Lab 1 Answers and Studyguide
Lab 1 Answers and Studyguide SCI 1101
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by nako.nako.nako on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SCI 1101 at Kennesaw State University taught by Professor Kay Abikoye in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
- Meteorite: any extraterrestrial object, regardless of its size or composition, which is large enough to strike Earth’s surface and to make a crater. - Impact crater: formed when a meteorite (asteroid or comet) crashes into a larger planetary body that has a solid surface, such as the Earth Ex) surface of the moon, 160 impact craters on earth’s surface, Barringer Crater in Arizona - Catastrophic impacts of meteorite earthquakes global wildfires (caused by biomass near the impact site ignites) tsunamis great quantities of smoke, dust, and gases in the atmosphere block solar radiation → cooling effect, disrupted photosynthesis → ruining ecosystems and food chains → global darkness and temperature drop - “Shooting star”: most of meteorites are small enough that they burn up in the atmosphere - 5 factors that affect size, shape, and depth of a crater that is formed by the impact of an asteroid with Earth: asteroid diameter density of the asteriod velocity angle at which the asteroid approaches Earth’s surface density of the material that the asteroid strikes at the Earth’s surface - Hypothesis - Hypothesis: “educated guess” a reasonable explanation for an observation Ex) The characteristics of a meteorite affect the impact crater size - Prediction: a statement of what will happen under certain circumstances if the hypothesis is true. (If…then…). Prediction has to change only ONE factor at a time. Ex) Meteorites striking Earth at different velocities will result in impact craters of different diameters. - Variables Independent variables: factor that is INTENTIONALLY MADE DIFFERENT at the beginning of the experiment Ex) velocity (in this experiment, we intentionally changed velocity of meteorite striking the earth to see the relationship between velocity and crater diameter it creates) Dependent variables: variables that is measured to see if changing the independent variable had an effect. Data that is being COLLECTED. Ex) Crater diameter Controlled variables: factors that might affect the dependent variable and that therefore must be CONSISTENT for all cases of the independent variable tested. Ex) projectile trajectory, asteroid density, asteroid diameter, target material density - Measurements 3 Density is measured in kg/ m Amount of energy is measured in Joules 1 Joule = amount of work done by a force of 1 Newton moving an object through a distance of 1 meter. - Graphs Independent variables on xaxis Dependent variables on yaxis - Data Analysis 1. a statement of hypothesis 2. indicates the kind of data that would support the hypothesis (the prediction) 3. cites the relevant data that were collected 4. draws a conclusion as to whether or not the hypothesis was supported - 4 Criteria of experimental design Is there only one independent variable? Is the dependent variable accurately measured? Are all of the other potentially important variables controlled? Is there enough data? Velocity Impact Crater Diameter (meters) 5 km/s 5383m 10 km/s 6970m 15 km/s 8306m 20 km/s 9192m 25 km/s 9954m 30 km/s 10500m 35 km/s 11121m 40 km/s 11689m 45 km/s 12213m 50 km/s 12703m 55 km/s 13162m 60 km/s 13597m Answer these questions for the first experiment examining the relationship between the velocity of the impacting asteroid and the final diameter of the impact crater. 1. What is the independent variable for this experiment? velocity 2. What is the dependent variable for this experiment? Crater diameter 3. List at least four controlled variables for this experiment projectile trajectory, asteroid density, asteroid diameter, target material density Experiment 2: In the second part of the laboratory, you designed your own test of the hypothesis: The characteristics of a meteorite affect the impact crater size. All of the questions on this sheet refer to the experiment you designed. 5. What was your prediction? As trajectory angle increases, a crater diameter will increase. 6. What is the independent variable for your experiment? Trajectory angle 7. What is the dependent variable for your experiment? Crater diameter 8. List at least four controlled variables for your experiment velocity, asteroid density, asteroid diameter, target material density
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