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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by AliciaAXO on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 252 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Kelly McAninch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro to Interpersonal Communication in Communications at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Interpersonal Communication Verbal & nonverbal interaction b/w 2 interdependent people 2 interdependent people = Mutual Effectiveness What 1 person does has an impact on the other Inherently relational Communication defines the relationship – impacts the relationship Exist on a continuum (scale) Involves verbal & nonverbal messages Takes place in varied forms Facetoface, texting, facebooking Involves choice What you want to communicate & how you communicate Linear View of Communication The speaker speaks and the listener listens. Speaker Listener Speaker Listener Transactional View of Communication Each person serves simultaneously as speaker and listener; at the same time that you send messages, you also receive messages from your own communications as well as from the reactions of the other person(s). Principles of Interpersonal communication Interpersonal communication refers to both content & relationships Content Information Dictionary definition of what is being said The literal meaning Ex: “Go to the door” –Yelling or Nice Relationship Information Defines the relationship Interpersonal communication is a series of punctuated events Trying to find beginning & ending to a series of events The tendency to divide communication transactions into sequences of stimuli & response is referred Ex: A husband & wife @ dinner. Husband flirts w/ server, wife starts texting friend about it. Can’t agree on which event that made them upset took place 1t Perception of the Self & Others SelfConcept Consist of your feelings & thoughts about your strengths & weaknesses, your abilities & limitations, & your aspirations & world view The image that others have & that they reveal to you The comparisons you make b/w yourself & others The teachings of your culture The way you interpret & evaluate your own thoughts & behaviors Others’ Images LookingGlass Self Looking @ the way others reveal your image to you Social Comparisons Comparing yourself w/ others, most often w/ your peers Search Engine Reports/Network Spread/Online Influence Cultural Teachings Instills in you a variety of beliefs, values, & attitudes SelfEvaluations You react to your own behavior, & evaluate, & interpret it SelfAwareness Represents the extent to which you know yourself, your strengths & weaknesses, your thoughts & feelings, & your personality tendencies Johari Window Open Self Represents all the info about you that you & others know Behaviors, attitudes, feelings, desires, motivations, & ideas Name, skin color Blind Self Represents the things about you that others know but of which you are ignorant Habits, gestures, traits Hidden Self All that you know of yourself that you kept secret Over disclosure/under The Unknown Self Represents the truths about yourself that neither you, nor others know SelfEsteem A measure of how valuable you think you are Evaluation of strengths & weaknesses (Traits you have) Comparisons w/ ideal, feelings about your image Perception Impression Formation Processes Bias SelfFulfilling Prophecy A belief that you have that ends up coming true b/c you act on it as if it was true Have/Hold a belief Act in ways that uphold your belief Belief/Prediction comes true Belief became strengthened You make it happen Ex: I don’t want a surprise party, so friends don’t do one Halo/ReverseHalo (Horns) Effect When people allow an undesirable traits to influence their evaluation of other traits Ex: You think someone is smart, therefore you think they are trustworthy too Biased perception SelfServing Bias We are responsible for anything good that happened to us We are NOT responsible for anything bad that happens to us Over attribution Overreaching the importance of 1 single trait as means for a behavior Fundamental Attribution Error Less likely to see how other people’s bad situations can be attributed Ex: He isn’t working hard b/c his dog dies Verbal Messages Politeness Involves behavior that allows others to maintain both positive & negative face Positive Face The need to be viewed as positive by others to be thought of favorably Indirectness is viewed as positive face, but problematic Inclusive Messages All people are present, acknowledge the relevance of others, and are normally considered polite My mean: Saving face/not saying anything at all & following rules of channel Negative Face The need to be viewed as autonomous; to have the right to do as he/she wishes Direct statements are viewed as negative face Exclusive Messages Shut out specific people/entire cultural groups impolite Influenced by culture, directness, inclusion, and exclusion Face Threatening Act Nonverbal Communication Channels of Nonverbal Communication Body Messages Body Gestures Illustrators Illustrate verbal messages Helps to clarify & intensify messages Talking w/ your hands Affect Displays Facial Movements that convey emotional meaning Facial expressions that you give (smile, dirty look) Regulators Monitor, maintain, or control the speaking of another individual Ex: Facial expressions/gestures that say “slow down”/ “keep going” Communicating what you expect/want speakers to do as they’re talking Adaptors Satisfy a need & usually occur w/o conscious awareness SelfAdaptors Satisfy a physical need to make you more comfortable Ex: Push your hair out of eyes/scratch head AlterAdaptors Body movements your make in response to your interactions Ex: Move closer to someone you like ObjectAdaptors Movements that involve your manipulation of some object Ex: Clicking a pen Gestures & Cultures Variation in gestures & their meanings among different cultures Body Appearance How the body communicates w/o movements Assessments of how your power, attractiveness, & suitability as a friend or romantic partner are often made through. Body Reveals Race could give you a clue about ones nationality thru skin tone Body Communication Your general attractiveness Attractive people have the advantage in life Height Associated w/ fame Preferences for different heights is influenced greatly by culture Facial Communcation Sometimes signals emotions or the intensity of the emotions Facial movements communicate the degree of pleasantness, agreement, & sympathy a person feels The Smile The Real Smile – Duchennesmile Genuine unconscious movement that reflects your feelings @ the time. (1/2 second) The Fake Smile Conscious, takes 1/10 longer to spread across face Responded to negatively Facial Management Facial techniques Intensify to exaggerate Deintensify to cover up your joy Neutralize to cover up your sadness Mask to express happiness to cover up disappointment Simulate to express and emotion you don’t feel The techniques help you display emotions in social acceptable ways. Expected & required by the rules of polite interaction Facial Feedback Facial Hypothesis Your facial expressions influence your physiological arousal Eye Communication Messages communicated by the eyes that vary depending on the duration, direction, & quality of the eye behavior Eye Contact To monitor feedback, to secure attention, to regulate conversation, to signal the nature of the relationship, to signal the status, & to compensate for physical distance Eye Avoidance You allow others to maintain their privacy – Civil Inattention Signal lack of interest Pupil Dilation Judged more attractive than constricted eyes Reveals your interest & level of emotional arousal Enlarge/Dilate when you like something Touch Communication (Tactile – Haptics) Communcation by touch is the most primitive form of communication Meanings of touch: Emotions Touch communicates emotions positively mainly b/w intimates/others who have a relatively close relationships Positive Emotions Support, appreciate, promote inclusion, sexual interest/intent, & affection Playfulness A desire to play affectionately or aggressively Control May seek to control behaviors, attitudes, or feelings of another person Ritual Centers n performing rituals (greetings/departures) TaskRelated Touch is associated w/ the performance of a positive function Ex: Helping someone out of the car Touch Avoidance Positively related to communication apprehension or fear of anxiety about communication Paralanguage The vocal & nonverbal dimension of speech The manner in which you say something, not meaning Stress placement, volume, rate, pitch Silence The functions of silence To provide time to think, to hurt, to respond to personal anxiety, to prevent communication, to communicate emotions, & to achieve specific effects The Spiral of Silence Theory You’re more likely to voice agreement than disagreement When controversial issues arise, you estimate the opinions of others & figure Online: people support the majority Spatial Messages &Territoriality Space & Spatial messages = Proxemics Proxemics Distances The distances we maintain b/w each other in our interactions, correspond to the major types of relationships Personal Distance Allows you to stay protected & untouched by others Social Distance Ranging from 412 ft., you lose the visual detail you had @ personal distance Public Distance – 1225ft. Territoriality The possessive reaction to an area/particular objects Primary/Home Territory Areas that are your own (office, desk) Secondary Territory Areas that don’t belong to you, but you occupy Classroom seat –EX Home field Advantage Operating in your own primary territory Markers Used to indicate personal ownership/appropriation of someone else’s space Central Markers Items you place in a territory to reserve it for you Ex: Coffee on a table Boundary Markers Sets boundaries that divide your territory from that of others Ear Markers Identifying marks that indicate your possession of a territory Territorial Encroachment Status signaled by law granting the right of invasion Ex: Withdraw, turf defense, insulation, linguistic collusion Artefactual Communication Messages conveyed by objects that are made by human hands Space Decoration How people form opinions about your personality Color Communication Language abounds in color symbolism Color affect us physiologically Movements, blinking, taste sensation Clothing & Body Adornment Clothing = Cultural display that communicates your cultural and subcultural affiliations Oldfactory Messages (smell) Communicates attraction, memory, taste, & identifications To attract others, to aid taste, to aid memorization, & to create an image Temporal Communication The use of time Psychological Time (Time Orientation) Past orientation Have a special reverence for your past – relive old times Present orientation Living in the present Future Orientation You look toward & live for the future Interpersonal Time Timerelated elements that figure into interaction – How you use time w/ other people Punctuality, wait time, duration time, time talk (who talks, who initiates, who terminates), work time, relationship time, & response time Cultural Time Formal Time Divides in the U.S. include: seconds, minutes, days, months Informal Time Divides involve: forever, immediately, soon, asap – ambiguous terms Monochronism People/Cultures schedule 1 thing @ a time Polychronism People/Cultures schedule multiple things @ a time The Social Clock Culturally the “right” time to do certain things Ex: Mow grass during the day, not @ midnight Relationship Stages & Theories Contact – Stage 1 Perceptual Contact You hear, see, read messages from, view photos/videos, read a persons profile, or smell a person to form a mental & physical picture Interactional Contact Relatively impersonal & superficial contact st The stage where you exchange basic information – 1 impression “hello my name is.”/ “May I buy you a latte?” Involvement – Stage 2 A sense of mutuality, of being connected develops Try to learn more about the person Testing; to see whether your initial judgement proves reasonable Ask questions / Kiss Intimacy – Stage 3 You commit yourself to the other person & establish a relationship (BFF, companion) Interpersonal Commitment Phase 2 people commit themselves to each other in a private way Social Bonding Phase Commitment is made public You & partner become a unit, an identifiable pair Deterioration – Stage 4 Characterized by the weakening of the bonds b/w friends/lovers Intrapersonal Dissatisfaction Phase You begin experiencing personal dissatisfaction w/ everyday interactions & begin to view the future w/ your partner more negatively Interpersonal Deterioration Phase You withdraw & grow further & further apart Share less free time, awkward silences, less physical contact You consider dissolving rde relationship Causes: Poor communication, 3 party relations, relationship changes, sex & work related problems, financial difficulties, beliefs about relationship Repair – Stage 5 Intrapersonal Repair Phase You analyze what went wrong & consider ways of solving your relational difficulties Consider changing your behaviors/expectations of your partner Evaluate relationship rewards & try to salvage the situation Interpersonal Repair Phase The stage of negotiating new agreements & new behaviors Talk about relationship problems, the changes you want to see, & what you are willing to do Dissolution – Stage 6 The bonds b/w the individuals are broken – romantic connection ends Interpersonal Separation Phase Begin to live separate lives apart from each other Move into separate living quarters (apts, houses) Social/Public Separation Phase Return to “single” & look @ themselves as individuals Relationship Communication Communicating in Developing Relationships Prosocial Behavior Be nice, cheerful, friendly, open, positive, empathic Communicate through selfdisclosures and mundane conversations All about attention: TurnToward = positive attention / Neutral/Turning Away = Ignore / Turning Against = Negative Attention DaytoDay Conversations: “How was your day?” Communicating in Deteriorating Relationships Communicating Patterns Withdrawl Verbally – Marked by a decreased desire to talk & listen NonVerbally – Decreased eye contact & touching Decline in selfdisclosure Deception Increases as the relationship breaks down Positive & Negative Messages Increase in negative messages & decrease in positive messages Ex: Praise & behavior, but now you criticize it Strategies of Disengagement Positive Tone Used to preserve the relationship & to express positive feelings for the other person Ex: “I care for you a lot, but I’m not ready for an intense relationship.” Negative Identity Management To blame the other person for the breakup & to absolve yourself “I can’t stand your jealousy, I need my freedom.” Justification To give reasons for the breakup “I’m leaving for college for 4 year, there’s no point in dating.” Deescalation To reduce the intensity of the relationship Ex: Avoid the other person Dealing W/ A Break Up Break the loneliness cycle/depression cycle – Be active Take time out – Renew yourself; Be single Bolster your selfesteem Remove/Avoid uncomfortable relationship symbols – pics, gifts Become mindful of your own relationship patterns – avoid repeating Communicating During Relationship Repair Interpersonal Repair Recognize the problem Engage in productive communication & conflict resolution OtherOrientation, openness, confidence, immediacy Pose possible solutions Affirm each other – Supportiveness & Positive Evaluations Cherishing behaviors Small gestures you enjoy & receive from your partner – squeeze, kiss Specific & Positive, easily executed, & capable of daily performance Integrate solutions into normal behavior Risk take to improve the relationship Intrapersonal Repair Principles of punctuation & the idea the communication is circular (relationship repair wheel) Relationship Dissolution Indirect Unilateral Avoidance – Stop communicating Cost Escalation – You try to make the relationship as unpleasant as possible Bilateral Fade Away – Mutual Avoidance – grow apart Direct Unilateral Direct Dump – Explain why it isn’t working Positivity – Don’t want to be w/ you because Bilateral Blame – Blame each other Negotiation Attraction Theory People form relationships w/ those they consider attractive Similarity Principle Your partner will look, act, & think like you Complementary – People attracted to their opposite Proximity Principle Attracted to people who live/work near you Reinforcement Principle Attracted to people who give rewards Physical Attractiveness & Personality Influenced by a person’s friends & culture Reciprocity of Liking Relationship Dialectics Theory Someone engaged in a relationship experiences internal tensions b/w pairs of motives/desires that pull him/her in opposite directions Tensions b/w Closedness & Openness Conflict b/w the desire to be in a closed, exclusive relationship & the wish to be in a relationship that is open to different people Tension b/w Autonomy & Connection Desire to remain an autonomous independent individual, but connected intimately w/ another person & to a relationship Tension b/w Novelty & Predictability Competing desires for newness & sameness Social Penetration Theory Describes the relationship in terms of the # of topics that people talk about & the degree of “personalness” of those topics Breadth of the Relationship How many topics you & your partner talk about Depth of Disclosure The degree to which you penetrate the inner personality (the core) of the individual Depenetration of the Relationship Breadth & Depth reverse themselves Ex: When ending the relationship, you cut off certain topics from your interpersonal communication Social Exchange Theory You develop relationships that enable you to maximize your profits Profits=RewardsCost Rewards – Money, Status, Love, Info, Goods, & Service Cost – Considered unpleasant/difficult & often try to avoid Ex: Working OT Profits – What results when cost is subtracted from rewards You seek to develop friendships & romantic relationships that will give you the greatest profit Comparison Level A general idea of the kinds of rewards & profits that you feel you out to get out of such a relationship Realistic Expectations – Ex: Trust Equity Theory Claims that you develop & maintain relationships in which the ratio of your rewards relative to your costs is appropriately = to your partners Equitable Relationship Each party derives rewards that are proportional to the costs they pay Under benefit – Angry/Dissatisfied / Over benefit – Guilty Maintain equitable relationships, terminate the inequitable 4 Dysfunctional Beliefs About Relationships Mindreading is an ingredient of successful relationships Idea of mindreading & expect it all the time Nonhelpful mentality / Be open to talking about your feelings & ask ques. Successful Relationships Don’t Have Conflict Healthier Idea – Conflict needs to be handled together Work out how to handle the conflict Partners Don’t Change in Successful Intimate Relationships Learn how to deal w/ change Men & Women are completely different in their approaches to love & intimacy This is an overstatement Look @ your partner as an individual Relationship Types Friendship Types Friendship of Reciprocity (ideal type) Based on equality – ex: FWB Characterized by: Loyalty, selfsacrifice, mutual affection, & generosity Friendship of Receptivity A positive imbalance in giving & receiving 1 Primary giver & 1 Primary receiver – ex: Doctor Patient Friendship of Association (Transitory) A friendly relationship rather than a true friendship – ex: classmates Love Relationship Types Eros: Beauty & Sexuality Focuses on physical attractiveness Ludus: Entertainment & Excitement Love is experienced as a game, as fun; not taken seriously Storge: Peaceful & Slow Love lacks passion & intensity; seek companionable relationships Pragma: Practical & Traditional Practical & seeks a relationship that will work Mania: Elation & Depression Characterized by extreme highs & extreme lows Loves intensely & @ the same time intensely worries about the loss of the love Agape: Compassionate & Selfless Egoless, SelfGiving love – Even loves people w/ whom they have no close ties w/ Couple Types Traditional Couples Shares a basic belief system & philosophy of life (blended people) “We tell each other how much we love & care about each other” “A woman should take her husband’s last name when married” Interdependent Couples Stress their individuality Have their own private work spaces Separate Couples Love together. But view their relationship more as a matter of convenience than a result of their mutual love or closeness It is better to hide your feelings to not hurt your partner Workplace Communication Lateral Communication Messages b/w 2 equals; manager to manager Upward Communication Messages sent from the lower levels of a hierarchy to the upper levels Ex: Line worker – to – Manager Downward Communication Messages sent from the higher to lower levels of a hierarchy Ex: Deans to faculty members Grapevine Messages Address topics that you want to discuss in a more interpersonal setting, like issues that aren’t public yet. – B/w regional managers Networking Communication Informal Networking In a new work environment, you ask experienced workers when you have questions Establish mutually beneficial relationships Formal Networking The establishment of connections w/ people who can help you Answer questions, get you a job, get promoted, need to relocate Conflict Interpersonal Conflict Disagreement b/w or among connected individuals who perceive their goals as incompatible Interdependent, perceive each other as interfering w/ attainment of their own goals Principles of Interpersonal Conflict Conflict is Inevitable Conflict can have Positive or Negative consequences Negative Effects Increased negative feelings, furthers conflict, mutual hurt & resentment, deplete energy, & rewards become more difficult to exchange Positive Effects Stronger, healthier, & more satisfying relationship Indicated concern, commitment, & desire to protect & preserve the relationship Conflict Can Focus on Content &/Or Relationship Issues Content Conflict Centers on objects, events, & persons in the world that are usually external to the people involved in conflict Relationship Conflict Concerned w/ the relationship b/w the individual Issues: Who’s in charge, the equality/lack off, & who has the right to establish rules of behavior Conflict Styles Accommodating Accepting or acknowledging the other person’s point of view, through sacrificing your own needs for the sake of the other person – I lose, you win Avoiding Physical flight, falling asleep, or blasting the radio – Demand/Withdraw Nonnegotiation or Silencers Refuse to direct any attention to managing the conflict or to listen to the other person’s argument. I lose & you lose Competing As long as your needs are met, the conflict has been dealt w/ I win, you lose Collaborating Your concern is w/ both you & the other person’s needs. – I win, you win Compromising Meeting each other halfway – I win & lose, you win & lose Verbal Aggressiveness & Argumentativeness Verbal Agressiveness 1 person tries to win an argument by attacking the person’s selfconcept Characterized by attacking & is destructive Argumentativeness Your willingness to argue for a point of view, your tendency to speak your mind on significant issues Constructive, leads to relationship satisfaction, enhances organizational life, increases the user’s credibility, & increases user’s power or persuasion in varied communication contexts Avoid assuming, attacking, & interrupting Perpetual Conflict Serial Arguing Arguing about the same argument over & over Set of arguementative episodes that focuses on a particular issue Degrades the relationship; Just agree to disagree Chilling Effect Fear of bringing up topic because you think partner will leave Usually in imbalanced relationships Gottman’s 4 Horseman Criticizing Complaint that focuses on the person’s character – attacking person Contempt Partner’s hurting each other Mockery, namecalling, sarcasm, & displays of hatefulness, & eye rolling Position of superiority Defensiveness Form of selfprotect Attacking back when you feel attacked Blaming the other person for problem, being the victim Stonewall Refusing/Shutting down communication Withdrawing from the interaction
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