." (Page 9) B.F. Skinner (1904­1990) (Behaviorism) "Operant conditioning emphasized the importance of reinforcement in learning as well as in shaping and maintaining behavior." And "any behavior that is reinforced (followed by  pleasant or rewarding consequences) is more likely to be performed again." (Page 9) Sigmund Freud (1856­1939) (Behaviorism) Theory involving psychoanalysis: "individuals do not consciously control their  thoughts, feelings, and behavior; these are instead determined by unconscious forces" ie­  Freudian Slip (Page 10) Humanistic Psychology "Focused on the uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth, and  psychological health." (Page 10)/ Abraham Maslow (1908­1970) (Humanistic) "Maslow proposed a theory of motivation that consists of hierarchy needs." 1st­ Psychological needs : water, food, air, clothing, shelter 2nd­ Safety needs : personal safety, financial safety, health and well being, safety net against  accidents 3rd­ Love and Belonging needs : friendship, intimacy, family 4th­ Esteem : self­esteem, self­respect 5th­ Self­actualization : desire to be everything that one can be, and to become all one could be. (Page 10) Carl Rogers (1902­1987) (Humanistic) "Developed person­centered therapy, an approach in which the client, or patient,  directs a discussion focused on his or her own view of a problem rather than on the therapists  analysis." (Page 10) Cognitive Psychology "Views humans not as passive recipients who are pushed and pulled by the environmental  forces, but as active participants who seek out experiences, who alter and shape those  experiences, and who use mental processes to transform information in the course of their own  cognitive development." (Page 10) Gestalt Psychology "Emphasized that individuals perceive objects and patterns as whole units and that the  perceived whole is more than the sum of its part." "People perceive wholes or patterns rather  than collections of separate sensations" (Page 11) Information Processing Theory "The brain interprets information rather than responding to it." "The brain processes information in sequential steps, in much the same way as a computer  does serial processing, that is one step at a time." "Many contemporary researchers are examining parallel processing, the management of  multiple bits of information at once, a type of processing that is commonly used in computers  today." (Page 11) Evolutionary Psychology "Focusses on how the human behaviors required for survival have adapted in the face of  environmental pressures over the long course of evolution." (Page 12) Biological Psychology (Physiological Psychology) "Focuses on universals, traits that exist in every member of a species." ie: language is a human universal trait "Looks for the links between specific behaviors and equally specific biological processes that  often help explain individual differences." (Page 12) Neuroscience "An interdisciplinary field that combines the work of psychologist, biologists, biochemists,  medical researchers, and others in the study of the structure and function of the nervous  system." (Page 12) Sociocultural Approach "Emphasizes social and cultural influences on human behavior and stresses the importance of  understanding those influences when interpreting the behavior of others." (Page 13) Psychological Perspectives "General points of view used for explaining peoples behavior and thinking, wheat her normal or  abnormal." (Page 14) Psychology Perspectives Behavioral­ environmental factors Psychoanalysis­ emotions, unconscious motivations, early childhood experiences Humanistic­ subjective experiences, intrinsic motivation to achieve self­actualization Cognitive­ mental processes Evolutionary­ inherited traits that enhances adaptability Biological­ biological structure, processes, heredity Sociocultural­ social and cultural variables (Page 14) Heuristic Values "Stimulates debate among psychologists and motives both proponents and opponents of the  theory to pursue research related to it." (Page 16) Critical Thinking "The process of objectively evaluating claims, propositions, and conclusions to determine  whether they follow logically from the evidence presented. Independent Thinking ­ when thinking critically, we so not automatically accept and believe what we read or hear. Suspension of Judgement ­ critical thinking requires gathering relevant and up­to­date  information on all sides of an issue before taking a position Willingness to Modify or Abandon Prior Judgement Critical thinking involves evaluating new  evidence, even when it contradicts preexisting beliefs." (Page 16) Pseudoscience "Distortion of theories and/or research for the purpose of supporting some kind of claim." (Page  17) Descriptive Research Methods "Research methods that yield descriptive behavior" (Page 18) Naturalistic Observation "A descriptive research method in which researchers observe and record behavior in its natural  setting, without attempting to influence or control it" (Page 18) Laboratory Observation "A descriptive research method in which behavior is studied in a laboratory setting, where  researchers can exert more control and use more precise equipment to measure responses."  (Page 18) Case Study "A descriptive research method in which a single person or a small number of individuals are  studied in great depth, usually over an extended period of time." (Page 18) Survey "A descriptive research method in which researchers use interviews and / or questionnaires to  gather information about the attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors of a group of people."  (Page 19) Population "The entire group of interest to researchers, to which they wish to generalize their findings; the  group from which a sample is selected." (Page 19) Sample "A part of a population that is studied in order to reach conclusions about the entire population."  (Page 19)


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