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Bio Study Guide for Midterm 1

by: Leor Clark

Bio Study Guide for Midterm 1 BIOL 1005

Leor Clark
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

These notes cover all the important vocabulary and material from chapters 1 through 3.
General Biology
MV lipscomb
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leor Clark on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1005 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by MV lipscomb in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 335 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 09/04/16
Bio Study Guide for Midterm 1 1. Chapter 1 a. Biology: the study of life b. Virology: study of viruses c. Properties of life: i. Order ii. Sensitivity or response to stimuli iii. Reproduction iv. Adaptation v. Growth and development vi. Regulation d. Homeostasis: steady state e. Molecules: at least 2 atoms held together by chemical bonds f. Macromolecules: large molecules made up of monomers g. Organelles: macromolecules surrounded by membrane h. Cell: smallest unit of structure for life i. Prokaryotes: single-celled organisms j. Eukaryotes: membrane-bound organelles and nuclei i. Tissue: groups of smaller cells performing the same functions ii. Organs: collections of tissues group together by common functions iii. Organ system: functionally related organs iv. Organism: individual living entities v. Population: individuals living within a specific area vi. Community: set of populations in a certain area vii. Ecosystem: all living things in an area interacting with everything else viii. Biosphere: collections of ecosystems k. Evolution: process of gradual change l. Phylogenetic tree: diagram showing evolutionary relationships among living species m. Molecular biology: study of molecules n. Neurobiology: study of nervous system o. Paleontology: study of fossils p. Zoology: study of animals q. Botany: study of plants r. Science: knowledge of the natural world i. Scientific Method: method of research with defined steps ii. Hypothesis: tentative explanations iii. Scientific theory: generally accepted/tested/confirmed explanations for a set of observations iv. Life science vs. physical science v. Inductive reasoning: logical thinking using observations to arrive at conclusion vi. Deductive reasoning: logical thinking using principals/laws to predict results vii. Hypothesis-based science: question/answer viii. Descriptive science: observe/explore/discover s. Hypothesis testing: posing questions and seeking answers i. Falsifiable: hypothesis can be proven wrong through experimental results ii. Variable: any part of the experiment that can vary or change the experiment iii. Control: part of the experiment that doesn’t change t. Basic Science: seeks to expand knowledge regardless of application of said knowledge u. Applied science: “technology” aims to use science to solve real world problems v. Gene: basic unit of heredity w. Genome: collections of genes x. Human genome project was a project that mapped every gene in hopes to seek cures to genetic diseases. i. Penicillin was discovered on accident y. Peer-reviewed articles: scientific papers that are reviewed anonymously by a scientist’s colleagues or peers 2. Chapter 2 a. Macromolecules: nutrients in food that are necessary for life b. Matter: occupies space and has mass c. Elements; substances that cannot be broken down or transformed chemically into other substances d. Atoms: smallest component of an element that contains all properties i. Proton: positively charged particle in the nucleus (core) ii. Electron: negatively charged particle around the nucleus iii. Neutron: reside in the nucleus, have a mass of 1 but no charge iv. Atomic number: number of protons v. Mass number: number of protons + number of neutrons vi. Periodic table of elements: chart of elements with their information vii. Isotopes: different forms of elements with the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons viii. Radioactive isotopes: unstable isotopes e. Chemical bonds: combination of 2 or more elements to form molecules i. Octet rule: outer shell can only hold 8 electrons (inner shell holds 2) ii. Ion: when the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons 1. Has a net charge 2. Cations: positive ions formed by losing electrons 3. Anions: negative ions formed by gaining electrons iii. Electron transfer: movement of electrons from element to another iv. Ionic bonds: bond between ions v. Covalent bond: electron is shared between 2 elements 1. Nonpolar: two atoms that share electrons equally 2. Polar: electrons spend more time closer to one nucleus than the other nucleus vi. Hydrogen bonds: weakest bond, doesn’t need energy to break (ex: Water) vii. Van der Waals interaction: weak attractions/interactions between molecules f. Water i. Water is polar 1. Hydrophilic: when substance forms hydrogen bonds with water and dissolves in water 2. Hydrophobic: doesn’t dissolve in water ii. Water stabilizes temperature iii. Water is an excellent solvent: a substance capable of dissolving other substances iv. Water is cohesive 1. Cohesion: water molecules are attracted to each other, keeping them together despite not being in a container 2. Adhesion: attraction between water molecules and other molecules (ex: water going up a straw) v. Buffers pH, acids, and bases 1. pH: measures acidity or alkalinity of a solution 2. litmus paper: treated paper used to test pH 3. pH scale: overall concentration of Hydrogen ions a. more = lower pH b. less = higher pH c. pure water = 7.0 d. below 7.0 = acidic e. above 7.0 = basic/alkaline 4. Acids: provide hydrogen (H+) ions and lower pH 5. Bases: provide hydroxide (OH-) ions and raise pH 6. Buffers: readily absorb access H+ or OH- g. Macromolecules: the large molecules necessary for life h. Carbohydrates: macromolecules that provide energy for the body through glucose (a simple sugar) i. Monosaccharides: simple sugars ii. Disaccharides: two monosaccharides undergo a dehydration reaction iii. Polysaccharide: long chain of monosaccharides linked by covalent bonds 1. Starch: stored form of sugar in plants 2. Glycogen: storage form of glucose in humans and other vertebrates 3. Cellulose: most abundant natural biopolymer (in cell walls of plants) and cannot be broken down by humans 4. Chitin: biological macromolecule that makes up the exoskeleton in arthropods (bugs) i. Lipids: hydrophobic, nonpolar molecules i. Fat: consists of 2 components glycerol and fatty acids 1. Triglyceride: 3 fatty acids and a glycerol ii. Saturated fatty acids: single bonds between carbons, saturated with hydrogen iii. Unsaturated fatty acids: hydrocarbon chain contains double bond iv. Oils: unsaturated fats that are liquid in room temperature 1. Monosaturated fat: one double bond (ex: olive oil) 2. Polysaturated fat: multiple double bonds (ex: canola oil) v. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature; oils are liquid at room temperature vi. Trans fat: double bonds of the cis-confirmation in the hydrocarbon chain may be converted to double bonds in the trans-confirmation (ex: margarine, some peanut butters) vii. Phospholipids: major constituent of the plasma membrane viii. Steroids: have a ring structure j. Proteins: most abundant molecules in living systems, they can be structural, regulatory, and protective, they can transport and store, they can serve as membranes, eliminate toxins, and act as enzymes i. Hormones: chemical signaling molecules, these are proteins and steroids that are secreted by glands or cells to regulate specific physiological processes like growth, development, metabolism, and reproduction ii. Denaturation: changes in pH, temperature, chemicals, leads to loss of function iii. Amino acids: monomers that make up protein 1. Polypeptides: polymer of amino acids iv. Primary protein structure: sequence of a chain of amino acids v. Secondary protein structure: hydrogen bonding of the peptide backbone causes the amino acids to fold into a repeating pattern vi. Tertiary protein structure: three dimensional folding pattern of a protein due to side chain interactions vii. Quaternary protein structure: protein consisting of more than one amino acid change k. Nucleic Acid: macromolecules i. DNA: genetic material in all living organisms 1. Double helix structure ii. RNA: communicates with the rest of the cell iii. Nucleotides: monomers that combine with each other to form a polynucleotide 3. Chapter 3 a. Microscopy cells are too small to see with the naked eye i. Microscope: magnifies objects 1. Micrograph: photo taken with a microscope ii. Light microscope: student microscope, uses light and lenses to magnify objects iii. Dissecting microscope: provides 3D view of specimen iv. Electron microscopes: uses beams of electrons instead of light, highest magnification, most detain, but kills the specimen in preparation for use b. Cell Theory i. All living things are composed of one or more cells ii. Cell is the basic unit of life iii. All new cells arise from existing cells c. All cells have i. Plasma membrane (outer covering) ii. Cytoplasm (jelly-like stuff) iii. DNA iv. Ribosomes (synthesize proteins) d. Prokaryotic Cell: simple, single-celled organism with no nucleus and no membrane-bound organelles e. Eukaryotic cells: membrane-bound nucleus and organelles with special functions i. The plasma Membrane: phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins ii. Cytoplasm: consists of all the contents of the cell iii. The Cytoskeleton: the network of protein fibers that help maintain the shape of the cell iv. Flagella and Cilia: hair-like substances used to move the cell around v. The endomembrane system: group of membranes and organelles that modify, package and transport lipids and proteins 1. Nucleus: houses DNA, synthesizes ribosomes and proteins 2. Nuclear envelope: double membrane structure around nucleus 3. The Endoplasmic Reticulum: interconnected membrane tubules that modify proteins and synthesize lipids a. Rough ER: has ribosomes attached to it, synthesizes proteins b. Smooth ER: continuous w/ RER, but has little to no ribosomes on it, synthesizes carbs, lipids, steroids, hormones, and detoxifies medicine, poison, alcohol, etc 4. The Golgi Apparatus: sort, package, and distribute lipids and proteins 5. Lysosomes: breaks down proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids, and worn out organelles 6. Vesicles and Vacuoles: membrane bound sacs that function in storage and transport a. Vacuoles don’t fuse with other membranes, vesicles do 7. Ribosomes: cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis 8. Mitochondria: responsible for making ATP, the cell’s main energy-carrying molecule 9. Peroxisomes: oxidation reactions break down fatty and amino acids vi. Animal Cells vs. Plant cells 1. The Cell Wall: rigid covering that protects the cell, provides structural support, and gives shape to the cell (made of cellulose) 2. Chloroplasts: function in photosynthesis, this is how plants can make their own food a. Have green pigment chlorophyll 3. The central vacuole: regulates the cell’s concentration of water in changing environmental conditions 4. Extracellular matrix of animal cells: releasing materials into space allows cells within tissue to communicate with each other 5. Intercellular junctions: space between animal cells that allow cells to communicate with each other vii. The Cell Membrane: defines boundary of the cell and determines the nature of its contact with the environment, encloses the border of the cell viii. Fluid Mosaic Model: describes the plasma membrane as a mosaic of components including phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, and carbs, with the components still able to flow and change position while still maintaining their shape ix. The plasma membrane is made primarily of a bilayer of phospholipids embedded with proteins, carbs, glycolipids, and glycoproteins 1. Integral proteins: serve as channels to move materials in and out of the cell 2. Peripheral proteins: sit on surfaces of membranes and serve as enzymes, structure, or cell recognition sites 3. Glycoproteins: carbs bound to proteins 4. Glycolipids: carbs bound to lipids x. Passive Transport: doesn’t require the cell to use energy to accomplish this movement (high to low concentration) 1. Selective permeability: plasma membranes allow some substances through, but not others 2. Concentration gradient: a physical space in which there is a different concentration of a single substance 3. Diffusion: passive process of transport a. Moving from high concentration to low concentration b. Extent of concentration gradient c. Mass of the molecules diffusing d. Temperature e. Solvent density 4. Facilitated transport: materials move from high to low concentration with help from proteins without using too much cellular energy 5. Osmosis: diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane 6. Solute: dissolved substance 7. Tonicity: describes the amount of solute in a solution 8. Osmolarity: total number of solutes dissolved in a specific solution a. Hypotonic solution: extracellular fluid that has a lower concentration of solutes than the fluids inside the cell and water enters the cell causes animal to burst or lyse b. Hypertonic solution: fluid contains less water than the cell does, causes an animal to shrivel or cremate c. Isotonic solution: extracellular fluid has the same osmolarity as the cell i. some cells have cell walls that prevent them from bursting xi. Active Transport: requires the use of ATP to move from low concentration to high concentration 1. Electrochemical gradient: interior of living cells is electrically negative with respect to the extracellular fluid in which they are bathed xii. Endocytosis: active transport that moves particles, parts of cells, and even whole cells into a cell 1. Phagocytosis: when large particles are taken in by a cell 2. Pinocytosis: takes in solutes that the cell needs from the extracellular fluid 3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis: uses specific binding proteins in the plasma membranes for specific molecules or particles xiii. Exocytosis: opposite of endocytosis, expels materials from the cell into the extracellular fluid


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