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VIRGINIA TECH / Biology / BMSP 1005 / What are the properties of life?

What are the properties of life?

What are the properties of life?

Description

School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: Biology
Course: General Biology
Professor: Mv lipscomb
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Bio Study Guide for Midterm 1
Description: These notes cover all the important vocabulary and material from chapters 1 through 3.
Uploaded: 09/05/2016
7 Pages 4 Views 6 Unlocks
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Bio Study Guide for Midterm 1


What are the properties of life?



1. Chapter 1

a. Biology: the study of life

b. Virology: study of viruses

c. Properties of life:

i. Order

ii. Sensitivity or response to stimuli

iii. Reproduction

iv. Adaptation

v. Growth and development

vi. Regulation

d. Homeostasis: steady state

e. Molecules: at least 2 atoms held together by chemical bonds f. Macromolecules: large molecules made up of monomers

g. Organelles: macromolecules surrounded by membrane

h. Cell: smallest unit of structure for life

i. Prokaryotes: single-celled organisms

j. Eukaryotes: membrane-bound organelles and nuclei

i. Tissue: groups of smaller cells performing the same functions ii. Organs: collections of tissues group together by common  

functions

iii. Organ system: functionally related organs

iv. Organism: individual living entities


What is chemical bonds?



v. Population: individuals living within a specific area

vi. Community: set of populations in a certain area

vii. Ecosystem: all living things in an area interacting with  Don't forget about the age old question of poli 214 concordia

everything else

viii. Biosphere: collections of ecosystems

k. Evolution: process of gradual change

l. Phylogenetic tree: diagram showing evolutionary relationships  among living species

m. Molecular biology: study of molecules

n. Neurobiology: study of nervous system

o. Paleontology: study of fossils

p. Zoology: study of animals

q. Botany: study of plants

r. Science: knowledge of the natural world

i. Scientific Method: method of research with defined steps

ii. Hypothesis: tentative explanations

iii. Scientific theory: generally accepted/tested/confirmed  

explanations for a set of observations


What carbohydrates do for your body?



iv. Life science vs. physical science

v. Inductive reasoning: logical thinking using observations to  arrive at conclusion

vi. Deductive reasoning: logical thinking using principals/laws to  predict results

vii. Hypothesis-based science: question/answer

viii. Descriptive science: observe/explore/discover

s. Hypothesis testing: posing questions and seeking answers

i. Falsifiable: hypothesis can be proven wrong through  

experimental results

ii. Variable: any part of the experiment that can vary or change  the experiment

iii. Control: part of the experiment that doesn’t change

t. Basic Science: seeks to expand knowledge regardless of application  of said knowledge We also discuss several other topics like consider a closed triangular box resting
We also discuss several other topics like hist 391 class notes

u. Applied science: “technology” aims to use science to solve real world problems

v. Gene: basic unit of heredity

w. Genome: collections of genes

x. Human genome project was a project that mapped every gene  in hopes to seek cures to genetic diseases.

i. Penicillin was discovered on accident

y. Peer-reviewed articles: scientific papers that are reviewed  anonymously by a scientist’s colleagues or peers

2. Chapter 2

a. Macromolecules: nutrients in food that are necessary for life b. Matter: occupies space and has mass We also discuss several other topics like statics study guide

c. Elements; substances that cannot be broken down or transformed  chemically into other substances

d. Atoms: smallest component of an element that contains all properties i. Proton: positively charged particle in the nucleus (core)

ii. Electron: negatively charged particle around the nucleus iii. Neutron: reside in the nucleus, have a mass of 1 but no charge iv. Atomic number: number of protons

v. Mass number: number of protons + number of neutrons vi. Periodic table of elements: chart of elements with their  information

vii. Isotopes: different forms of elements with the same number of  protons, but different number of neutrons

viii. Radioactive isotopes: unstable isotopes

e. Chemical bonds: combination of 2 or more elements to form  molecules

i. Octet rule: outer shell can only hold 8 electrons (inner shell  holds 2)

ii. Ion: when the number of electrons does not equal the number  of protons

1. Has a net charge

2. Cations: positive ions formed by losing electrons

3. Anions: negative ions formed by gaining electrons

iii. Electron transfer: movement of electrons from element to  another

iv. Ionic bonds: bond between ions

v. Covalent bond: electron is shared between 2 elements  

1. Nonpolar: two atoms that share electrons equally

2. Polar: electrons spend more time closer to one nucleus  

than the other nucleus

vi. Hydrogen bonds: weakest bond, doesn’t need energy to break (ex: Water) If you want to learn more check out the _____ perspective is the most integrative approach for explaining psychological disorders.

vii. Van der Waals interaction: weak attractions/interactions  between molecules

f. Water

i. Water is polar

1. Hydrophilic: when substance forms hydrogen bonds with water and dissolves in water

2. Hydrophobic: doesn’t dissolve in water

ii. Water stabilizes temperature

iii. Water is an excellent solvent: a substance capable of dissolving other substances

iv. Water is cohesive

1. Cohesion: water molecules are attracted to each other,  keeping them together despite not being in a container  

2. Adhesion: attraction between water molecules and other molecules (ex: water going up a straw)

v. Buffers pH, acids, and bases

1. pH: measures acidity or alkalinity of a solution

2. litmus paper: treated paper used to test pH

3. pH scale: overall concentration of Hydrogen ions We also discuss several other topics like pols2401

a. more = lower pH

b. less = higher pH  

c. pure water = 7.0

d. below 7.0 = acidic

e. above 7.0 = basic/alkaline

4. Acids: provide hydrogen (H+) ions and lower pH

5. Bases: provide hydroxide (OH-) ions and raise pH

6. Buffers: readily absorb access H+ or OH

g. Macromolecules: the large molecules necessary for life h. Carbohydrates: macromolecules that provide energy for the body  through glucose (a simple sugar)

i. Monosaccharides: simple sugars  

ii. Disaccharides: two monosaccharides undergo a dehydration  reaction

iii. Polysaccharide: long chain of monosaccharides linked by  covalent bonds

1. Starch: stored form of sugar in plants  

2. Glycogen: storage form of glucose in humans and other  vertebrates

3. Cellulose: most abundant natural biopolymer (in cell  walls of plants) and cannot be broken down by humans

4. Chitin: biological macromolecule that makes up the  exoskeleton in arthropods (bugs)

i. Lipids: hydrophobic, nonpolar molecules

i. Fat: consists of 2 components glycerol and fatty acids 1. Triglyceride: 3 fatty acids and a glycerol

ii. Saturated fatty acids: single bonds between carbons,  saturated with hydrogen

iii. Unsaturated fatty acids: hydrocarbon chain contains double  bond

iv. Oils: unsaturated fats that are liquid in room temperature 1. Monosaturated fat: one double bond (ex: olive oil)

2. Polysaturated fat: multiple double bonds (ex: canola  

oil)

v. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature; oils are liquid at  room temperature

vi. Trans fat: double bonds of the cis-confirmation in the  

hydrocarbon chain may be converted to double bonds in the  trans-confirmation (ex: margarine, some peanut butters)

vii. Phospholipids: major constituent of the plasma membrane viii. Steroids: have a ring structure

j. Proteins: most abundant molecules in living systems, they can be  structural, regulatory, and protective, they can transport and store,  they can serve as membranes, eliminate toxins, and act as enzymes  

i. Hormones: chemical signaling molecules, these are proteins  and steroids that are secreted by glands or cells to regulate  

specific physiological processes like growth, development,  

metabolism, and reproduction

ii. Denaturation: changes in pH, temperature, chemicals, leads to loss of function

iii. Amino acids: monomers that make up protein

1. Polypeptides: polymer of amino acids

iv. Primary protein structure: sequence of a chain of amino  acids

v. Secondary protein structure: hydrogen bonding of the  peptide backbone causes the amino acids to fold into a  

repeating pattern

vi. Tertiary protein structure: three dimensional folding pattern  of a protein due to side chain interactions

vii. Quaternary protein structure: protein consisting of more  than one amino acid change

k. Nucleic Acid: macromolecules

i. DNA: genetic material in all living organisms

1. Double helix structure

ii. RNA: communicates with the rest of the cell

iii. Nucleotides: monomers that combine with each other to  form a polynucleotide

3. Chapter 3

a. Microscopy cells are too small to see with the naked eye

i. Microscope: magnifies objects

1. Micrograph: photo taken with a microscope

ii. Light microscope: student microscope, uses light and lenses  to magnify objects

iii. Dissecting microscope: provides 3D view of specimen iv. Electron microscopes: uses beams of electrons instead of  light, highest magnification, most detain, but kills the specimen  in preparation for use

b. Cell Theory

i. All living things are composed of one or more cells ii. Cell is the basic unit of life

iii. All new cells arise from existing cells

c. All cells have

i. Plasma membrane (outer covering)

ii. Cytoplasm (jelly-like stuff)

iii. DNA

iv. Ribosomes (synthesize proteins)

d. Prokaryotic Cell: simple, single-celled organism with no nucleus and  no membrane-bound organelles

e. Eukaryotic cells: membrane-bound nucleus and organelles with  special functions

i. The plasma Membrane: phospholipid bilayer embedded with  proteins

ii. Cytoplasm: consists of all the contents of the cell

iii. The Cytoskeleton: the network of protein fibers that help  maintain the shape of the cell

iv. Flagella and Cilia: hair-like substances used to move the cell  around

v. The endomembrane system: group of membranes and  organelles that modify, package and transport lipids and  proteins

1. Nucleus: houses DNA, synthesizes ribosomes and  

proteins

2. Nuclear envelope: double membrane structure around  nucleus

3. The Endoplasmic Reticulum: interconnected  

membrane tubules that modify proteins and synthesize  

lipids

a. Rough ER: has ribosomes attached to it,  

synthesizes proteins

b. Smooth ER: continuous w/ RER, but has little to no

ribosomes on it, synthesizes carbs, lipids, steroids,  

hormones, and detoxifies medicine, poison, alcohol,

etc

4. The Golgi Apparatus: sort, package, and distribute  lipids and proteins

5. Lysosomes: breaks down proteins, polysaccharides,  lipids, nucleic acids, and worn out organelles

6. Vesicles and Vacuoles: membrane bound sacs that  function in storage and transport

a. Vacuoles don’t fuse with other membranes, vesicles

do

7. Ribosomes: cellular structures responsible for protein  synthesis

8. Mitochondria: responsible for making ATP, the cell’s  main energy-carrying molecule

9. Peroxisomes: oxidation reactions break down fatty and  amino acids

vi. Animal Cells vs. Plant cells

1. The Cell Wall: rigid covering that protects the cell,  provides structural support, and gives shape to the cell  (made of cellulose)

2. Chloroplasts: function in photosynthesis, this is how  plants can make their own food

a. Have green pigment chlorophyll

3. The central vacuole: regulates the cell’s concentration  of water in changing environmental conditions

4. Extracellular matrix of animal cells: releasing  materials into space allows cells within tissue to  

communicate with each other

5. Intercellular junctions: space between animal cells that allow cells to communicate with each other

vii. The Cell Membrane: defines boundary of the cell and  determines the nature of its contact with the environment,  encloses the border of the cell

viii. Fluid Mosaic Model: describes the plasma membrane as a  mosaic of components including phospholipids, cholesterol,  proteins, and carbs, with the components still able to flow and  change position while still maintaining their shape

ix. The plasma membrane is made primarily of a bilayer of  phospholipids embedded with proteins, carbs, glycolipids, and  glycoproteins

1. Integral proteins: serve as channels to move materials  in and out of the cell

2. Peripheral proteins: sit on surfaces of membranes and  serve as enzymes, structure, or cell recognition sites 3. Glycoproteins: carbs bound to proteins

4. Glycolipids: carbs bound to lipids

x. Passive Transport: doesn’t require the cell to use energy to  accomplish this movement (high to low concentration) 1. Selective permeability: plasma membranes allow some substances through, but not others

2. Concentration gradient: a physical space in which  there is a different concentration of a single substance 3. Diffusion: passive process of transport

a. Moving from high concentration to low  

concentration

b. Extent of concentration gradient

c. Mass of the molecules diffusing

d. Temperature  

e. Solvent density

4. Facilitated transport: materials move from high to low  concentration with help from proteins without using too  much cellular energy

5. Osmosis: diffusion of water through a semipermeable  membrane

6. Solute: dissolved substance

7. Tonicity: describes the amount of solute in a solution  8. Osmolarity: total number of solutes dissolved in a  specific solution

a. Hypotonic solution: extracellular fluid that has a  lower concentration of solutes than the fluids inside

the cell and water enters the cell causes animal to

burst or lyse

b. Hypertonic solution: fluid contains less water  

than the cell does, causes an animal to shrivel or  

cremate

c. Isotonic solution: extracellular fluid has the same osmolarity as the cell

i. some cells have cell walls that prevent them  

from bursting

xi. Active Transport: requires the use of ATP to move from low  concentration to high concentration

1. Electrochemical gradient: interior of living cells is  electrically negative with respect to the extracellular fluid  in which they are bathed

xii. Endocytosis: active transport that moves particles, parts of  cells, and even whole cells into a cell

1. Phagocytosis: when large particles are taken in by a cell 2. Pinocytosis: takes in solutes that the cell needs from the extracellular fluid

3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis: uses specific binding  proteins in the plasma membranes for specific molecules  or particles

xiii. Exocytosis: opposite of endocytosis, expels materials from the  cell into the extracellular fluid

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