Midterm Notes- Lecture & Textbook
Midterm Notes- Lecture & Textbook JOUR 1010
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This 84 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Armpriester on Thursday March 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to JOUR 1010 at Ohio University taught by Robert Stewart in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 290 views. For similar materials see The Future of Media in Journalism and Mass Communications at Ohio University.
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Class Notes Midterm 032 72015 Scripps Company Timeline 0 1878 EW SCRIPPS establishes the Cleveland Penny Press 0 1890 ScrippsMcRae is created to oversee Scripps s newspaper holdings 1907 United Press wire service establishbusiness innovation 1922 Company changes name to EW Scripps Co the EW Scripps Trust is created 1935 Scripps enters the radio broadcast industry 1940 Scripps takes over the National Spelling bee from Louisville Kentucky newspaper 0 1962 The Scripps Foundation is incorporated we are not connected to company but the foundation 1982 Company sells UPI wire service to Media News Corporation 1988 Company goes public 1994 Home and Garden HGTV cable TV 2002 Fine Living cable network launched Paywall an arrangement whereby access is restricted to users who have paid to subscribe to the site for it If people are still willing to pay for it different companies can charge Cable sports Net ix B2B business to business 0 Remember who your audience is 0 Audience segmentation this part of audience likes this another likes something else Breaking them up and knowing what appeals to them 0 Television is not good at this Taking same message and broadcasting to world where info is only relevant to a select few Scripps WCPO Paywall Gamble 0 Has scripps reexamining its entire approach to tv news content and cross digitalbroadcast news production Reframing its marketing message to consumers Reexamining how to give value to consumers beyond a content play using consumer data its now more closely collecting and parsing to heighten user affinity and personalization Scripps leaders 0 Rich Roehne CEO of Scripps o Decoupling of newspapers from broadcast in the scrippsjournal deal signals thinking that potential synergies no longer really exist between those legacy media but there are lessons from tv for newspapers 0 Local medianewspapers have been behind in making good use of their data Scripps became fascinated quotby the steps they vecorporate like Kroger and Proctor and Gamble taken to change their business to a onetoone relationshipquot ie a Kroger Card etc Current local media approach to just throwing uo ads in untenable and is too far behind the deleopments in consumer goods and other areas Going forward they pla to drive its own advertising more by data ads will continue to move from broad and inefficient tp narrow and efficient 0 Adam Symson SVP of digital Thursday September 4 21 Century Leadership dh792112ohioedu internship Developing a Resume and Cover Letter Resume Treasure chest experiences you have had and skills gained through those experiences Do not include references on resume if want them they will ask GPA not necessary but don t include if below a 300 Use social media to network with prospective employers or leaders in your eld Do not include all work and involvement through high school years Never lie on resume but can stretch a little to sound better Employers spend less than a minute reading your resume Contact info 0 Top of document Name should be largest item on page Include name email phone mailing address Section headers Organize your info 0 education work involvement honors relevant courses computer skills 0 Education Expected graduation date Bachelor of Arts Expected May 2013 Content 0 Highlight transferable skills 0 Communicate teamwork problem solving critical thinking customer service innovation 0 Adaptive skills 0 Flexibility adaptability work ethic positive attitude 0 Jobspeci c vs transferable skills 0 Job Count out cash drawer clean grill watch kids wash cars attend meetings 0 Start every bullet with an action verb 0 Ex provided trained taught managed generated organized 0 No pronouns or periods needed 0 26 bullets is appropriate for each experience 0 EXAMPLE Job Cashier Manage nancial transactions and resolve reporting discrepancies Provide customer service in a fastpaced environment Collaborate with a team of 8 other employees to consistently meet customer expectations Formatting 0 Include a location date and title for all experiences 0 All experience paid or unpaid will be formatted the same way 0 Reverse chronological order most recent stuff on top Customize 0 Job description tailor to job you are applying for 0 Numbers are eye catching Cover Letter Basics 0 Typically one page or less 0 Should be speci c to the internship you are seeking 0 Include why the organization is appealing to you and why are a good t for the role 0 Emphasize what you have to offer not what you gave to gain from the experience Start 0 Identify the position you want to apply for 0 Formal as a formal letter 0 Your address Date Their address Dear Mr Ms Last Name Common 3 paragraph format 1 indicate position you seek and why 2 expand on an example from your resume to highlight your t with the posting 3 brie y close the letter and reiterate your interest in the position quotwant to hear backquot including formal closing ex sincerely your name 0 use same heading for cover letter resume and reference list 0000 Reference List 0 35 professional references 0 former supervisors advisors teachers or coaches 0 no personal or character references 0 include name place of employment email phone and locationcity state separate page from your resume and cover letter use the same header as your resume 0 ex Sandra Sanderson Vice president of marketing Sanderson Inc Sandy Idaho 7777777777 sandvsandersoncom former supervisor Tuesday September 9 2014 Professor Stewart Baker 325D post Media Literacy Distribution Boyhood vs Guardians of the Galaxy 0 Differencesl scale of production and distribution channels 0 Pro ts greater because made by well known producers 0 Power of distribution 0 Distribution channel 0 1 mass communication began with printing press by Gutenberg changed everything must physically transport who is reading newspaper and making it don t know each other cap between distribution and production process 0 2 telegraph next electronic signal don t have to carry from point A to point B was expensive though so not practical for common people 0 3 Associated Press controlled the market joined quotclubquot of newspapers who would send info and could keep other newspapers out a hard to form new newspaper that will be successful shared cost of news made cheaper o 4 Marconi radio requires wireless communication for shipping and military changes how radio is used a only people with Marconi radio could communicate with each other 0 developed legislation that required companies to share lines Titanic sending message to non Marconi radios 0 Internet is military based technology Cold War scientists and govt could communicate to build weapons to use against the Soviets Now it is used for commercial and private communication Thursday September 11l l 21 Century Leaders p Interviewing and Professionalism Purpose of Interview 0 Put a face to your resume get job Types of Interview 0 One on one phone online group informational exchange of info nd out info on company etc What to wear 0 Business professional 0 Jacket heels suit 0 Business casual o No jacket nice pants remove suit jacket What not to wear 0 Shorts untucked shirts and loose ties tee shirts etc Communication Etiquette 0 Keep emails brief and formal 0 Proofread messages every time 0 Send quotthank youquot within 24 hours 0 Include your contact information in every message Cell phone 0 Make sure your voice mail greeting is professional and appropriate 0 Ring back tone no message while waiting 0 Turn phone off or put on silent in an interview or professional setting Carefully select ring Social Media 0 Understand your brand 0 78 of recruiters have hired through social network 0 Linkedln 0 93 of recruiters are likely to look at a candidate s social pro le Dining Etiquette 0 Tips BMW bread on left meal in middle water on right With utensils start on the outside and work your way in Take smallmedium bites and chew quietly Speak only when your mouth is free of food 0 Eat and enjoy the food but do not gorge or horde 0 Most employers will pay for meal but bring money just in case The interviewee should do most of the talking Dress up for phone interview makes you feel more con dent Tell the interviewer you are very interested in the position 0 Only tell them if you are Give example for almost every question asked during an interview 0 Keep them brief though and relevant OOOO It s okay to be funny in an interview 0 If you re not funnyljl don t be More personable But can be dangerous if not relevant don t just tell joke randomly Must come naturally Will not have to negotiate salary during the initial interview Researching the organization 0 Things to consider 0 Companies product and services Primary markets or customers company locations number of employees growth statistics for the past 5 years projected pro ts for the next 5 years nancial strength and stability reputation in the industry new technologies and developments 0 organizational structure Re ect before the Interview 0 Personal Quali cation 0 Treasure chest 0 Interest in the Position and Compny o How are these skills transferrable o What do I need from a position and company to be happy 0 Why am I interested in this organization 0 How does the position relate to my professional goals Common Interview Questions reate everything to company OOOOOOOO 0 Tell me about yourself 0 Not story of life 0 Your skillset relating to their company 0 Why did you choose that majorcareer path 0 Inspirational gure if have one 0 What are your career goals 0 Why are you interested in this positionour company 0 What questions do you have for us Star Technique 0 Used for behavioral questions 0 STAle situation task action and results 0 Used to identify accomplishments and form them into statements and success stories to use during the interview Always say thank you 0 Write and mail within 24 hours 0 Gather business cards during interview so you will know how to spell names Email vs snail mail Professional stationary Keep notes brief and to the point Make a connection Interview stream can watch yourself when asked questions Sept 16 2014l39l Leipzig by Prof Dr Werner Suss Communication management European Trendsamp Perspective History of Leipzig 0 Est 1409 2nCI oldest university in Germany Several Nobel Prize and world renowned students 28500 students 4500 staff 430 prof 14 schoolfaculties 0 faculty for social science and philosophy 0 academic programs transferred from DiplomaMagister5 years to BA3 years plus MA 2 years institute of Communication and Media Studies 0 1916 founded by Karl Buecherl birthplace of communication studies in Europe 0 quotnewspaper studiesquot 0 leading journ School in eastern European countries 0 reestablished in 1992 after German reuni cation with a broader focus 0 master program in communication management full time What do Communication Executives in Europe think 0 Salaries career opportunities and worklife balance are criticized 0 Thinkjob itself is interesting though 773 0 Experiences that are important to develop a pro le amp reach a position in order of percent 0 Networking further education moving academic educationprior to job mentoring by senior colleagues job rotation within same organization internships 0 BE OPENMINDED 0 Characteristics of effective leaders 0 Open transparent communication 0 Clear longterm vision handle controversy calmly 0 Lead by example match words to actions Salaries 0 Avg 60001100000 euros Excellence in Communications 0 Leadership 1trustworthiness 2 innovative 3 quality 0 Professional roles 0 Most try to shape business strategies 13 purely focus on communication Excellence communication functions in organizations which out perform others in the eld 0 In uencel internal standing of the communication function within the organization 0 Advisory in uence 0 Executive in uence 0 Performance external results of the communication function s activities and its basic quali cations 0 Success 0 Competence Thursday Sept 18l l Tim Stephens lob Searches Made Simple How to Compete in the Crowded Market and Stand out in the Stack Always competing Expectation based off experience Connect informational source with info consumer Same distribution from older years not possible anymore 0 get news from digital media in old days hired by promotion 0 now we can start our own business TRUE COMMODITY OF MEDIA CONNECTIONS 0 The valuable thing that we sell 0 Facebook twitter etc Declining jobs 0 Newspaper down 51 since 1990 radio magazine cable broadcast Internet media increased 0 66 Between 20072012 0 digital media outnumbers magazine broadcast radio jobs MOBILE 0 Growing Doubled in 2011 and again in 2012 0 Sports is the main subject wanted for TVonline D what exposed to 0 Newspapers were the gatekeeper to what society was exposed to 0 Problem now too much noise want gatekeeper but with a catch 0 Want it but want to be in control 0 Innovann 0 Base off history credibility and access What qualities stand out to the hiring manager 0 Versatility o Diverse skills reporting writing video social media broad knowledge editing producing broadcast design photography 0 Expertise 0 Find niche and own it 0 Competitiveness o Compete on every level 0 Positive Attitude 0 Willingness to Move 0 Prepare for this don t let be the reason you cant take the right job 0 Salary Compatibility 0 Are you in the target range Know what you need to say yes if offered Resume Cover Letter 0 Keep it Simple Stupid KISS o Quickly and simply as possible te why I should hire you 0 Attention to detain spelling etc 0 Sign how you compete 0 Do your research 0 What you know about organization 0 Show your versatility 0 Not just best workshow de ning qualities of who you are 0 Help me help you 0 Give me 3 of your best references 0 Don ts 0 Don t be overtop don t mislead be reevantdeas with job don t overstep your expertisedon t tell me how great my stuff is you re new and your opinion is poop respect my time Phase 2 0 Not who you know it s who they know l take every opportunity to network Always be on point Be distinctive Schedule the interview 0 Cultivate reationshipsfoow up Show you can compete 0 Protect project pro le 0 Professional social media presence Follow instructions Be professional 0 Dress eye contact 0 Have a plan Stand for somethingcore values All this allows you to become a person not just a resume Tuesday Sept 23 Troy Kirikpatrickl l Public Relations Future of Corporate Communication Trovkirkpatrickcarefusioncom One thing will never change message is king 0 How we tell story will change but will always be telling a story Bob Walter G Started Cardinal Health 0 Started as food distribution teamed up with drug distribution Thurs Sept 25 Mary Beth Tinker First Amendment Congress Shall make no law respecting an est of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press can peacefully assemble amp petition Govt slowly expanding our democracy Birmingham Children s March 1964 quotBurnside v Byarsquot 0 3 killed by the Klu Klux Klan 0 journalists risked lives to cover Vietnam De Moins High School 0 Powerful images powerful journalism 0 Wear black armbands to school to show sad about the war and support the troops 0 School banned them 2 days before wearing o Suspended them 0 American Civil Liberties Union offered to help them 0 Went to court kept losing but when the 3 were killed by Klu Klux kids wore buttons and won so set up an appeal 0 1969won Ruled in favor of students Tuesday Sept 30H Swedish Journalist Therese Larssons Hultin Svenska Dagbladetl newspaper she works for Start in TV can always go write later Learn foreign languages Specialize in what you love Do research before an interview Thursday Oct2l39lGreg Lee Launched a website for newspapers more geared towards mobile 0 Gear stories a different way 0 Premiumnot everything on website is free 0 Post as quickly as he candoesn t wait for it to be checked 0 Language changing 0 Not on page A not what is on homepage Tuesday Oct 7HHeather Mitchell Being Remarkable Don t take no for an answer Take summer off when graduate agencies may need people in the fall Community management 0 People manning social media outlets 247 0 Respond to posts on twittercustomer service Constantly evolve as market evolves 0 Be up to date on new trends 1 care 2 be authentic 0 don t pretend brand is something its not 0 cant be branded all the time 3 be versatile 4 have a POV 5 Trust your instincts 6 7 8 9 1 Be courteous network listen always be a student 0 be passionate Thursday October 3 2014l39leff Widener Access is everything Passion is everythingeven though wasn t in school Get as much international experience as possible to one day work for national geographic Newspaper to Associated press Write with your heartwill have biggest effect on people enjoy your life right now all will get what you want in the end if you really want it won Pulitzer prize for tank picture at tinamin square feel the photo Wire photo photographer Ethics 0 Don t change the picturetruthful 0 Don t set people up in a spot news event Three types of Convergence 0 Convergence the coming together of computing telecommunications and media in a digital environment 0Convergence important because it has profound in uences on our economic social and cultural lives 0An ongoing spectacle that continues to shape the world of traditional media 03 categories do overlap in many ways Technological Convergence Speci c types of media print audio and video converging into a digital media form and online communication networks 0Digital media changes the nature of their traditional counterparts and affects how we useinteract with and perceive them 0 Ex Kindle stores morecan cross reference faster change text built in dictionary purchase new on the spot no pg s Multiple abilities in a single device more willing to look up word than with separate dictionary 0 affects many businesses communications industries etc o business s now have to control content through networks Economic Convergence Merging of Internet or telecommunications companies with traditional media companies 0 Consolidation the process of large companies merging with each other or absorbing other companies forming even bigger companies 0 Traditional media companies have grown fewer and larger with this process over the last 50 years 0 Can cause con icts of interest 0 has repercussions for the nature of the media telecommunications and computing industries 0 owners can censor content they don t like or block public access 0 the combo of merged media giants and even bigger audiences makes this a prominent issue ex cable vs media conglomeratesfox news ght over licensing agreement TV black outs cultural shift in relationship between the public and media producers is changing Cultural Convergence Culture Values beliefs and practices shared by a group of people 0 Population at large or subgroups Convergence comes from process of globalization of media content 0 Ex TV shows become popular across world and different cultures Also how we consume create and distribute media content major theme 0 Audiences receive more frequent personalized messages tailored to needs of individuals as opposed to companies produces messages for larger audiences 0 Line between interpersonal communicationlike email and mass communication becoming difficult to distinguish Implications of Convergence 0 Digital media use is changing media social and cultural worlds Implications Media organization changes Media type changes Media content changes Media use changes Media distribution changes Media audience changes Media profession changes attitude and value changes Media Organization Changg ln preconverged world centralized media organizations created and published content on predetermined schedules 0Newspapers printed weekly TV shows at certain time 0 Centralized media organizations content production distribution marketing etc are controlled by a central unit or individual 0Economics heavily favored mass production costs of creation production marketing and distribution were too big unless you were a large company Internet based media less centralized 0 Costs are smaller smaller media companies amp individuals can distribute their media products Media companies pro t big in advertising 0 But with Web popularity advertising traditionally has decreased Pro t has decreased l layoffs reduced printing etc Media ownershipconsolidation is increasing with convergence companies join 0 Oligopoly an economic structure in which a few very large very powerful and very rich owners control an industry or collection of related industries Media Type Changes Past simple 0 radio programing was what listener heard on radio Today radio stations transmit via internet satellite computer websites 0can choose what they want to hear or see 0 listen to podcast read story watch video Media empires built on owning certain types of media and complex laws have been created by govt to regulate different media industries and ownership l many questions still unsettled 0ex watch TV on computer TV rights or computer Media Content Changg Hyperlinks clickable pointer to other online sources 0Makes connections to other types of content more easily OSurveys games ads Ondemand increasingl no longer on published or broadcasted schedule Digitization the process in which media is made into computer readable form 0Changing how and when media organizations distribute content 0Available 24 hours a day 0Everything becoming digital movies TV books magazines newspapers Digital cameras books typed not written etc Wiki a type of website that can be edited by anyone 0 media content no longer static 0 online discussions on books etc show audience participation now Media Use Changg Will always have access to mass communication 247 media environment affects how we use and what we expect from media 0have to ll time encore shows and movies2 times in a row 0shows viewers want more exibility in viewing time too 0portable devices anywhere anytime this may turn us into superconsumers of medial lowers socialcivic value this is not universal though industrialized countries 0cost too great for telecommunication servicesbroadband internet 0cannot fully participate in society Media Distribution Changes Content uid dynamic and rapidly transmitted 0 But can start false rumors 0 Connects world Viral marketing spreading news and info about media content through word of mouth usually via online discussion groups chats and emails without utilizing traditional advertising and marketing methods 0 Without corporate or advertising dollars Peertopeer a computer communications model in which all users have equal abilities to store send and accept communications from other users 0 Shifts balance of power away from media organizations 0 Filesharing program Usergenerated content content created by the general public for distribution by digital media 0 Ex a song mixed from current hits an original drawing etc Media Audience Changg Traditionally mass communication was one way source of message to the receiveraudience 0 In age of convergence now can communicate via email online forums etc 0 No longer wait for info actively seek most recent info Producers the notion that audiences cannot simply be considered consumers anymore but also often take an active role in producing content and information 0 Digital media gives people ready tools to produce media if they wish at a much cheaper cost Active audience have 2 implications for media companies 0 1 they compete for limited time among the audience 0 2 can become more critical media consumers of the mass communication they do receive 0 Active audience more likely to organize and work together on problems than if they felt like isolated individuals 0 Public can be more engaged in news Dangers 0 Can narrow the scope of news items you may encounter by accident 0 Could fragment audience into small groups of likeminded individuals l will not interact with other groups Media Profession Changes Way communication professionals do theirjob is changing 0 Division between print and electronic journalists advertising and PR is disappearing 0 Know how to use video and audio and can write Citizen journalism audiencegenerated feedback and news coverage 0 Audience s ability to talk back and interact with journalists is a new development of today s journalism Attitude and value changes Audience interactionschange in what audience expects in media companies 0 Expect transparency in communications with leading organizations Establish a sense of trust cannot physically see people 0 Established rankings on Amazon and eBay etc 0 Must manage one s reputation online now Confusion over our traditional notions of privacy what is acceptable now 0 Employers can look at postings jail records easy to be found 0 No longer left alone constant texts social media noti cations Behavioral targeting the use by advertisers of consumer buying patterns and preferences in advertising campaigns 0 Can nd personal info of a person s electronic transactions knowledge for advertising campaigns Cookies information that a website puts on a user s local hard drive so that it can recognize when that computer accesses the website again These are what allow for conveniences like password recognition and personalization 0 Websites can offer personalized content 0 Can track your browsing behavior Mass Communication in the Digital Age Interpersonal Communication communication between two or more individuals usually in a small group although it can involve communication between a live speaker and an audience Mass Communication communication to a large group or groups of people that remains largely unknown to the sender of the message 0 Interpersonal often interacts with mass communication Interpersonal Communication Interactive nonanonymous friends talking 0 Same with public speaking nonverbal communication back Medium a communication channel such as talking on the phone instant messaging or writing back and forth in a chat room 0 Interpersonal comm can take place through this 0 Removes visual cues misconstrued text messages Mass Communication Any technologically based means of communicating between large numbers of people distributed widely over space or time Mass Comm has been characterized by a single model 0 1 communication ow is largely oneway from source to audience 0 2 is from onea few to many 0 3 is anonymous 0 4 audiences are largely seen as passive recipients of message distributed by media 0 create content they believe audience will want synchronous media media that take place in real time such as live TV or radio that require the audience to be present during the broadcastperformance Asynchronous media media that do not require an audience to assemble at a given time EX printed materials and recorded audio or video Time shift recording an audio or video event for viewing later rather than when the even was originally broadcast EX Setting a VCR to record a program while one is out Mass Communication and Convergence Changing interplay of interpersonal and mass communication 0 Interpersonal can adopt characteristics of mass and vise versa in an attempt to remain relevant to audiences 0 Blog short for 39weblogquot a type of website in which a person posts regular journal or diary entries with the posts arranged chronologically Interpersonal in scope but have become in uential among public or decision makers l mass Immediate nonanonymous feedback interpersonal 0 Twitter email 0 Fragmented audiences of Web not really a mass media Functions of Mass Communication Surveillance Surveillance primarily the journalism function of mass communication which provides info about the processes issues events and other developments in society 0ex weather alerts political scandals 0 Weakness 0 Too much news about disasters murders unusual events skew idea of what is normal oToo much info can make audience apathetic Correlation Correlation ways in which media interpret events and issues and ascribe meanings that help individuals understand their roles within the larger society and culture 0Shapes public opinion 0People may shift views to match public 0Media maintains social stability 0lnterpretation can favor established businesses or elite interests Cultural Transmission Cultural transmission transference of the dominant culture as well as subcultures from one generation to the next or to immigrants which helps people learn how to t into society 0Criticism creates a homogenized culture mindless consumerism to be happy not values Entertainment Performed by all 3 functions and solid entertainment generation 0Critique mass media encourages lowbrow entertainment not ne art 0Can perpetuate stereotypes about groups 0 can seem natural in terms of the show Theories of Communication How communication works and what exactly it is Transmission Models Shannon and Weaver model is a linear system of electronic communication Includes 5 main parts 0 Information source formulates message 0Transmitter l encodes message into signals 0Channel signals delivered via channel 0Receiver l decodes signals reconstructing original message ODestination Info source transmitterl receiver l destination 0 Limited capacity to provide feedback 0 Can be affected by noiseinterference Limited in explaining mass communication Simpli ed Communications model adapted the Shannon and Weaver modell Wilbur Schramm 0 Requires 3 main elements 0 1 a source who encodes o 2 a message or signal which is transmittedvia media or interpersonal o 3 a destination where the receiver decodes it 0 discovered communication is not a oneway process SchrammOsgood model is circular Transmission model theories do not explain how ads can evoke emotion or how people may see same message differently 0 falls short of explaining deeper meaning behind someone reading the paper only explains electronic signal well Critical Theory and Cultural Studies Critical theory a theoretical approach broadly in uenced from Marxist notions of the role of ideology exploitation capitalism and the economy in understanding and eventually transforming society 0 Different branches of critical theory but will focus on one Cultural studiesia framework in studying theories of culture and communication that shuns the positivist scienti c approach used by scholars in the empirical school and that tries to examine the symbolic environment created by mass media 0 Does not believe in using statistical techniques to explain human behavior and society with natural laws 0 Examine symbolic environment created by mass media and study role mass media play in culture and society 0 Ex TV commercial is full of cultural codes that tell us subtle ways of how we should be acting james Carey communications scholar and historian who has shaped a culturalstudies approach to communication theory 0 Ritual view of communication 0 Communication is a symbolic process where reality is produced maintained repaired and transformed Posting pics online is sharing a way of doing things and ways of thinking that actually create the society we live in Television The Future of Convergence TV can be in uential in terms of teaching people culture and idealized social norms Product placement a form of advertising in which brand name goods or services are placed prominently within programming content that is otherwise devoid of advertising demonstrating the convergence of programming with advertising content Superstation a local TV station that reaches a national audience by beaming its programming nationwide via satellite to local cable systems 0 Launched the rst 24 hour news network CNN When TV became mass medium theatres viewed it as threat 0 Now play old movies on TV TV and computer convergence 0 lnteractive vote for American Idol 0 Watching TV on computer 0 Will develop into having interactive TV where we can access Web or chat or email as watch TV Mass media surround and in uence our world entertainment information sell us stuff Education and Media Medialiteracy the process of interacting with media content and critically analyzing it by considering its particular presentation its underlying political or social messages and ownership and regulation issues that may affect what is presented and in what form 0US is behind in teaching it 0Are learning all the time through use of medial need to know if its accurate and useful 0 Media consumers should always question what they seem hear or experience when receiving mediated communication 0 is it biased Does this show encourage racial stereotypes 0 So can have better control of their actions and not be controlled by media messages What is Media Literacy Examples reading a book navigating a website sending an email attachment and realizing a scary part of a moving is coming from change in music Traditional reading literacy visual literacy computer literacy Never can attain enough knowledge always can improve media literacy Foundation for critical media consumption 391 392 393 Development of Media Regulatory Factors Regulations and laws created by govt agenciesFCC effects what type of media is available and what content we can see 0Can decrease level on competition by making it difficult to enter a market 0Ex restriction on monopoly ownership of TV stations radio news Net neutrality a principle that states that broadband networks should be free of restrictions on content platforms or equipment and that certain types of content platforms or equipment should not get preferential treatment on the network 0must be careful with new regulationsderegulations industry lobbyists want to give their clients a business advantage at expense of competitors the general public 0 telecommunication companies want to start charging content providers for certain types of content being sent over their networks telecomm Firms favoring media content that comes from a parent media company Sociocultural Factors Technology may affect sociocultural practices and norms but those norms may also have an affect on how that technology is used and perceived Could result in new laws to regulate new behavior Society could not be ready for the change video conference has not replaced in person meetings 0 Norms may change tool telephone a novelty at rst 0 social norm of being polite limits telephone use in movies etc 0 unintended consequences of new medial using video on phone to record attacking strangers Technological Factors Want newest and best technologies but history of media shows that is not always what we buy 0 1 If media company is new and does not have a track record 0 2 People don t want to spend time learning new devices or changing media consumption like what is familiar 0 Ex Applegt PC but lack of computer literacy contributed o Microsoftinternet explorer NetscapeNetscape navigator Economic Factors Affect how we use media and what type of media we get 0 Economic pressures forced newspaper companies to shut down 0 Is the heart of industry lobbyists efforts to change regulations so they are more favorable to the industry 0 Marketing deals to make an inferior technology more popular Apple did not license its operating system to other companies cant make clones so can keep price high 0 Role in types of programming we see and type of info we receive 0 Entertainment news cheaper and more popular than in depth pieces 0 Reality shows cheapl rise in those 0 Driving media consolidation media owners make programing decisions based on their business interests NOT the public interest m The underlying rules by which a medium presents itself and is used and understood by the audience Each medium of mass communication presents its message uniquely Do not notice grammar with media we are familiar with Print Media Sophisticated media grammar Evolves over time 0 Bookl pictures typeface hardcover or paperback spacing between words indexes chapter headings etc 0 Newspaperl sectionssports business etc o Organize for speed and subconscious expectation of what audience will see 0 Headlines tabloid or broadsheet graphic to attract eyes 0 lntroverted pyramid style of writing news 0 Sources credibility 0 Caption on photo 0 Magazine 0 Graphicdesign techniques 0 Longform writing 0 Ads are a full page 0 Table of contents Hundreds of years to develop the grammar of print yet have quickly adapted to rise of electronic media Radio and Recorded Music Uses combo of audio techniques to achieve different ends 0 Actualities edited audio clips from people interviewed 0 Voiceovers an unseen announcer or narrator talking while other activity takes place either on radio or during TV scene 0 Volume change sound effects etc o All used to convey info capture attention evoke a mood achieve some purpose Recorded music particular stylistic conventions 0 Lengthess than 5 min 0 Certain rhythms for genreeasy to distinguish o If sound is different harder to get listened to get recording contract Talk radio 0 Interactivity between producers and audience 0 Callers have limited time can be disconnected Film and Television Sophisticated grammar based on editing camera angles lighting movement and sound 0 Started crosscutting scenes TV sitcom 0 Shot on set camera stationary punch lines reinforced by laugh track 0 Laugh track a device used in TV sitcoms that generates prerecorded laughter timed to coincide with punch lines orjokes News 0 Grammar all affects our perception of the news 0 quotobjective point of viewquot treats viewers as observers 0 camera is still 0 interviewees not allowed to look directly into camera only reporter can establishes authoritativeness Forces on Media Content affects what types of shows are produced to whether a news report critical of an important advertiser is downplayed or pulled up by a media corporation Pro t and Nonpro t Media Commercial nature of mass communication 0 2 main systems for funding media 0 1 commercial marketplace printelectronic run to make 0 2 public funding govt support corporate gifts sponsorships l mostly for electronic media tax Forpro t media companies 0 Either publically or privately owned public is through shares in the stock market 0 Pro t pressures can lead companies to think short term payoff 0 Cutting costs layoffs negatively in uences product quality Also is incentive to make better products Entertainment medial TV and motion pictures 0 Commercial breaks for ads quotfreequot TV being paid for this way u companies raise prices to afford ads so consumer still paying for TV advertisers in uence content on shows or wont run ads Commercial Forces in Public Service Media 0 Funded partially by corporate sponsors who are interested in programs that are consistent with the image they want to cultivate among public broadcasting s audience 0 Also business member donations philanthropic foundations federal funding Product Placement and Corporate Sponsorship ln uence content of shows and motion pictures in 2 ways 0 1 Product placement the practice of advertisers paying for actual products to be used and shown prominently in TV shows and movies 0 2 advertisersmarketers work with the media organization 0 ex Pepsi sponsoring a concert 0 entire channels based on corporate sponsorship Hallmark Channel Concentration of Media Ownership Media enterprises can reduce costs and increase pro t by getting larger and reaching a larger market with their content conglomerates 39 0 Successful media enterprises have acquired other media enterprises becoming larger in size and scope 0 Media system now large multifaceted and internationally owned 0 Argued that there is less diversity of voicesnonmainstream voices not heard 0 Building communications cartel 0 Media Oligopoly a marketplace in which ownership and diversity are severely limited and the actions of any single media group substantially affect its competitors including determining the content and price of media products for both consumers and advertisers 0 Dominating media worldwide is 8 media conglomerates Historical Development of Digital Media Not simply an improvementenhancement of other forms of media 0 Digital Media have been created in or transformed into machine language or computer readable form 0 Presence or absence of info 1 or 0 bit 0 each bit is stored in a binary code 8 bits in a byte 0 each word song video image is a string of 0 s and 1 s 0 digitization process in which media is made into computer readable form 0 analog media originally used in audio recording for media analogous to the sound being recreated It now refers to all nondigitized media ie Print audio and video recordings photography and lm Discussing Digital Media Networks are Key Networks connect computers or media devices to each other so they can communicate l telephone cable satellite Internet 0 Online refers to the interconnected networked media that permit the direct electronic exchange of info data and other communications 0 Internet and world wide web part of online communications world not the entire world 0 Internet and WWW reached 50 households faster than any other media technology The World of Digital Media the current state of digital media and emerging trends among other major forms of mass communication Digital Print Digital Books Can make electronic annotations bookmarks access content in an interactive table of contents search book by keyword Mark a shift to online transactions as means of revenue ecommerce Kindle and free sample chapters aided growth of digital books 9 of book sales Digital Newspapers and Magazines 0 Citizen journalism journalism done by amateurs or volunteers either with citizen journalism websites bogs or as part of a mainstream news organization s website 0 Online newspapers face direct competition with this social media sites etc 0 Advertising newspaper companies are threatened by Internet 0 More perks to advertising online 0 Printbased magazines have ceased publishing and moved to onineonly versions due to rising production costs and slowing readership growth 0 Online magazines still fair poorly in digital world 0 Screens are not as clear as printed page but improving 0 Changing behavior among public 0 Not want to read long articles time Digital Audio MP3 le format Compresses nearCDquality audio les distributed easily over internet 0 Problem can copy download distribute music for free 0 Major labels and recording industry threatened by peerto peer le sharing Lose control and pro ts decrease 0 Finding new songs you like is harder Production costs decrease more people can create music and distribute them digitally Solution Amazon lters based in previous purchases 0 Radio Podcasts a program that is usually audio or video that lets users easily subscribe much like subscribing to a blog Online radio audio programming not overair broadcast a US Copyright Of ce declared webcasters must pay royalties for songs based on of listeners n Many shut down a Digital Millennium Copyright Act a copyright law in the US that makes it a criminal act to circumvent or alter digital rights management technologies that protect copyrighted works a Live sports has emerged Satellite radio Digital Visual Media Internet has allowed a means for distribution of independent and short lms that theatres would not otherwise show 0 Good for lowbudget directors cheaper than lm Video content online growing 0 Youtube 0 TV stations have some of their content online for viewing 0 Hulu 0 TV took more conciliatory approach 0 Allow shows to go on Youtube with hopes it will attract more Viewers Digital Media Grammar Still forming very new Some starting to form 0 Hypertext text online that is linked to another web page website or different part of the same web page by HTML coding 0 Either underlined or a different text 0 Logo in upperleft corner 0 lcons create a visual language that allows people to quickly learn new types of programs 0 RSS feed short for really simple syndication It lets users easily subscribe to feeds from a blog or website 0 quotdigquot a popular website in which users submit materialquotdiggingquot to be voted on by other users with the most popular material appearing on the home page 0 printing opening a document sending a le etc 4 main concepts that underlie digital media world and De nition a combination of different types of media in one package 0 lm or video with sound is a type of multimedia because it combines visual and audio elements 0website text video animation audio or graphics De nition having 3 main elements 1 dialog that occurs between a human and a computer program 2 a dialog that occurs simultaneously or nearly so 3 the audience has some measure of control over what media content it sees and in what order Computers programmed to automate complex tasks 0Draws 3D objects computer games Plays role in ability of online media to be personalized and localized 0 Personalized the ability of mediacontent producers to provide content that is of interest to a speci c user based either on criteria the user has selected such as a zip code or on automated tracking of their Webviewing habits 0 Localization ability of mediacontent producers to provide content based on a user s locale either done automatically based on a ISP or after the user has provided info such as a city name or zip Physical presence is dying immaterial quality of digital info 0Limitless copy of books library and checking out books is meaningless 0Watching a show broadcast at 8 pm is gone can watch 247 on demand etc Commercial Forces on Digital Media Content Traditionally media enterprises required heavy capital investment now changing in digital age 0Anyone can make a webpage Google etc 0Large online media has backing of traditional companies Web today is mostly commercial but originally meant as the free software movement The OpenSource Movement Aka quotfreesoftware movementquot Began with creating software and programs that were freely available for anyone to use 0 Source code left accessible so others could improve the program shadng 0 Firefox growing chasing Internet Explorer Content production 0 Wikipedia 0 Wiki type of website which can be edited by anyone 0 Becoming a competitive force for mainstream computer makers and media companies 0 Microsoft is providing computers to libraries free in some countries so they become familiar with it and are reluctant to switch to a free software OpenOffice Revenue Models for Digital Media Challenge of commercial online media properties is building a revenue stream to not only cover costs but return a pro t 0 None appear to work better than others looking for new ways to earn pro t Advertising Traditional banner ads not working well except for large sites 0 Banner ad ad across the top or along the side of a website and the original form of advertising on the web 0 Media companies charge advertisers CPM o CPM cost per thousand Standard unit for measuring advertising rates for publications based on circulation 0 Have low clickthrough ratesCTR rate in which people click on the ad Have tried to improve clickthrough rate 0 Pop ups larger etc 0 Search engine advertising has become most successful 0 Search engine marketingSEM paying a search engine ie Google to have a listing appear prominently when searched 0 Search engine optimization strategy that utilizes website design careful choice of keywords links and other techniques to show prominently in online searches Subscriptions Most successful media sites have carved out an important content niche produced original quality content designed effective online presence and charged a subscription 0 Wall StreetJournal and Consumer Reports Online 0 Most other sites not successful 0 Freemium a subscription type in which subscribers can receive some content for free but if they want to take advantage of all the site has to offer they must pay a monthly subscription Ecommerce Electronic commercial environment that emerged in 1990 s 0 Uses behavioral targeting technique used to increase the effectiveness of their campaigns by using info collected on an individual s webbrowsing behavior to select which ads to display to that individual 0 Media products can be packaged with media content and promoted 0 Book review may have a link to Amazon Lessons credibility of media company though 0 Companies must surrender some control for success Give free book chapters on Kindle buy songs individually etc Strategic Communication PR and Advertising 0 Ads companies reach mass audience by utilizing the distribution system media outlets have created 0 Most prevalent form of media content 0 Paid for by an organization 0 Provide the basic nancial revenue that pays for the creation of media content 0 PR managing the public persona of a company also using this 0 PR content is not paid 0 Earned Media favorable publicity prompted by a public relations source rather than advertising such as a news conference event or press release the opposite of paid mediaads 0 Organizations try to in uence media content so they hope by getting positive stories about themselves in media it will make them better known by public 0 Professionals make sure clients painted in best ight any damaging info framed in least harmful way 0 News organizations are dependent on PR functioncorporate govt nonpro t groups for information Scheduled releases reports contact with executives and employees for interviews info during crisis Strategic Communications Goal of delivering a persuasive message to an audience so they will think or behave in a way that the communicator wants 0 Need to know what channel will be most effective for a particular message to a particular audience 0 Most important factor is understanding your audience 0 Want audience to act in a certain way 0 Subscribe stop smoking donate buy product Persuasive Communications Most effective use techniques that appear natural that the audience came to this conclusion themselvesbut actually was persuaded History 0 Rhetoric one of the ancient arts of discourse it involves using language to persuade others 0 Sophists a group of Greek philosophers focused on this and taught this knowledge to whoever would pay them Claimed truth was unimportant l objected by Plato Socrates and Aristotle dozens of theories for strategic comm and audience decision making categorized broadly as this 0 1 people s behavior and actions are somehow linked to their cognitions about the worldattitudes beliefs and values as well as their general knowledge and social in uences 0 2 how people process info about the worldthinking deeply about issues or only looking at super cial cues what types of messages they nd most persuasive 0 3 a persuader s credibility authority and attractiveness all play important roles in successful persuasion One theory of persuasion that takes a different viewpoint of most 0 Theory of cognitive dissonance states that we act rst and then rationalize our behavior afterward in order to t our actions into self perceived notions of who we are 0 Explains weird behaviors like why freshies allow themselves to be hazed in order to join a frat which they are then loyal to The Role of Media in Persuasion Media channels are the means by which public becomes aware of a product or issue Media has credibility 0 Establishes reputations of famous people Direct effects model a model of mass communication that says that media has direct and measurable effects upon audiences such as encouraging them to buy products or become violent 0 Been disproved but Campaigns can be strategically designed to produce the kind of attitude and behavior shifts that are desired by persuaders Advertising Advertising an ancient form of human communication generally designed to inform or persuade members of the public with regard to some product or service 0 Sponsoredpaid for communication designed to informpersuade audience to buy a goodservice accept a point of view or act in some fashion 0 Perspective 0 Ads media is a means to gather audience 0 Medial audiences would not gather if content is not interesting 0 Money 0 Media organizations charge based on of audience members reached l vary Rating used in broadcast media to explain of houses watched that show CPMcost per thousand standard unit for measuring ads rates for publications based on circulation a Print and online media use this 0 Performancebased advertising any form of online ad buying in which an advertiser pays for results rather than paying for the size of the publisher s audience or CPM Actual clickthroughs to the advertiser s site 0 Search engine marketing paying for certain key words in order to show up high in rankings in search engines such as Google or Bing The Historical Development of Advertising Early Facetofacel barter Printing Press in 15th C ads in masscommunication settingsposters iers 0 Broadsheet ads popular to attract colonists to New World Greater Prominence of Advertising mid1800 s 0 advertising became core for US rms marketing their products 0 lrelied more heavily on ad revenue 0 1856 Robert Bonner ran rst full page ad 0 no standards of advertising could make outrageous claims early 20th C 0 rise of mass produced packaged goods and automobile industry 0 cigarette ads grewwith criticism though Development of the Advertising Agency First bought newspaper space in local audiences 1860 s rise of national and nationally distributed monthly magazines 0 due to penny press s growth into a masscirculation medium Volney B Palmer 0 Created rst advertising agency in 1841 0 Created longstanding business model for the adagency industry 0 Adagency commission a amount of the cost of an ad that is taken by the advertising agency that helped create and sell the ad Merging of advertising business begins NW Ayer amp Partners 0 establishes a standardized adagency commission 15 percent of the total media billings 0 set standard for creative services 20th C 0 TV surpasses print media as main vehicle for advertising Growth of Commercial Television Funded by ads Quick to use new medium for ads Tony Schwartz 20th C ad king 0 Used implied messages famous for quotthe Daisy Spotquot 0 1964 political ad 1960 s increased station breaks between programs more and more to increase pro ts 1971 cut the standard commercial length from 6030 seconds without reducing ratesincreased pro ts 1961 WORTV 0 Infomercial paid programming 3060 minute TV show that usually involves a celebrity spokesperson and testimony from customers about how good their product is 1969 US applied Fairness Doctrine to cigarette tobacco commercials O Fairness Doctrine adopted by FCC in 1969 it required broadcasters to seek out and present all sides of a controversial issue they were covering 0 Later discarded in 1987 0 1970 a congressional ban on radio and TV cigarette ads took effect hard liquor voluntarily banned for 60 years 0 changed in 2009 when Absolut vodka ran and continued running ad Commercialization of the Internet Internet began as a noncommercial space created with taxpayers First marketing message 1978 0 Spam unwanted email sent out by advertisers as a mass mailing First ads on web in 1994 Hotwired 0 Banner ad an ad across the top of a website and the original form of advertising on web o Clickthrough rateCTR rate at which people click on an online ad Studies have shown these to be low in present day The Rise of Branding Branding process of creating in the consumer s mind a clear identity for a particular company s product logo or trademark 0 Developed via advertising 18901900 5 0 Sought to differentiate their products from others 0 Catchy slogan distinct logo advertised across media so audience gets frequent exposure Campbell s soup rst success in 1904 Coke 1970 Some so successful brand names synonymous with product itself 0 Kleenex Protecting brands 0 Brands are trademarked can sue if companies infringe on their trademark 0 Try to associate themselves with famous brands using a logo colors or name that is similar 0 Value of the company 0 70 of company s value may be in its brand rather than its physical property ie factories and products Selling Products Selling Ideas Social marketingpractice of using advertising and marketing techniques to persuade people about changing bad or destructive behaviors or adopting good behaviors 0 Through public information campaigns media program funded by the govt and designed to achieve some social goal or what might be called social engineering Difficult 0 Behaviors are considered cool by users hard to change 0 Which ad channel to use 0 Ethical questions what is a quotprosocialquot message 0 Cant determine how effective campaign was not immediate results Fear appeal a type of advertising technique that attempts to scare the audience in order to persuade them such as antismoking ads that show dis gured former smokers Public service announcementPSA advertisinglike messages for which the media donate time or space to organize with a worthy purpose that ostensibly bene ts the public These campaigns plays role in educating people in developing countries about issues safe sex AIDS etc 0 Uses visual symbols bc of illiteracy Advertising Channels Print Media Commercial messages either come in 0 Classi ed advertising consists of short messages posted by individuals and organizations to sell speci c goods or services mostly in newspapers but increasing online 0 Only use text 0 Pay by wordword limit so messages are short 0 Online auction cites discounteBay Craigslist 0 Display advertising illustrationsimages and text that can occupy a small section of a page a full page or multiple pages Because of their high costs display ads are usually bought by large companies or organizations 0 Costs vary size and location 0 Advertorial a type of display ad that is created to look like an article within the publication although most publications have the words advertisement or quotpaid advertisementquot in tiny print somewhere nearby Rate card a listing of advertising rates by size placement and other characteristics such as whether ads are black and white or full color Frequently discounts are also usually offered and the listed rates are usually negotiable especially for large advertisers Electronic Media Prices high in comparison to print and shorter length of time 0 Electronic commands larger audience Ways advertisers get products noticed 0 lnfomercialspaid programing 0 Subliminal advertising persuasive messages that supposedly happen below the level of consciousness such as an image ashing on a screen 0 No proof it works though still illegal though 0 Product placement the practice of advertisers paying to have actual products used or shown prominently in TV showsmovies Outdoor Outdoor advertising Billboards and other forms of advertising such as on buses or taxis that are done in public 0 Interactive growing guitar hero up to play at mall Direct Mail quotjunk mailquot organizations will rent their subscriber list to advertisers telemarketing calling people at home to offer stuff 0 Telephone Consumer Protection Act 1991 o Strict guidelines on what times they may call 0 Can be removed from companies call lists Advertising in a Digital World 70 of commercialmedia revenues have come from advertising personalize the user experience 0 Cookies info that a website puts on a user s local hard drive so that it can recognize when that computer accesses the website again Email Marketing Social media has surpassed but still important Opt in the practice of letting consumers choose to receive mailings or marketing material by having them check a box on a website usually when registering for the site 0 shows their willingness target audiences cheap Banner Ads Today variety of shapes and sizes Low success seemed to put online ads industry in a stall Popups lnterstitials Superstitials and Video Interstitial ad opens in a new window from the one the user was in 0 Unpopular among users Superstitial ad covers part of the existing screen or moves over part of it without opening a new window 0 Less obtrusivemore popular 0 Crawl across screen or appear in corner Video still experimenting 0 Usually 1015 seconds 0 Sometimes can overlay at bottom of screen Classi eds and Auction Sites Classi eds onlinegt print 0 No space limitation 0 No geographic limitation Auction Sites 0 Starting with eBay 0 Seller rating review systems online payment large of users 0 Good for small businesses especially Search Engine Ads Becoming very important Want to show up as rst entry in search engine search 0 Search engine optimizationSEO o Unpaid 0 Uses techniquesdesign keywords to try to raise rankings of a website in a search 0 Search engine marketingSEM 0 Paid o Advertiser pays company for a sponsored link or buys key words sold at auction Behavioral Advertising Tracking user behavior as they visit websites and then inserting banner ads on similar topics on following websites being visited 0 Controversial Viral Marketing Viral Marketing spreading news and info about media content through word of mouth usually via online discussion groups chats and emails without utilizing traditional advertising and marketing methods The Advertising Business Suffered in 2007 with the recession but is now reversed Cable TV is where most money is spent for ads 0 Share between mediums was constant in 1990 s TV newspaper magazine radio 0 Today 50 of total ad spending Internet now approaching to top Advertising Agencies Link between media and companies seeking to sell a product 4 main areas of operation 0 1 creative 0 where ad content is produced with copywriters working with creative and art directors 2 client management 0 working with the client and is usually handled by account execques 3 media buying 0 media planners and buyers determine and make the purchase of media time or space 0 produced agency revenues 4 research 0 collection and analysis of data on consumer characteristics and media and purchase behaviors consoHdann 0 most leading advertising agencies are owned by larger advertising and media companies 0 international operations too 0 operate PR and ad rms full service companies boutique agencies specialty agencies 1 WPP 2 Omnicom Public Relations Different from Advertising 0 Do not pay media companies to place their content in the media 0 Persuade gatekeeperseditors journalists bloggers that there is newsworthy info about their client that should be published Part of the 3 way relationship organizations their publics and the media 0 General Public but also speci c groups could be working for 0 help companies understand social media provide guidance The Historical Development of Public Relations Developed as a professional eld in early 20th C Before that publishing activities we conducted with little sense of difference between them 0 Thomas Paine s Common Sense First stage emerged in early 20th C 0 Age of Press agentry the practice of getting media attention for a client often by creating outrageous stunts that would attract journalists 0 Would not have to pay for publicity this way 0 lvy Ledbetter Lee 1st true modern public relations practitioner Established the press conference staged events newsreesvideo news releases John D Rockefeller Sr was a client Famous for ability to manipulate the media 0 Edward L Bernays founder of modern PR 0 Applied principles of Freudian psychology and social science to the shaping of public opinion 0 Arthur W Page helped create ethical guidelines 0 Page Principles ie quottell the truthquot Trends in the Development of Public Relations Move away from assumptions that the mass audience is passive and mute 0 Originally asymmetric feedback not sought 0 Twoway symmetric model a model of public relations that emphasizes the profession as a system of managing relationships between organizations and individuals and their many publics 0 Want to build mutual understanding AND in uencing public opinion 0 Ethical o EX Johnson ampJohnson and the Tylenol tampering case Handled by being open and immediately responding Painted Tylenol company in positive light PR and Media Relations Maintains good relationship with media 0 More likely to obtain fair coverage of their organizations Pseudo Events Events manufactured by individuals or organizations to capture attention of the media and thus the public 0 Press conference protests parades award ceremonies 0 Media also relies on these 75 news content in uenced by these Distributing News to the Media in the Digital Age News releases or press releases 0 Originally typed and sent in mail now emailed or posted on Web 0 Easier to evaluate newsworthiness faster to edit easier to ignore Today more use a Pitch a request to review a client s new product or do a story about the client or the product Video news releaseVNR 0 Controversy bc seems like was produced by the station Finding Sources Online Allows highly efficient targeting of communications and searching 0 Ex ProfNet website 0 Contacts news and info officers around the world PR Firms and the PR Industry 0 Cut back if doing bad Consolidation among rms has slowed in early 20th C with most occurring internationally Organizations have own PR offices but may still hire outside rms Firms 3 main areas 0 1 core practice areas type of relationship the client needs managed 0 ex marketing consumer relations investor relations nonpro t 0 2 services type of activity the rm provides to clients 0 ex media relations research interactive online writing fundraising crisis management lobbying 0 3 lndustriesl business sectors within which the clients operate o utilities technology retail health care manufacturing large PR rms provide integrated communication programs 0 rm provides comprehensive set of communication management and services to clients Changing Trends in Advertising and PR Difference between 2 are blurring 0 Integrated communication idea that all channels of communication about a company or brand should work together in creating a cohesive message 0 Want to know not only best way to maintain a brand s image but learn what the public is saying bout the brand through social media Online public demands more transparency than past 0 Symmetrical dialogue between clientpublic and company 0 quotcontrolling the messagequot shifting to quotguiding the conversationquot Careers in Advertising and PR Media production and consumption trends favor strat comm not journ 0 ln larger rms can change career track easy 0 Social media creates jobs 0 Nonpro t salaries lower Regulation of radio and electronic wireless media 0 Airwaves belong to the public those who use must serve to the public 0 Airwaves are a limited resource 0 Changes happening however with digitization The Recording Industry Mass communication 0 Makes artists who are discovered wildly successful 0 Makes it dif cult for artists who do not t an established genre to get contracts and be heard Controlled by a few large media entertainment companies 0 Homogenization of music styles that often sound the same 0 Only shows what will make money pro t motivated 0 Beginning to change though with emergence of online music distribution Distinctive Functions of the RecordedMusic Industry Mainly 2 functions of recorded music 0 Entertainment providing or being provided with amusement or enjoyment 0 Cultural transmission process of passing on culturally relevant knowledge skills attitudes and values from a person or group to a group 0 New fashions phrases lyrics 0 Can help people de ne their identities or promote behavior like treating women as objects Can help shape cultural norms of what is acceptable 0 Can educate kids History of Recorded Music First medium of mass communication not based on print 0 Began in 1870 s 0 Phonograph rst patented by Thomas Edison in 1877 as a quottalking machinequot it used a tinfoil cylinder to record voices from telephone conversations Technological improvements in electronics and the type of material the sounds were recorded on made sound quality better 0 Graphophone an improvement on phonograph in recording audio by Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Tainter it used beeswax to record sound rather than tinfoil then wax cylinders o Gramophone developed by Emile Berliner it used a at disc to record sound rather than the cylinder that was used up to that time History of microphone in order to record the sound 0 Gathers sound energy and converts it to electrical energy Radio invented in 1890 and began as mass media in 1920 s Few dramatic changes in the rst 100 years 0 Vinyl albums electromagnetic tapes8track tapes and then cassettes poorer sound quality but portable compact discs1980 rst conveyor of digitally recorded songs 0 game changer 0 improved song quality and allows for creation of duets The RecordedMusic Industry Today 19091950 slj 3 way oligarchy that dominated music industry 0 0 growth of rock and roll added competition 1990 s l reemergence of oligarchy control 0 but Internet and online music dif cult to rede ne this structure Today 0 Major label 4 biggest recording arts companies that control much of the music industry through their powerful distribution channels and ability to market their music to mass audiences 0 Universal Music Group Sony Music EMI amp Warner Music Group 0 Labels consolidated into these 4 companies 0 All 4 are either subsidiary of a larger media empire or has other media entertainment interests beyond music 0 Independent labels any small recordproduction and distribution companies that are not part of the four majorlabel companies They include companies producing only one or 2 albums a year as well as larger independents such as Disney The independent labels product 66 of the albums each year but only 20 of the sales 0 Major labels dominate because they can market better 0 Steep decline in recorded music sales digital 0 Rise in digital sales decline in cddecining more than digital can make up for 0 Independent releases have risen But small sales marketing power is small RecordingIndustry Business Model 3 main parts creation promotion distribution Creation Major labels sign artists and nancially back them 0 Recording labels receive majority of the nancial rewards 0 Most music sells fewer than 5000 copies annually 0 Not good income for most artists Promotion Radio primary promotional vehicle Music videos and use of music on TV shows video games and ringtones becoming important 0 Record labels give free copies of their music in exchange for play time o Payola cashgifts given to radio disc jockeys by record labels in exchange for greater airplay given to the label s artists or most recent songs The practice is now illegal after several scandals in the 1950 s Reduces potential diversity on the air Now punishable with a ne or imprisonment and enforced by FCC Distribution Record labels make copies send the albums to local retail outlets that sell them to consumers 0 Online stores ie Amazon don t have to worry about display space so can carry larger numbers of CDs than retail 0 Long tail notion that selling a few of many types of items can be as pro table or even more pro table than selling many copies of a few items works best for online sellers 0 Do not even have to buy physical product download Pricing Structure Determining factor in both sales and pro tability for label and royalties for the artist 0 With increase in production volume cost of producing CDs has fallen wholesale prices have fallen to about 10 0 But immense pro tability of recordedmusic industry 0 Make gross product of about 5 per cd Outlook for the Recording Industry Digital has played a role in industry s decline and regrowth 0 New revenue streams ringtones online subscription sales 0 Illegal downloading of songs Digital Rights Management and Illegal File Sharing Music industry ghting the online surge 0 Digital rights managementDRM various technologies or security codes used to protect copyrighted works from being illegally copied 0 Did not work with CD5 more common online 0 Limits types of devices length of song or access to song 0 Recording industry sued lesharing services and individuals 0 Colleges targeted by RIAA for education to discourage music le sharing 0 Dif cult for recording industry to stop lesharingl once one shuts down another becomes popular New Business Models Emerging 2 main business models emerging downloads and subscription services 0 Apple s ltunes 2003 got consumers to pay for downloading music 0 Ala carte song downloads has not reduced album purchases 0 Subscriptions have grown o Freemium subscriptions in which subscribers can receive some content for free but if they want to take advantage of all the site has to offer they must pay a monthly subscription 0 Slacker Radio and Pandora Recording industry looking to form partnerships with SPinternet service providers Music industry caught between old method and new have made some mistakes that hurt their image Satellite Spectrum Amplitude modulation how the audio signal is encoded on the carrier frequency Frequency modulation refers to the modulation of the length of the wave Global Positioning System a system of satellites that provide location info anywhere in the world What is Broadcasting Broadcast the original usage was agricultural referring to casting seeds widely in a field rather than depositing one at a time The notion was transferred to the edging electronic medium of radio and later TV Early Days 0 Main purpose was ship to ship communications 0 Radio provided pointtopoint communication where telegraph lines were unreliable o Broadcasts messages through wireless means widely 0 Then TV with moving pictures and audio Transmitter sends messages over a part of the electromagnetic spectrum to a receiverantenna which translates the message to a device 0 Electromagnetic waves are then decoded so they can be heard or seen Radio Most widely available medium of mass communication around the world 0 Almost all US households have and this is similar in industrialized countnes 0 Cheaper than TV portable 3 types of radio broadcasting 0 AM 0 FM 0 Satellite 0 More like audio programming than true broadcasting Distinctive Functions of Radio Entertain news information surveillance and marketing Emergency broadcast medium 0 Storms natural disasters military con ict bc of its portability History of Radio Late 19th C to early 21st C Wireless Telegraphy Heinrich Hertz demonstrated the existence of radio waves in 1885 which set the stage for the development of modern wireless communications The measurement unit of electromagnetic frequencies was named for Hertz Granville T Wood inventor of railway telegraphy in 1887 a type of wireless communication that allowed moving trains to communicate with each other and with stations greatly reducing of railway collisions Italian inventor and creator of radio telegraphy or wireless transmission in 1899 l quotthe wireless in Morse Code Exploring Radio39s Early Potential Department of AgricultureUSDA nanced s research to distribute over a broad area 0 His design is basis for AM radiol produced quotcontinuous waves 0 USDA used radio broadcasting to transmit weather reports in 1912 Voice Transmission 1906 Ernest Alexander built a working highfrequency continuous wave machine capable of transmitting a radio broadcast of a human voice and other sounds considered father of radio broadcasting technology because of his invention that permitted reliable voice transmissions for both pointtopoint communication and broadcasting Radio Before During and After WWI Military nancially supported research on the vacuum tube that would produce a reliable radio transmitter This ended with entrance into WW1 1917 0 All radio stations were taken over by govt or shut down 0 Could not privately own or operate a radio transmitter 0 Was lifted at end of war Commercial broadcasting and electionnight coverage began in 1920 Widespread Public Adoption of Radio In 1921 heavyweight boxing title ght between Jack Dempsey and George Carpentier established radio as a major medium of mass communication 0 Radio networks did not exist yet so one station WJY broadcasted ive sent to station KDKA which broadcasted in halls where local organizers set up receiversbc most did not have their own radio receiver at this time 0 Broadcasting boom began hundreds of stations sprang up in mid to late 19005 FM Radio Edwin Howard Armstrong and David Sarnoff Edwin Howard Armstrong inventor of FM radio transmission Columbia University engineering professor l was more clear than AM David Sarnoff Head of RCA He helped push the development of TV as a mass medium yet blocked the development of FM radio for years bc its adoption would hurt AM listenership and reduce demand for AM radio receivers which RCA produced and sold 0 Mirrors internet legal wrangling or threatened businesses prevent the better technologies from winning out 0 ln 1970 s FM exceeded AM listenership and of stations Creating a Viable Business Model for Radio A convergence of commercial interests govt decisions and a lack of coordination among advocates for publically supported broadcasting made privately owned stations with onair advertising the standard model that conUnuestoday 0 Audience size drives pro ts The Rise of Radio Networks Radio networksl affiliated radio stations in multiple cities all broadcasting a common core set of programming Radio Act of 19E created the Federal Radio Commission and was intended to help establish some sort of regulation and order over the chaos of the largely unregulated airwaves It helped establish the principle that the airwaves were a limited public good and that companies using those airwaves had a duty to act responsibly toward the public in terms of the type of material they broadcast Federal Radio CommissionFRC formed by the Radio Act the commission was the precursor to the FCC and created a policy that favored fewer highpower radio broadcasting stations rather than more numerous lowpower stations Federal Communications CommissionFCC the principal communications regulatory body at the federal level in the US est in 1934 0 Before all this broadcasting was unorganized 0 FCC started a system that favored fewer high power stations over smaller and more numerous local stations 0 This favors commercial broadcasting companies over educational religious small private businesses 0 NBCNational Broadcasting Network was rst network 0 CBS was second 0 By 1935 most stations were either part of NBC or CBS 0 ln 1940 s third competitor emerged ABC Consolidation in Radio Station Owners g Throughout 20th C ownership of radio was diverse due to federal laws prohibiting one organization from owning too many stations Telecommunications Act and regulatory changes in 1990 s new rules 0 No limitl radio becomes an oligarchy 0 Altered quotduopoly rulesquot 0 Now a single entity can own more stations 0 This shift l consolidation of radio ownership 0 Increases efficiency more economical centralized production larger budgets development in program effective management 0 Less focus on local issues Shift last few years to some deconsolidatingl Clear Channelbiggest selling stations due to FCC regulations and wanting to be private The Radio Industry Today Industry has been declining since 2006 with a rise in 2010 due to digital revenues Mostly commercial stations with 14 being noncommercial stations 0 Noncommerciall NPRnational public radio college radio community and religious 0 all stations get call letters 0 east of Mississippi RiverW 0 west of M River K Radio Station Programming After TV became new medium of mass communication radio adapted by specializing 0 Program formats time of day for certain formats audience demographics o Daypart a segment of time used by radio and TV program planners to decide who the primary audience is during that time of day or night 0 Format type of programing they air country1 sports news 0 To reduce costs stations relying on computerized automated systemsjremote DJs and set music programming Can cause problems in case of emergency play set program not safety info Outlook for the Radio Industry Cautiously optimistic l terrestrial radio stations will still exist 0 Cites like Pandora Spotify promote as personal radio stations 0 Also Podcasting and Satellite Podcasting Began to rise in 2004 Difference between podcast and download 0 Podcasts have an episodic nature to them belonging to a series 0 Podcasts easy to get and download like an RSS feed Give radio stations exibility 0 Can subscribe for podcasts and able to listen to speci c reports at their convenience 0 Used mostly in newstalk also sports and music Satellite Radio More like audio programming than traditional broadcast radio 0 Uses digital radio signals broadcast from a satellite much wider area covered 0 Less restrictions regarding content because its subscription based Sirius Satellite Radio began broadcasting in 2002 XM Satellite Radio launched after 0 Rivals 0 Howard Stern signed with Sirius in 2006 0 Combined in 2008 to be Sirius XM Radio END Radio will always be important even if devices change because it allows people to easily engage in other activities while listening Music lndustry 2 ideas 0 Can blame itself in not realizing that digital media would alter est business models and they would need to adapt not bully 0 But these new revenue streamsdownload a la carte are not making up for the decline in music sales due to illegal le sharing Digitization alters aspects of visual media and vise versa Filmmakers have made a visual media grammar in past 100 years Internet and online consumption of video lm and TV are new Photography 2 main functions 0 Surveillance the inherent nature of photography for verifying factual claims through visual evidence 0 Con rm facts told in a narrative 0 Cultural transmission the way in which photographs convey beliefs values and practices by what they show how they show it and the emotions that are stirred in the process 0 Can tell a story History of Photography Principles involved in creating photographs was known and used before photography was invented 0 camera obscura a dark box or room with a small hole in it that allowed an inverted image of an outside scene to be shown on the opposite inner wall 0 earliest record was in writings of Leonardo da Vinci 0 how light can affect chemicals but could not get permanent pics 0 1827 Joseph Niepce created picture but it was unclear and took 8 hours on exposure time to make the image permanent 0 Louis Daguerre inventor of the daguerreotype an early type of photography 0 Daguerreotype a method of creating a positive photographic image on a metal plate 0 Exposure time reduced to 30 minutes 0 Image quality exposure time amp color photos all advances over 150 years 0 Mathew B Brady A famous photographer of the 19th C who took portraits of many wellknown people of his day as well as Civil War battle eld photographs 0 Did not stick with standards of impartial photojournalists o Criticized for arranging his subject for dramatic purposes 0 These photos helped public understand the con ict Raised ethical issues for photojournalism regarding capturing actual scnes and creating more visually compelling scenes Seeing Beyond the Human Eye For scienti c documentationleadweard Muybridge 0 How a horse runs 0 Teaches us what human eyes are unable to see High art 0 Can persuade us 0 Beautiful Satellites 0 Google Earth 0 Privacy issues Photographic Industry Today Photographic industry does not play as big of a role in mass communications as the movie or TV industry Shift to digital cameras 0 Kodak still losing money though despite adapting to the shift 0 Fuji lm more successful than Kodak largest in world Have more powerful cameras than before and digital cameras allow amateur photographers to take professionalquality Movies Technology could recreate reality and create realities that could never exist in the real world The Functions of the Movie lndus y Primary function is to Entertain cultural transmission important too 0 cinema can also be a serious visual art form History of the Movie Industry Thomas Alva Edison inventor whose inventions include the electric light the phonograph and the Kinetoscope Edison s lab in Menlo Park New Jersey had over 60 scientists and produced as many as 400 patent applications a year 0 Kinetoscope quotpeep showquot machine 0 The Lumiere brothers patented a more portable camera 0 Cinematographiel based off his peep show machine1895 0 Difference was the this machine could display motion pictures to many people at the same time 0 Recorded ordinary life Silent Era New Medium New TechnologiLS New Storytelling Silent rstl easy to cross language barriers because the few words were text 0 Storytelling lasted a few minutes in length Georges Melies and DW Grif th Georges Meilies an early French lmmaker who pioneered the use of special effects in lm in order to show imaginative stories Grif th created rst ever full length lm and used crosscutting to show battle scenes FW Murnau and Serdi Eisenstein Murnauleosferatu which helped develop the language of lm Eisenstein pioneered the use of fast cuts between scenes in lm Sound and Color Come to Movies Color 01920 used a beam splitter with a prism to divide light entering the lens 0 rst successful featurelength colored lms 0 Technicolor Motion Pictures became standard for color motion pictures 0 Wizard of 02 Gone with the Wind 0 19505 became capable of capturing color without prisms 0 colored lms became more common sound 0 early live pianists actors speaking out parts etc still occurred even during silent lm era 0 1927j Theazz Singerwas rst commercially successful motion picture with sound 0 had subtitles and recorded music playing back 0 soundon lm systemsan optical soundtrack replaced that O 1929 more practical to record and play back sound synchronously with the recorded image 0 end of silent movie era actors could not adjustl accents stories written for spoken word not visual bc of microphones cameras became stationary again The Birth of Hollywood Motion picture industry started in New York in early 19005 Was center of entertainment Moved to Hollywood Weather 0 Allowed lmmakers to produce lms year round Created a split between the theater in NY and lm in Hollywood Provides global entertainment shapes culture commerce and imagination Hollywood Star System Originally names did not appear in credits 193051949 era of Hollywood studio star system 0 Paramount Warner Brothers etc held longterm contracts on star directors and actors and built their success on those stars 0 Stars unable to seek their own contracts for individual lms 0 Would do several lms a year 0 Movies made as popular entertainment to make a pro t not works of art Ended in 1948 0 Supreme Court forced studios to divest themselves from their empires because of monopolistic practicesUS v Paramount Pict 0 Cut into their power to control means of production and distribution 0 Growth of Independent lms lms made by production companies outside the main Hollywood studios 0 Rise of TV as medium drew audiences away Due to changes 0 No longer pro table to keep actors under longterm contracts 0 High labor costs gave studies incentive to rent themselves out to independent producers who worked with large studios on a per project basis 0 Big studio could still earn income off distribution networks Movie Industry Today More power rests in the hands of the artists making the lms directors and actors than in the past Major studios still have power 0 High costs of making a movie and the specialized knowledge required for high production standards requires a large organization 0 Major studios are part of much larger media conglomerates Costs 1005 of millions to make and produce movie and pay union salaries How developed 0 Filmmaker approaches a movie studio with script or story pitch 0 Comes from novel or reallife story 0 Original idea 0 Studio will demand change o Leads to creative differences 0 Shooting beginsweeks to months months of editing voiceovers put in and dubbing Marketing and Distribution for Movies The key to a movie s success Major studios can easily get a movie distributed widely than an independent lm company 0 Marketing 0 Main channel is advertising on TV creating trailers o 60 spending is on TV ads 0 Distribution 0 Have a regular pattern of exhibition quotwindowsquotplaces where they are shown to increase revenue quot rst runquot theatres then to 2nOI determined which theatres and then had agreements with theater owners time package deals to show less popular movies too 0 resisted TV at rst 0 realized it could give life to old movies 0 now see more revenue with VCRson demand than cable 0 pattern of movies 0 domestic theaters international release video ondemand pay cable channelsnetworksHBO then syndicated TV 0 ondemand may become rst window of release as it becomes more widespread Movie Industry Business Model Complicated 0 Many ways people can watch movies 0 Box of ce popularity 0 Licensing deals product placement promotional tieins Most movies lose money so stick with what s safe 0 Sequels of popular formulaic stories and characters Audiences decreasing but revenue in box of ce increasing 0 Ticket prices up 3D movies DVD rentals and sales are biggest money generator for moviesgtbox of ce 0 Still dropping due to on demand though Licensing deals 0 Rights to make toys blankets etc 0 Works best when movie turns out to be a blockbuster Promotional tieins 0 Fast food chains 0 Product placement form of ads in which brand name goodsservices are placed prominently within a movie in exchange for payment from the product maker Top 2 are still box of ce sales and video rentals Outlook for the Movie Industry Digital 0 Special affects seem more lifelike 0 Digital distribution will save studios millions 0 Don t have to ship physical lm print send by satellite or broadband 0 Endless copies 0 Slow to embrace bc 0 High cost of providing theatres with digital projector systems 0 Concern over loss of revenues Afraid of le swapping like with music industry and internet 0 If makes shift 0 Better digital effects and sound 0 Availability of kinds of movies will increase independent bc cost to produce and distribute will be lower Television More people still spend more time watching TV than with any other medium Controversy 0 Social skills and physical tness and meaningless entertainment 0 Educational TV news cultural programming Terrestrialover the air broadcast 0 23 of houses receive TV via cable consumer recording devices big bc 0 allowed time shift recording of an audio or video event for listening or viewing later rather than at the time of the original broadcast ex VCR 0 moved the balance of power toward the audience in choosing media content result due to a switch to digital format Functions of Television Entertainment surveillance correlation and cultural transmission Most in uential medium of mass communication Surveillance 0 Get news from TV Entertainment 0 More Americans get entertainment from TV than anything else 0 Also plays role in cultural transmission 0 In uencing new trends and social norms ls reducing a little in viewership due to Internet Became a mass media much faster than lm music and radio History of Television Louis May1873 discovered basics of photoconductivity 0 When exposed to light selenium bars conduct electricity Cathoderay tubeCTR a device still used in most TV screens and computer monitors in which electrons are transmitted to a screen for vnewnng 0 Conceived in 1859 butJulius Plucker Seeing the Light the First TV Systems 1923l39ljohn Logie Baird created the rst mechanically scanned TV device his 30line TV had better resolution than the rst attempts at electronic TVs 0 rst highde nition TV more lines of resolution 1923I39IVIadimir Zworykin improved cathoderay tube and called it the quoticonoscopequot that is the basis for the CTR s still used today 0 one of the fathers of electronic TV 1927 Farnsworth was the rst to use electronic wireless transmission of an image 0 rst step in development of electronic television Modern Television Takes Shape 1939j a 441Iine TV technology was demonstrated 0 brought attention to the new medium 0 TV broadcasting began with the National Broadcasting CompanyNBC 0 Development of TV interrupted by WW2 1945 govt lifted wartime ban 0 over next 5 years grew to millions of households with TV9 of population initially 4 commercial TV networks NBC CBS ABC amp DuMontwhich failed 1960B 87 US households had TV 1951j colored TV broadcasting debuted 0 1953 was of cial start when FCC approved a modi ed version of a system that was compatible with existing screens Digital Television Preparing the Way for Convergence 19505 video display was small black and white low delity sound 605705l color and sound developed and increased realism of viewing 0 resolution was unchanged though 1981 mh de nition televisionHDTVmodern TV technology that produces a much higher resolution image sharper color a wider aspect ration and superior audio Term was rst used by Japanese organization to describe a system called HiVision 0 analog format 1990j gital televisionDTV an alldigital TV system in which all info broadcast by cable or through the air is in digital or computerreadable form 0 not same as HDTV HDTV can be digital and vise versa but not same 0 since 2009 all broadcast signals were switched to digital 0 allows for more interactivity o multicast the simultaneous transmission of multiple channels of compressed content or in some cases the same content but at different times 0 brought functions to TV set that have been used on computers The Rise of FlatPanel Displays 2 types have overtaken the CRT TV 0 liquid crystal displaysLCDs 0 have outsold CRT display Over 50 and growing 0 technology developed in earlier 20th C but bc of technological limitations it was thought they could only be 40 inches 0 plasma displays 0 created around same time as LCD 0 better picture quality viewing angle and size of screenoriginally LCD cheaper though so still more popular spacesaving better picture better color more ef cient energy use 0 brought a theatre quality to own home Television Distribution TV networks came directly from the existing radio networks 3 primary means of distributing TV programming 0 broadcast cable satellite 0 also internet is rising to become an important medium for TV distribution Broadcast TV Terrestrial wireless is the traditional means of overtheair distribution Used to be the way networkowned and local stations worked 0 Now just 15 of US receive terrestrial TV signals 0 Changed in 19805 with satellite and cable 0 Still see broadcast stations since they are carried on cable and satellite Cable TV rst systems called Community Antenna TelevisionCATV developed in 1948 so communities in hilly or remote terrain could still access TV broadcasts did not expand nationwide until 19705 0 coaxial cable an insulated and conducting wire that is typically used for most cable TV connections 0 today increasing consist of optical ber a transparent lament usually made of glass or plastic that uses light to carry info This makes transmission of info much faster and with much greater capacity than twistedpair copper wires or coaxial cable shift in 19805 O govt deregulated cable industry cable companies could buy cable television systems nationwide 0 TeleCommunications lnccabe giant 0 By end of decade 50 households wired for cable 0 results 0 Decline of network TV and overtheair broadcasting o Spurred audience fragmentation Satellite TV DirectbroadcastsatelliteDBS 1990s 0 1994 launch of DirecTV rst national DBS commercial TV service 0 inexpensive dishes that could be installed and annual subscription 0 ranks 2ncl to cable subscribers Television Industry Today Ownership of TV stations have continued to consolidate due to 1996 Telecommunications Act relaxed ownership limits 0 35 rule 0 consolidation has resulted in a small of companies controlling cable TV 0 multiple system operatorsMSOs lcable companies Comcast1 Time Warner 2 o of dropping as people switch to satellite ber obtics or online Cable System Structure Treeandbranch architecture 0 A main of ce is the center with ber or coaxial cable trank lines feeder lines and drops to end users Changing from analog to digital technology 0 Add interactive features 0 Cable modems and settop box converters for highspeed Internet 0 Program ordering Satellite vs Cable DBS 0 More digital programming channels 0 Cheaper than cable subscriptions 0 Problem 0 Inability to carry a full array of local programming Local news weather etc Either have to pay a fee or maintain a basic cable service Cable 0 Increasing monthly subscription costs and bad customer service 0 Only 1 cable provider available in most areas 0 Extra choice and TV viewing on internet ess cable subscriptions Television Industry Business Model Multiple models Terrestrial relied on ads 0 Created a culture similar to Hollywood would try to seek hit TV shows to attract most viewers 0 Networks take itte risks produce same kinds of shows Nielson ratings way to measure how many people were watching a particular show Cable and Satellite Services and Programming Overcoming Audience Fragmentation Cabe audiences became fragmented 0 Offered in tiers varying programs at varying rates 0 Basic premiere channel perprogramVOD service 0 Basic 0 Ads are used but because of smaller audiences advertising rates are lower than for network TV Premium 0 No commercials 0 VOD growing 0 Compete with online services like Net ix Outlook for the TV Industry Shift of all TV signals in US to digital occurred in 2009 0 Frees up some areas of bandwidth that were used by analog signals 0 Creates opportunities for broadcasters and cable operators to offer new productsvideo ondemand etc 0 Reiterates that digital is not standing separate from traditional signal types but encompasses them Network TV has been affected the most 0 Ad revenue declining as viewers pulled to other options 0 Experimenting with online viewing Hulucom 3 aspects of digital media that make them different than traditional media storage technology user interface and interactivity storage technolog any type of device or medium in which information can be maintained for later retrieval 0 ideal storage will have 0 longev y 0 capacity 0 portability o accessibility o reproducibility questions raised 0 how easily can we access the info we want when we want it 0 Our lack of understanding how to use digital medianewinterface Interactivity 0 Differentiates today s digital media from traditional media Characteristics of Storage Representation and Retrieval Livewithout storage These concepts help de ne the nature and quality of stored info Longev y How long info can be retained in a medium 0 Infostorage technologies have sacri ced longevity for increases in the other 4 characteristics 0 Not as important as how much can be stored 0 Petroglyphs or hieroglyphics have lasted many millennia Capac y Books cd DVD can store greater amount of info than petroglyphs even though will only survive a few 100 years Portability Cave painting tablets papyrus paper printing digital Greater portability through electronic storage devicesneed power Accessibility Bad 0 Electronics need power or cant access info 0 International standards and devices change so rapidly cant even nd a machine to play the storage device 0 Ex cant nd cassette players anymore Good 0 Much greater access to info to a larger than before 0 Can access anywhere don t have to be at cave or wait for book to ardve Reproducibility Much easier to reproduce in digital than analog media 0 Printing press changed people from hand copying 0 Camera changed visual media as well Easy because exists as bits and byts nothing physical 0 In nite copies 0 Can produce perfect and better copies x digitally Nonelectronic Media Versus Electronic Media Mediated communication communication that takes place through a medium such as writing or recording as opposed to unmediated communication such as facetoface discussions Nonelectronic 0 Storage capacity is inherent in the medium itself 0 ln painting or writing words down the info is being stored Storage technology terms 0 Sequentialaccess memory a type of medium in which a reader viewer or user must go through the medium in the order received in order to nd speci c info 0 Randomaccess memory usually used for a type of computer memory and abbreviated to RAM in storagetechnology terms it is a type of medium that allows for a reader or viewer to randomly obtain speci c pieces of content by doing searches using an index or taking some other action 0 For books page numbers table of contents index Electronic Media 0 Can be broadcast live and unrecorded 0 TV radio Social and Political Impact of Storing Information Harold lnnis and Marshall McLuhan formed hypotheses about the longevity and portability of media and their resulting cultural meanings Digital medialjrandom access memory many changes 0 Ability to easily store and nd digital info has become one of the most important aspects of turning the Internet into a mass medium Stone Tablets To Papyrus Stone tablets tended to favor a centralized administrative system where knowledge was concentrated in the hands of a few powerful elites Papyrus decentralized political organization 0 Written laws and info could be easily distributeddevelopment of early civilizations 0 Assisted commercetrading records of business transactions could travel Vellum to Paper Vellum was time consumingexpensive to createmiddle Ages 19th Cljpaper become cheaper to makelcheaper printed products and widespread distribution of books magazine newspapers The Kitchen Debate to Watergate Digital can make or break political careers 0 1960Nixon had an impromptu debate with Soviet Prime Minister in an appliance store 0 caught on videotape recorder 0 1974Nixon resigned after audiotapes documented his role in the breakin of the Watergate building Rodney King to the Oval Of ce 1991video of Rodney King being beaten by the LA police 0 showed how portable videorecording technology made recording events more universal 1998secret audio tapings of telephone convo with Monica Lewinskysex scandalljimpeachment Email to Facebook Email 0 Important in court cases and political scandals 0 Can be recovered even after deleting 0 Of cials use separate accounts to get around thisSarah Palin Facebook 0 Employers can see your facebook pictures or posts 0 Post pictures that can be shared and create protest Managing Information Gains of storage capacity are happening very rapidly Byte de nition earlier consists of 8 bitsOs and ls 0 Common united used to denote memory storage 0 Increases in Storage capacity are exponentialX2 every 18 months Problems l guring out how to manage the info we have available 0 Miniaturization 0 Increased portability 0 Increased storage capacity 0 changes in how we interact with media 0 Greater importance of using search functions to nd info 0 Increasingly sophisticated search enginesrelevant results Development of Digital Storage Devices Punched cards rst step toward automated computation and digital storage 0 Could automatically read census info 0 Inventor developed companynternational Business MachineslBM Development of magnetic recording technologies would later play a more dominant role in computing 0 At rst had limited storage 0 1957 storage capacity not even enough to run Windows 7 today trend toward increased portability and capacity 0 oppy disk 0 disc size decreased with time storage increased 0 computers now don t even have oppy disk drives ash cards SD cards memory sticks USB 0 optical storage uses light in the form of lasers to store and read data of all types whether text audio or video Using light is highly ef cient it permits storage devices to record vastly greater amounts of data in small spaces and enables faster retrieval of the stored data than from magnetic storage devices 0 CDsDVDs 0 Nanotechnolog a cuttingedge eld of technology research that involves items that are nanometers in length and that promises to revolutionize many elds ranging from electronics info storage and even medicine 0 Still developinggovt National Nanotechnology lnitiativeNNl Compression of Digital Audio and Video Dif cult to compress audio and video into a device that can be easily transported MPEG Moving Pictures Experts Group est in 1988 and responsible for creating the standards for digital and audio compression Also denotes the type of compressionMPEGl MPEG4 etc 0 The name for the encoding process used to compactly represent digital video and audio for general distribution MP3 stands for MPEGl audio layerIll a lestorage format for digital audio recordings 0 The audio component for MPG1 The Role of Search Engines Googleljexpanded from simple web page searches to searches for images blogs academic texts people automatic translation Paid search listingssponsored linksrevenue 0 Keyword auctionscompanies bid for relevant keywords and pay every time the word is searched and their listing is clicked on 0 Search engine optimization SEOa strategy that utilizes website design careful choice of keywords links and other techniques to show prominently in online searches 0 Search engine marketing SEM paying a search engine to have a listing appear prominently when searched data has power simply from searched terms 0 knowledge can gain from it 0 increasing importance of search engines in how we try to make sense of the complex media and info environment today Social and Political Impact of Information Overload An increasing ability to create and store info Problem with making sense of the info we currently have available to us and who has access to it 0 Information overload the difficulties associated with dealing with the vast amounts of information available to us and making sense of it 0 Acting quickly in govt on info gathered not paying attention bc on your phone 0 Students quality of work and how to conduct research The Importance of User Interface User interface the connection between a medium and the people who use it 0 Everyone has had to learn how to use everyday media 0 Computer lot of issues with userinterface bc complex 0 With rise of digital media the audience consists of more active users and the interface has become a key element in shaping that use 0 Empowering the user 0 User interfacehow the user interacts with a medium or its content 0 User interface is the foundation for media successljif cant use isn t successful Current Problems with User Interface Traditional mediasimple unchanging user interface Digital still new and has not had time to evolve 0 Rapid advances in technology may alter any userinterface assumptions that are made 0 Varying computer standardsnot all technology is accepted 0 Audience remains media illiteratecant access media Development of the Digital User Interface Began with radio and TV computer rst time using term quotuser interface 0 Traditional analog was not designed to be interactive 2 main elements in development of the electronic user interface 0 technological innovations 0 socialljgetting accustomed to new technologies The Television Screen Cathoderay tubeICRT Technology improvements in computer monitorsdriven by desire for more of a televisual quality aspect ratio the ratio of a screen s height to its width Incompatible aspect ratios of lms and TV mean that either lms have to be cropped to t within a TV screen or in order to keep the original aspect ratio black borders must appear on the top and bottom of the screen 0 affected userinterface choices Television and Remote Control 1950connected by a wire Zenith modern use infrared technology enabled easy channel changing changed viewing habits can change between programsquotchannel surfquot 0 interacting with TV 0 multitasking in a computer environment doing several activities at once with a variety of programs The Computer Interface At rst only a highly trained specialist could operate a computer 0 punch cardsslow 19705eectronic monitors 0 could let users input info or see output without having to wait for a printout speakersljfoundation for a multimedia computer The Creation of Intuitive Interfaces Helped make computer simpler more natural intuitive to us more ef cient more capable of dealing with multimedia content Keyboards 1870s typewriteralphabetical keys jammed 0 changed to QWERTY keyboardmost frequently typed letters are far apart electric typewriters 0 could have alphabetical since keys don t jam but QWERTY is a standard part of computer user interface Dvorak keyboardmaximum typing ef ciencyljlcan be programmed QWERTY drawbacks as an intuitive interface 0 Need for literacy to understand its use 0 Need for typing training in order to use ef ciently Other drawbacks 0 Keyboards cant become smaller But can put in info privately unlike voice interface Computer Mouse 1968ZEngelbartjmade of wood would create better tool for people to control the info they input access process 0 can easily manipulate the data changed interface to one of pointing and clickingnot simply typing limitations 0 functions of buttons are not instantly clear and have to be learned 0 disjunct between moving a mouse and where the cursor actually goestakes practice TouchSensitive Screens 1974PLATOProgrammed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations 0 lst computer system to have a touchsensitive video display terminal 0 simpli es the humancomputer interaction the general term for any interaction between humans and computers either through devices such as keyboards mice touch screens or voice recognition 0 ATMs iPhone 0 Can use without any prior training 0 Drawbacks 0 Need to be within reach of the screen to touch itarge screens are uncomfortable to the eyes 0 Small screens limit interactiononly as small as a ngertip can select Natural Input Methods Handwriting voice recognition and speech systems 0 Handwriting has a while to go before it can easily translate a person s natural scrawl into a machinereadable text Most naturalintuitivevoicerecognition 0 Can translate spoken word into printed ones 0 Some respond to simple preset commands Weaknesses 0 Noise in public spaces Graphical User Interface Graphical user interfaceGUl a computer interface that shows graphical representations of le structures les and applications in the form of folders icons and windows 0 Xerox created the Alto computer 0 Apple and then Windows adopted this for its operating system 0 Had to memorize or have a series of commands to open save and move les The Desktop Metaphor Today desktop can actually hinder the most ef cient way of getting or manipulating information for the user lconography can be confusing at rst Time spent searching for lost les in sub subfolders Userinterface design is still early in stage 0 Could have a new system 0 Could grow accustomed to the inef cient system like the QWERTY keyboard Implications of User Interface for Mass Communication GUI had greatest impact in changing the public s behavior and attitude toward computers and helped usher in digital media 0 Allowed for computers to be in homes not just universities 0 How audience can access and utilize infofrom passive media consumers to active How media organizations must create produce and present stories Commercialism of the Web 0 Popup ads or animated ads 0 Ex lawsuit against Microsoft for bundling with the Internet Explorer icon not others 0 The main factor in an event that could have broken up one of the largest most powerful computer corporations was an icon in the GUI for the Web Interactive Media New user interfacesnew interactive dynamic 0 Desktop background how they get news etc o but still passive 0 Audience chooses today type of content media source it comes from how to experience itaudio watch clip get text transcript Interactivity De ned Has the following elements 0 1 a dialog occurs between a human and a computer program 0 2the dialog affects the nature or type of feedback or content that is received changing as the dialog continues 0 3 the audience has some measure of control over what media content it sees and in what ordercicking a hyperlink etc cannot compare traditional media with digital interactivity 0 no real dialog with traditional 0 both parties must alter and adjust message in response to feedback 0 2 people may have different impressions of the same story after typing in their zip codes to get personalized info 0 in traditional consumer cannot switch between one type of medium and another within the same medium The Importance of Interactive Media Encourage users to learn and explore 0 Makes our relationship with media more personalizedrelevant to ourHves 0 More engaged with othersdiscussion forums online chat email Our concept of what makes a story and expectations change 0 Long storiestake hyperlinked detours 0 Downloading Kindle and listening while driving when cant read Can comment opinions or correctionsto newspapers 0 Can see how many has viewed a storypublish more like it Helps us understand others as a community but also led to a threatened relationship to traditional media corporations Ethics of Interactive Media TRUSleneeded for interactivity to work Trolling practice of posting deliberately obnoxious or disruptive messages to discussion groups or other online forums to get a reaction from the participants 0 Degrade quality of the discussion and waste s others time Free Speech for Everyone Controllersnewspapers will remove foul comments but sometimes also insightful ones talking on the paper s mistakes 0 Controversy Interactive Advertising Video games 0 Products in it 0 Controversy if there are hidden messages 0 Violence linteractivity affecting more than passively watching Behavioral targeting 0 Tracking your browsing historyads that tailor to that Search Engine Keywords Metatag a word or words used by websites to help search engines index and describe a site typically unseen by humans unless looking at the website s codes 0 Bid more your business website will show up more 0 Without ethical principles regarding interactivity the door is open for companies to abuse thisdetracts from Web in general Looking Back and Moving Forward Convergence bringing change of storage of media content user interface and interactivity Future 0 Wireless handheld devices 0 OLEO organic lightemitting diode screen a type of thin exible screen that will change how and where we are able to view content on screens 0 Accessing content becoming easier and easier 0 Accessing content one wants may be harder unless principles in userinterface are applied Web 20 term to describe social media 0 No actual major improvement to the Web 0 Symbolizes a few changing aspects of the Web 0 Revival of Web 0 Changing usestalking to each other De ning Social Media Hard to de ne 0 Advances in technologies 0 Popular sites lose popularity fast Intersection of technology social interaction and information sharing 0 Have transformed aspects of mass communication Differences with Traditional Media Change from a broadcastmonolog modelone to many to a dialogic modelmany to many 0 Pastljlimited way to communicate to broadcaster 0 quotfilter then publishquot in control of what info is seen 0 cost too high to start newspaper etc Nowljget on fan site an comment 0 Far more members of public may be affected in a short amount of time o Mainstream media are not involved as much as past 0 quotpublishthen filter model can nd what is relevant on their own 0 cost 0 within reach of many traditional still powerful 0 provide much of the source of material that the public then discusses o agenda setting role the media play in deciding which topics to cover and thus by virtue of the fact that the media has covered them which topics the public deems important and discussion worthy 0 amplify events through media coverage 0 larger audiences than social media siteseven with audience fragmentation What is Social about Social Media Or how is it more social than traditional media 0 Families gathering to watch TV ad listen to radio etc 0 5 ways in which people s media habits are changing 0 choice conversation curation creation collaboration Choice Public has more media choices 0 People more proactive in getting the type of content they want 0 Alters how media is produced how they are promoted and marketed and what types of content may be created in the 1st place Conversation Can affect reputation of a company or create fame of a person The focus of convo is an example of the shift from a lecture to dialog between companies and public Curation Shift from media gatekeeping to gatewatching 0 People act as own lters classi ers and reviewers Classifying content 0 Tagging de ning a piece of info le image or type of digital media in a nonhierarchical system that helps describe what the info is 0 Folksonomies a collection of tags created by users that provide metadata or data about data regarding info 0 People no longer waiting to be told how to classify terms 0 Can see relations they may have never seen before 0 Easy to nd fault online reviews etc Creation Digital media toolsmade it easier for people to create contentrise of usergenerated media content Mostly amateur quality very little quothigh artquot ChaHenges 0 Intellectual property laws are being challenged by digital media culture that borrows freely from existing media to create something new lmay result in removing creative material from public domain Collaboration Will collaborate on a common good for no personal monetary gain Widget a portable chunk of code that can be embedded in HTML pages and that often gives users extra functionality to their pages Can extend from online world to o lineljorganizing people around political and social movements 0 Need to meet interact and discuss what was a stimulus for online communities Types of Social Media Many of the tools we associate with social media were used before social media became and internet phenomenon 0 Used Minitel 0 Web expanded the use of modern social media 0 Tools that make sharing easier 0 Rapid growth of Web audience 0 Wireless internet capabilities Look at speci c media tools and how they have developed and changed over time Email Was rst and most popular internet activity until 2008 Mailing listform of broadcast 0 Sent to subscribers email inboxes rather than returning to an oaneloca on 0 Listservs automated mailinglist administrators that allow for easy subscription subscription cancellation and sending of emails to subscribers on the list 0 Bene ts same as discussion boards 0 longer discussions 0 arrive directly to member s inboxmore likely to read 0drawbacks 0 information overload o monopolization of the list 0 media organization 0 use to attract Internet users to their sites or send info 0 optin a mailing list in which the user has chosen to receive emails and marketing materials 0 email newsletters spam unwanted email sent out by advertisers as a mass mailing batteblock spam O made it easier for individuals and companies to abuse the distribution systemess valuable for all Discussion Boards and Web Forums Online quotbulletin boardquot can post messages others on the board can see 0 Most on webbased forums 0 Newsgroups categories for discussion groups within Usenet 0 Makes nding discussions of interest easier 0 News organizations originally did not permit these on their websiteswould detract audience from consuming the news content created by the organization 0 See now that it increases readers engagement 0 Some individuals take advantage of systemmessages not related to discussion and monopolize convo Allow for lengthy expositions Provide value even if don t post 0 Lurking only reading what others write in online discussion boards but not contributing to the discussions Chat rooms quotvirtual roomquot users can talk with each other through text messages divided by topic TAKE PLACE IN REAL TIME differ from instant messaging it is a form of realtime communication thought typed text over a computer network can be chaotic 0 scrolling the practice of simply repeating the same message in a chat room which quickly draws the anger of other participants best for narrow topics OTV 0 Establish connections between likeminded individuals and can inform and entertain each other Blogs Blog a type of website in which a person posts regularjournal or diary entries with the posts arranged chronologically Started to increase in popularity in 1999boggercom Like traditional media 0 When popular impossible to respond to all the comments Not like traditional 0 Easy to allow users to subscribe and forward posts to others 0 Allows comments but media is adopting this News slow to adopt 0 Today encourage journalists to have blogs 0 Must be careful to maintain image of objectivity though Include video and audio and multimedia now Blogs are raw un ltered Microblogs Encourage shorter posts and content Twitter 0Small percentage of people contribute a disproportionate amount of content 0 Much of society happy being a consumer even though people CAN distribute content Tumblr 0 Texts and multimedia content Wikis Wiki a website that lets anyone add edit or delete pages and content First created by Ward Cunningham in 1994 Wikipediachange from traditional gatekeeper model 0 Can see old changes 0 Trolls people who purposely vandalize Wikipedia entries by inserting false or nonsensical info 0 Even with these info still remains accurate 0 Example of how social media has power to transform media audiences and how they work on principles different from traditional medianorms have been created by the Wikipedia community Social Networking Sites How different from other types of social media 0 Allow users to show the connections they have in their social network 0 Myspace in 2003Facebook in 2008 o Began as project within Harvard as Facemash Only available to Harvard students at rst then lvy then college then companies then anyone over 13 0 Worth billions In uences from developments in social networking sites 0 The importance of social networks in of themselves 0 Importance of social networks in the culture of the open source movement collaborate for reasons other than money IF Why Social Networks Matter Consists of 0 nodescan be people or organizations 0 linksljconnections between nodes 0 in uencer a person who can in uence others in their social network to perform an action or change an attitude 0 strong tieslinks in social network analysis the tight bonds between people in a quotsmall worldquot of close connections 0 weak ties the connections between people in different quotsmall worldsquot which tend not to be as tight or as close as strong ties but that are nevertheless extremely important in social networks 0 hub a node that has many connections to other nodes in a social network 0 in uencers in a social network 0 becomes connector and isolates others 0 six degrees of separation the idea that everyone in the world is separated from each other by at most 6 other nodes in a social network connected by 0 social networking sites have helped make our social networks visible 0 small world a tight knit social network with many strong ties 0 weak ties are far more important in social networks than this when it comes to job huntingljlclose ties would already know and could be competing forjob important to be well connected social networking sites provided what early social mediaemai couldn tljcould visualize social networks and helped spur on more development of social media Collaborative Media Work Media creation comes out of it and is threatening est media business models Coaborativeparticipatoryfree Info freely available to keep improving Changing Audiences From Consumers to quotProdusersquot Produsers the notion that audiences cannot simply be considered consumers anymore but also often take an active role in producing content or information 0 Such a new phenomenon 39 0 Consumption predominates not everyone wants to be a producer 0 Contributing to the convo is easy 0 Even posting a inkmedia production collaboration and knowledge sharing Reputation Ratings and Trust Now it is more difficult than ever for us to determine how to trust information if it comes from unknown sources 0 Importance in critical thinking and media literacy 0 Rating systems can help 0 Wordof mouth marketing marketing that takes place among customers through discussions with each other 0 Social networks Ethical and Legal Issues with Social Media Very behind on legal rights 0 Issues 0 Who owns usergenerated content on social media sites 0 Legal and ethical boundaries between privacy and transparency blur online Privacy Employers check Facebook will track users activities even after off Facebook and post on feed 0 Get revenue off selling info to companies Transparency Astrotur ng the practice of creating a movement or campaign so that it looks like it was created by concerned citizens as a grassroots movement but was actually created or controlled by a large organization or group 0 Audiences backlash 0 Also on shifts in privacy policies 0 Showing shift in power dynamic Companies don t want to give away secrets to competitors but it is becoming important in social media Looking back and moving forward New media has rm roots and in uences in old media 0 But old is more like PCs and old Internet than radio TV or print Social media affects culture business and society Biggest change is between media producers and audience Social media encouraging people to create and share knowledgeimportant in long run Media companies struggling to adapt to social media world 0 Don t want to give up control of their messages 0 How to earn revenues from all the convos sprouting up 0
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