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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by AliciaAXO on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 252 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Kelly McAninch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Interpersonal Communication in Communications at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Interpersonal Communications Exam 2 Study Guide Verbal Messages Messages are denotative and connotative o Denotative An objective description of an event or the universal meaning Ex: Death – to a Dr=heart stops beating Ex: Migrant o Connotative A messages subjective description or the emotional meaning Ex: Death – to a family member or friend can mean hurt Ex: Settler Messages vary in politeness o Politeness Involves behavior that allows others to maintain both positive & negative face Positive Face The need to be viewed as positive by others to be thought of favorably Indirectness is viewed as positive face, but problematic Inclusive Messages o All people are present, acknowledge the relevance of others, and are normally considered polite My mean: Saving face/not saying anything at all & following rules of channel Negative Face The need to be viewed as autonomous; to have the right to do as he/she wishes Direct statements are viewed as negative face Exclusive Messages o Shut out specific people/entire cultural groups impolite Influenced by culture, directness, inclusion, and exclusion Face Threatening Act Messages can deceive o Lying – Sends messages w/ intention of giving another person information that you believe to be false o Prosocial deception: To achieve some good Lies are designed to benefit the person lied to/lied about Ex: Telling someone they look good to make them feel better o SelfEnhancement Deception: To make yourself look good o Selfish Deception: To protect yourself o Antisocial Deception: To harm someone Ex: Spreading false rumors/falsely accusing Messages can confirm & disconfirm o The extent to which you acknowledge another person o Disconfirmation A communication pattern in which you ignore another person’s presence & their communication. Deny significance of a person: Ignore/Indifferent, Avoid eye contact, Avoid responding/Shift topic of conversation o Confirmation Acknowledge the presence of the other person & indicate your acceptance of this person Respond directly, demonstrate understanding, ask questions, encourage the speaker, & show interest o Avoid derogatory names or slurs (Racism, sexism, ageism, heterosexism,) Markers Ex: Female athlete, Gay BFF, male nurse Tokenism Ex: “You are Chinese; what did people from China think about this?” Guidelines for Effective Verbal Messages o Avoid Allness: See the individual Illogical thinking that assumes allness Ex: All Black people like friend chicken o FactInference Confusion: Distinguish b/w face and inference When inferences are treated as facts Ex: o Avoid Indiscrimination A form of stereotyping Focusing on classes of individuals, objects, & events & fail to see that each is unique & needs to be looked @ individually. o Avoid Polarization: Talk about the middle Polarization – The tendency to look @ the world & to describe it in terms of extremes Ex: Good or bad, positive or negative, healthy or sick o Avoid Static Evaluation: Update messages Static Evaluation – Fail to recognize the inevitable change in things and people. Nonverbal Messages Communication w/o words (Gestures, Facial Expressions, Wear jewelry) Channels of Nonverbal Communication o Body Messages Body Gestures Illustrators Illustrate verbal messages Helps to clarify & intensify messages Talking w/ your hands Affect Displays Facial Movements that convey emotional meaning Facial expressions that you give (smile, dirty look) Regulators Monitor, maintain, or control the speaking of another individual Ex: Facial expressions/gestures that say “slow down”/ “keep going” Communicating what you expect/want speakers to do as they’re talking Adaptors Satisfy a need & usually occur w/o conscious awareness SelfAdaptors o Satisfy a physical need to make you more comfortable o Ex: Push your hair out of eyes/scratch head AlterAdaptors o Body movements your make in response to your interactions o Ex: Move closer to someone you like ObjectAdaptors o Movements that involve your manipulation of some object o Ex: Clicking a pen Gestures & Cultures Variation in gestures & their meanings among different cultures Body Appearance How the body communicates w/o movements Assessments of how your power, attractiveness, & suitability as a friend or romantic partner are often made through. Body Reveals o Race could give you a clue about ones nationality thru skin tone Body Communication o Your general attractiveness Attractive people have the advantage in life Height o Associated w/ fame o Preferences for different heights is influenced greatly by culture o Facial Communcation Sometimes signals emotions or the intensity of the emotions Facial movements communicate the degree of pleasantness, agreement, & sympathy a person feels The Smile The Real Smile – Duchennesmile o Genuine unconscious movement that reflects your feelings @ the time. (1/2 second) The Fake Smile o Conscious, takes 1/10 longer to spread across face o Responded to negatively Facial Management Facial techniques o Intensify to exaggerate o Deintensify to cover up your joy o Neutralize to cover up your sadness o Mask to express happiness to cover up disappointment o Simulate to express and emotion you don’t feel The techniques help you display emotions in social acceptable ways. Expected & required by the rules of polite interaction Facial Feedback Facial Hypothesis o Your facial expressions influence your physiological arousal o Eye Communication Messages communicated by the eyes that vary depending on the duration, direction, & quality of the eye behavior Eye Contact To monitor feedback, to secure attention, to regulate conversation, to signal the nature of the relationship, to signal the status, & to compensate for physical distance Eye Avoidance You allow others to maintain their privacy – Civil Inattention Signal lack of interest Pupil Dilation Judged more attractive than constricted eyes Reveals your interest & level of emotional arousal o Enlarge/Dilate when you like something o Touch Communication (Tactile – Haptics) Communcation by touch is the most primitive form of communication Meanings of touch: Emotions o Touch communicates emotions positively mainly b/w intimates/others who have a relatively close relationships o Positive Emotions Support, appreciate, promote inclusion, sexual interest/intent, & affection Playfulness o A desire to play affectionately or aggressively Control o May seek to control behaviors, attitudes, or feelings of another person Ritual o Centers n performing rituals (greetings/departures) TaskRelated o Touch is associated w/ the performance of a positive function o Ex: Helping someone out of the car Touch Avoidance Positively related to communication apprehension or fear of anxiety about communication o Paralanguage The vocal & nonverbal dimension of speech The manner in which you say something, not meaning Stress placement, volume, rate, pitch o Silence The functions of silence To provide time to think, to hurt, to respond to personal anxiety, to prevent communication, to communicate emotions, & to achieve specific effects The Spiral of Silence Theory You’re more likely to voice agreement than disagreement When controversial issues arise, you estimate the opinions of others & figure Online: people support the majority o Spatial Messages &Territoriality Space & Spatial messages = Proxemics Proxemics Distances The distances we maintain b/w each other in our interactions, correspond to the major types of relationships Personal Distance o Allows you to stay protected & untouched by others Social Distance o Ranging from 412 ft., you lose the visual detail you had @ personal distance Public Distance – 1225ft. Territoriality The possessive reaction to an area/particular objects Primary/Home Territory o Areas that are your own (office, desk) Secondary Territory o Areas that don’t belong to you, but you occupy Classroom seat –EX Home field Advantage o Operating in your own primary territory Markers o Used to indicate personal ownership/appropriation of someone else’s space o Central Markers Items you place in a territory to reserve it for you Ex: Coffee on a table o Boundary Markers Sets boundaries that divide your territory from that of others o Ear Markers Identifying marks that indicate your possession of a territory Territorial Encroachment o Status signaled by law granting the right of invasion o Ex: Withdraw, turf defense, insulation, linguistic collusion o Artefactual Communication Messages conveyed by objects that are made by human hands Space Decoration How people form opinions about your personality Color Communication Language abounds in color symbolism Color affect us physiologically o Movements, blinking, taste sensation Clothing & Body Adornment Clothing = Cultural display that communicates your cultural and subcultural affiliations o Oldfactory Messages (smell) Communicates attraction, memory, taste, & identifications To attract others, to aid taste, to aid memorization, & to create an image o Temporal Communication The use of time Psychological Time (Time Orientation) Past orientation o Have a special reverence for your past – relive old times Present orientation o Living in the present Future Orientation o You look toward & live for the future Interpersonal Time Timerelated elements that figure into interaction – How you use time w/ other people Punctuality, wait time, duration time, time talk (who talks, who initiates, who terminates), work time, relationship time, & response time Cultural Time Formal Time o Divides in the U.S. include: seconds, minutes, days, months Informal Time o Divides involve: forever, immediately, soon, asap – ambiguous terms Monochronism o People/Cultures schedule 1 thing @ a time Polychronism o People/Cultures schedule multiple things @ a time The Social Clock o Culturally the “right” time to do certain things o Ex: Mow grass during the day, not @ midnight Immediacy o Creation of closeness/togetherness b/w speakers o Signals interest & liking through immediacy o High & Low Immediacy High Immediacy – leaning toward partner, lots of eye contact, high tone of voice, & facial ques Theories of Nonverbal Communication o Equilibrium Theory Maintain comfortable level of immediacy based on relationship High immediacy w/ people in relationships/low immediacy w/ strangers Reciprocation Matching others’ immediacy (if you feel comfortable) Ex: Person steps closer to you, you do the same Compensation Counterbalancing others’ immediacy Ex: When someone gets close to you, you lean back (compensate) Ex: Get in someone’s space when they aren’t paying attention, they probably will compensate for their space once noticed o Expectancy Violation Theory Explains response to immediacy violations Noticeable change that creates too much/too little intimacy Negative Violations Evaluation Too little intimacy/violate your expectations in a negative way Positive Violations Evaluation Too immediate Earn more favorable than acting as expected Ex: “I didn’t expect you to flirt w/ me, but I like it” Listening The process of receiving, understanding, remembering, evaluating, & responding to verbal/spoken/written &/or nonverbal messages Stage 1: Receiving o Hearing & attending to the message o You note what is said, verbally or nonverbally, & what is omitted Stage 2: Understanding o You learn what the speaker means o You grasp both the thoughts & emotions expressed Stage 3: Remembering o What effective listening depends on o ShortTerm Memory; limited capacity o LongTerm Memory; Unlimited Stage 4: Evaluating o Judging the message Stage 5: Responding o Immediate Feedback Phase Response you make while the speaker is talking o Delayed Feedback Phase Response you make after the speaker has stopped talking o Feedback Messages Send info back to speaker & tells the speaker what you think BackChanneling Cues Comments like: “I see,” “Yes.” Listening Barriers o Distractions; Physical & Mental Physical Barriers Hearing impairments, noisy environment, loud music, multitasking Mental Distractions Get in the way of your focused listening Ex: Thinking about later o Biases & Prejudice Closedmindedness o Racist, Heterosexist, Ageist, & Sexist Language Use o Lack of Appropriate Focus o Premature Judgement Knowing what the speaker is going to say Styles of Effective Listening o Empathetic Listening Enhances your relationship by feeling w/ others Brain doesn’t always use it, but IS necessary although underused Used when understanding closeness and strong emotions o Objective Listening Measures meanings & feelings against some objective reality Used when talking to a salesperson/employer/college acquaintance Used when bringing up other people Techniques of Active Listening o Paraphrase the speakers meaning o Repeat the speaker o Express understanding of the speakers meaning & feelings Let the speaker know you acknowledge & accept their feelings o Ask questions Stimulate the speaker to explore feelings & thoughts o Encourage the speaker Avoid solution messages Telling speaker how he/she should feel/what he/she should do Ordering messages – do this/don’t do that (Don’t touch that) Warning & threatening messages o This will happen to you if you.. Preaching & moralizing / Advising messages Emotion Strong feelings Emotions occur in stages o Common Sense Theory Event occursYou experience a emotionYou respond physiologically o JamesLange Theory Event occursYou respond physiologicallyYou experience an emotion (joy) o Cognitive Labeling Theory Event occursYou respond physiologicallyYou interpret this arousal (decide what emotions you’re experiencing)You identify the emotion you’re feeling Emotions may be Primary or Blended o Primary Emotions Joy, Trust, Fear, Surprise, Sadness, Disgust, Anger, & Anticipation o Blended Emotions Combos of the primary emotions Ex: Love: Blended of joy & trust Emotions are governed by display rules o Govern what is/is not permissible emotional communication Emotional Blackmail o Threatening when/if the other person does not comply o Manipulation that creates resentment & maybe a desire to retaliate Emotions are contagious o Emotional Contagion Emotions pass from 1 person to another Especially in women Skill for socializing & seduction You perceive an emotional expression of another You mimic emotional expression, sometimes unconsciously The feedback you get from expressing the emotion creates in you; a replication of the other person’s feelings Emotional appeals Intentional emotional contagion in attempt to persuade Goal of organizational display rules Emotional Expression o Own your feelings Acknowledge that you feel this way Use IMessages Being able to express our own thoughts and emotional experiences with the issue at hand. Describe vs. Evaluation o Describe your feelings UMessage negatively evaluate another’s behavior o Acknowledge your responsibility, don’t blame others o Preservation of positive & negative face o Encourage openness Conversations Essential part of interpersonal communication – Informal social interaction The Principle of Process o Opening A greeting; verbal or nonverbal Phatic Communication A message that establishes a connection b/w two people opens up the channels for more meaningful interaction SelfReferences – Say something about you (name, rank) OtherReferences – Say something about the other person/asks a question RelationalReferences – Say something about the two of you ContextReferences – The physical, socialpsychological, cultural, or temporal context o Feedforward A preview that gives the other person a general idea of the conversations focus Often combined w/ the opening Used to estimate the receptivity of the person to what you’re going to say Use feedforward that is consistent w/ your subsequent message o Business Used to emphasize that most conversations are goaldirected Substance/Focus of the conversation Taboos Topics or language that should be avoid, especially by “outsiders” Differ by culture o Feedback Reflect the conversation to signal that the business is completed Ex: I’ll call for the reservations 5 Dimensions of choices PositiveNegative / Person focusedMessage Focused / Immediate Delayed / Low MonitoredHigh Monitored (Open/Guarded) / SupportiveCritical o Closing The goodbye Reveals how satisfied the persons were w/ the conversation The Principle of Cooperation o Cooperation You & the other person implicitly agree to cooperate in trying to understand Conversational Maxims – Principles that speakers & listeners follow The Maxim of Quantity o Only include info that makes the meaning clear, but omit what info does not The Maxim of Quality o Only talk about what is true The Maxim of Relation Only talk about what is relevant The Maxim of Manner o Be clear & avoid ambiguities o Use terms that the listener understands & clarify the terms in which the listener does not understand SelfDisclosure o Communicating info about yourself to another person o Ex: Likes/Dislikes, food preferences o Disinhibition Effect Occurs in online communication We are less inhibited in communication in email & social media o Viewed as a Developing Process Changes as the relationships changes o Willingness to selfdisclose o Influences on SelfDiclosure Who You Are – High social ability vs low social ability Your Culture – Different culture views of selfdisclosure differences Your Gender – Women disclose more than men Your Listeners – You disclose to people you like Your Topic Your Media – Overshare on social media o Rewards of SelfDisclosure Helps increase selfknowledge A new perspective on yourself, a deeper understanding of your own behavior Helps increase communication & relationship effectiveness Helps you achieve a closer relationship w/ the person to whom you selfdisclose & increase relationship satisfaction Increases physiological wellbeing People who selfdisclose are less vulnerable to illness o Dangers of SelfDisclosure Personal Risks – Rejection, Depression Relational Risks Can be threatening in a relationship Decrease in trust, mutual attraction, or the bond itself Professional Risks Create problems @ job Everyday Conversations o Making Small Talk Small Talk = Pervasive; All of us engage The topics & contexts of small talk The topics must be noncontroversial; meaning, something that you & the person are likely to disagree on Usually innocuous – weather, news, actor/actress Demonstrates that the normal rules of politeness are operating Be positive & sensitive o Introducing People Do it simply but w/ enough detail to provide a context for further interaction Ex: In the U.S. – handshake; differs culturally though o Making Excuses ExcusesExplanations that are designed to reduce any negative reactions to what you’ve said &/or done Object; Maintain your positive image Do this in an effort to reduce stress Types of Excuses “I didn’t do it” – Denial of what you have been accused of “It wasn’t so bad” – Admit to doing it, but claim the offense wasn’t bad through justification of the behavior “Yes, but” – Claim that extenuating circumstances accounted for the behavior Good Excuse Methods: Demonstrate that you understand the problem & that your partners feelings are legitimate & justified Acknowledge your responsibility Own displeasure in what you did Make it clear that it won’t happen again Apologize o Apologizing Expressions of regret/sorrow for having said or done something you shouldn’t have Consider the uniqueness of the situation; people, context, relationship o Complementing A message of praise, flattery, or congratulations Way of relating to another person w/ positiveness & immediacy Unqualified compliment – Message that is purely positive Qualified compliment – Not entirely positive Backhanded Compliment – An insult masquerading as a compliment Receiving a Compliment Denial – Deny/minimize, change the subject, or not say anything Acceptance – A smile w/ eye contact, thanks, explanation Be honest, compliment in moderation, avoid qualifying compliments, be specific & personal o Advising Advice – A process of giving another person a suggestion for thinking &/or behaving, usually to effect a change MetaAdvice Types To explore options & choice To seek expert advice To delay decision ^all above help the speaker make their own decision Giving Advice Listen, empathize, be tentative, offer options, ensure understanding, keep the interaction confidential, avoid should statements Criticism The problem w/ criticism o Criticism is inherently facethreatening o May be met w/ avoidance Demand/Withdraw pattern – the more you criticize A destructive communication pattern in which one person criticizes, and the other avoids the situation. Continuous, negative, escalating patter Discuss/Exit, Complain/Deny, Criticize/Defend Consequences of Criticism o Destructive Criticism – helplessness, increased conflict in students o Demand/Withdraw Pattern Associations Stress, intrusive thoughts in dating couples, marital dissatisfaction Lower selfesteem, strained relationship b/w parents & adolescents Guidelines for Crafting the Message o Start w/ a positive comment (Do NOT follow w/ but) o Focus on the behavior, not the person o Identifying benefits of changing & costs of not changing o Offer specific help o Limit the # of critiques/criticisms o Give criticism promptly o Make it a dialogue, not onesided interaction Deception Lying, equivocating, & hinting Lying – Intentionally telling falsehood Concealment o Deception by omission o Omitting relevant/important info o Ex: Fail to tell bf about seeing ex 1 day Exaggeration o Embellishing on truth – stretching the truth o Usually for selfenhancement Understatement o Downplay aspects of the truth Equivocating o May occur when people are faced w/ the choice to lie or tell the unpleasant truth Intentionally Vague/Ambigious o Definition: Language has 2 or more plausible meanings o Ex: “What do you think of the room” – “It’s different” Hinting o Aimed @ changing other, getting a response Want someone to change their behavior w/o intentionally saying it o Language that invites other to infer meaning Ex: Do you want to change your outfit before we go out? Hope they catch on b/c vague What counts as deception? – Everything
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