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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by AliciaAXO on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LIN 317 at University of Kentucky taught by Rusty Barrett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Language & Gender Linguistics The scientific study of language Prescriptive Beliefs about “correctness” Descriptive How people actually speak All languages have systematic rules for encoding & decoding Learned in childhood Not imposed from the outside (like traffic regulations) Components of language Phonetics – The inventory of speech sounds (tot vs taught) Phonology – How sounds can be put together Morphology – How words are formed My car needs washing / My car needs washed Syntax – How words are combined into sentences Semantics – How meaning is encoded in words, sentences, & discourse Discourse – How meaning is conveyed through larger units (text, conversations) Language Variation Social Categories Gender, age, religion, regional, ethnicity, sexuality Personality Types Caring, educated, polite, humorous Interactional Stance Angry, happy, concerned How the speaker orients to an action Language Ideology A set of beliefs about language Beliefs about the social meanings associated with forms of language variations People who speak like X are Y Language & Identity Performative A speech act that creates some kind of change in the world Speech + action Performative Utterance Speech that creates change in the real “social” world Felicity Conditions What must be in place for a performance to be felicitous Authority of speaker Identity of participants Context/Social setting Form of utterance Must repeat a prior felicitous performance All language use is performative It constructs identity – Social persona Gender is performative Referential meaning = the dictionary meaning Index A sign that “points to” something else Ex: Smoke is an index of fire Indexicallity The property of signs that “point to specific contextsofoccurrence found in all forms of language Ex: Speech patterns related to different dialects index the social identity of speakers Types of Signs – Semiotics: Symbols Conventional association b/w form & meaning Icon Represents what it means (Picture of men or women) Index “Points to” a particular meaning Indexical meaning vs Referential meaning Referential meaning = Money Currency, cash, dough, bread Indexical meanings can create context Conveys information about context b/w form & meaning Indexical Meaning Perfomatives are felicitous (fits into context) only when the listener understands the indexical meaning associated w/ an utterance Meanings may be highly local Specific to people w/ the same experiences Language Ideology may be thought of as the set of Indexical meanings that are prevalent in a given society Exemplars Examples of particular formmeaning relationships Metalinguistic Info Discussions/Representations of language variation Social Persona The social expression of individual identity How we present ourselves to others Constructed thru indexicality Indexical Order “lower” orders that position a speaker w/ in a given interaction (stances) “higher” orders reflecting large social groups (associated w/ particular ways of speaking) An indexical sign will trigger association w/ higher levels Social Categories Personality Traits Interactional Stances Indexical Fields Set of possible meanings associated w/ a specific linguistic feature Ex: pie as pah Ex: Nerd girl would be next to education, articulate Indexicality & Gender Particular ways of speaking (dressing) index gendered identities (masculine & feminine), or gendered meanings @ other indexical orders Performativity Indexical Meanings Create social context & social identity to establish an identity/social persona Stances Positioning ourselves w/ the conversation @ a given moment w/ an individual Conveys social Categories What “group” one belongs to Personality Traits What “type” of person one is Indexical Orders Levels of interaction/levels of meanings Indexical Fields Range of potential meaning associated w/ a variable The meanings can operate @ different indexical orders Ex: How fast someone talks / How someone says their vowels Ex: “OMG Becky look @ her butt Oppositional Stance Negative attitudes towards big butts & Individual referring Gender Complex & Multidimensional Sex vs. Gender Essentialism The view that our identities & behavior are innate, predetermined, & unchanging. Genetics Social Constructionalism The view that identities are learned from experience Gender, ethnicity, generation, status, sexual preference Sex may be a social construction 1 difference in the speech of men & women is pitch Matter of sex Women voice = high pitch / Mens voice = lower pitch Men have longer necks b/c of tallness/large throat 1 difference b/w the speech of boys & girls (57) is pitch (gender difference) Occurs in the absence of any biological difference Boys lower their voice (pitch) to differentiate themselves from girls Assumption Men have XY chromosomes & women have XX. The range of biological variation involving X & Y chromosomes is reduced to a binary opposition b/w M&F. Intersex individual Born w/ genitalia that are not easily categorized as M/Fa Parents are encouraged to decide on immediate surgery Only to conform to expectations Cisgender/Transgender Cisgender When a person’s (psychologicalsocial) gender identity aligns w/ the biological sex were assigned @ birth Transgender When a person’s identity is different from their assigned biological sex Can identify as nonbinary gender The socially constructed view of gender/sex as binary reduces the natural range of gender variation Gender identity is distinct from sexuality The understanding of sexuality in contemporary western culture is based on the gender identity of those that 1 is sexually attracted to HomosexualGay, Lesbian / HeterosexualOpposite sex attracted to BisexualAttracted to both gender identities AsexualDoes not experience sexual attraction Sex, Gender, & Sexuality The way in which we understand biological differences in sex is culturally specific Binary sexual categories Linguistic Categorization The systematic, scientific study of the phenomenon of human language Stance Epistemic Stance – States of knowledge, experience Affective Stance – Emotional Cooperative – showing cooperation Moral StanceViews on moral behavior Instrumental StanceStances toward material objects/gestures/physical movements Language & Thoughts Language A way of categorizing human experience A complex system of signs that encode reality (Arbitrary & Systematic) There is no language that is better than another Differ in categories that are overly & regularly marked in grammar English: time (past, present, future) Epistemic Marking (states knowledge) The SapirWhorf Hypothesis “language affects how you think” Hypothesis of linguistic determinism A language structure determines how you think (cognitive) Hypothesis of linguistic relativity A language structure influences how one thinks Thought Reflective Thought Thought focused on a particular concept Prototype boundaries – all attributes associated with the category Protype CategoriesThe member of a category that has all aspects of the attributes Ex: Beaks, feathers, wings Habitual Thought “Automatic” way of thinking SapirWhorf Hypothesis applies Categories are closed sets w/ clear boundaries Ex: Birds // Colors, spatial relations, containment Grue = Single Word, not a verb Phoneme categories Sounds that make differences in meaning Allophonesno difference in meaning Classifier – tells you something about the shape or form Language difference Making distinctions based on saturation Ex: English – Red vs. Pink Ex: Russian – dark blue vs light blue Spatial relation English in vs on : placed into containers : placed onto surfaces Notion of containment varies across languages Relative frame Space is defined relative to the speaker / Ex: In front of me Intrinsic Space is defined in terms of intrinsic properties of objects Ex: In back of the house, to the left of Absolute frame Geographical location – cardinal directions Linguistic Relativity Languages way of categorizing human experience Languages categorize experiences differently Gender, Language, & Thought “gender” in grammar Many languages have noun classes called “genders” European languages have masculine, feminine, & sometimes neutral Journalism : “she was raped” < no one @ fault Gender categorization – binary constructionM/F Language & Gender Gender Categories Languages differ in ways that they categorize gender identity European language, same as English – M&F Nonbinary Gender Categories rd th 3 & 4 genders – languages/cultures more than 2 Subtypes of Men/Women 3 Categories are subset of binary opposition Ex: Samoan – have 3 gender categories that suggest not M/F Ex: Navajo – have 4 categories separated by physicality & spirituality 2 Spirit Identity of those who identify w/ 3 or 4 gender Refer to themselves (includes LGBTQ) Ex: HijrasIndia Categories for women w/ nonnormative gender or sexual category Ex: Tombois – Indonesia / Sworn Virgins – Albania Members of the 3 group typically claim to be celibate Categories & Sexual Practice Penetrationbased understanding of sexuality Penetration by a penis = sex All other types of sexual interaction are NOT considered sex Traditional view for Latin America Sex b/w women is not sex b/c no penetration takes place Not all men who have sex w/ men are gay Ex: Early 20 century in US Fairy=Nonnormative gender expression & a man who was “passive” partner in sex w/ a man Trade=Straight man who identifies as heterosexual but sometimes “active” partner during sex w/ a man Queer=Man who has sex w/ men (usually “active”) but has no normative gender expression Kiki=Relationship b/w 2 fairies, considered abnormal TravestisBrazil Assigned Male gender Do NOT identify as female, but may modify their bodies Silicone, hormones Desire to be penetrated is part of the travesti identity Say their clients request to be penetrated by the travest NonBinary Gender Subsets if the M&F category Other times, the category as the distinct 3 sex/gender –ex: Hijras rd If there is a 3 category, MaletoFemale instead of FemaletoMale Gender is nonnormative women are often less visible compared to nonnormative men Even w/ binary systems Do NOT exist in isolation & may change due to cultural contact & globalization Local/Indigenous categories may shift to align w/ Western assumptions about gender & sexual identity Ex: Shift of Navajo nadadieni to mean “gay man,” shift to a genderbased understanding of sex. Categories of Gender/Sexuality Sexual Categorization Insemination Rituals – Papa New Guinea Make initiation ritual that involved ingestion of semen Orally/Anally deepened on the tribe W/o semen, bus would never fully develop into men Requirement for boys to become healthy heterosexual men The “meaning” of sexual practices are local & depending on specific cultural understandings of gender/sexuality M&F are understood by fluidityM&F fluids Understandings of Gender GenitalBased understanding Mainstream American society; focus on what genitals one has BehaviorBased understanding Traditional Native American cultures – 2 Spirit Action based, no physical change in sexual practice FluidBased (Papa New Guinea) GenderBased Sexuality Sexuality organized according to gender identity of participants – lesbian, gay ReproductionBased System Sex – determined by reproductive potential Ex: Puritans in New England believe wasting of “seed”/semen is sinful Masturbation, sex b/w women Gender CrossCulturally Oppression of women’s sexuality through “lesbian invisibility” Inequality in the way gender is understood Basic ways people categorize gender identity Gender Binary Grammar Language has a binary system Oppressive to assume this M&F rd Members of the 3 category use this binary language interchangeably Linguistic Representation of Gender Linguistics consist of gender bias How gender differences are encoded in language How the language is used to describe/represent individuals differs depending on gender In the 1950’s – it was improper to put female infront of male, grammar wise Ex: My mother & my father – wrong Sexist Language Different in ways in which men & women talk & the difference in the ways in which men & women are talked about LakoffEfforts to promote “inclusive language” Androcentric Generics Terms that refer to people/humans but also refer ONLY to men Creates a binary understanding of gender Manmade / All men are created = Use of masculine pronouns to refer to both men & women Ex: if someone over 15 wants an abortion, he must obtain parental permission Options to replace “he” are a “generic” pronoun Singular “they” – Most traditional form in English He or She – used by Prescriptivists Generic use of “she”Used by feminist to point out the false nature of androcentric generics New pronoun introducal – “they” Prescriptivists say it is wrong too b/c “they” is plural Avoid having to use singular pronouns – He/She Pronouns & Binary Gender He – male / she – female / it – nonhuman Preferred pronouns Allowing transgender individuals to choose the pronouns used to refer to them Ex: UT added gender neutral pronouns to promote inclusion TN people were angry b/c the gender binary was not used Gendered Nouns Words that refer to types of people (fireman) may also be androcentric Approved to resolve the problem Both M&F forms of every word – actor/actress One form that is unmarked for gender Lakoff discussed a # of gendered nouns & terms that had different meanings when referring to men or women Ex: Professional Males – good @ profession / women – she is a prostitute Miss/Mrs. Vs Mr. (intro of Ms. & Mx) Mr. = unmarked for marriage / Ms. = undetermined marriage Miss = unmarried / Mrs. = married / Mx. = gender unmarked What is the inclusive alternative? Fireman = Fire Fighter / Salesman = Salesperson / Congressman = representative Gender & Markedness Marked – less frequent & unexpected Ex: Words that begin w/ shm are marked in English Ex: “th” sounds in English is marked crosslinguist reality Few languages have these sounds Marked Gender Add M/F before the occupation to mark the unexpected gender of an individual Ex: Nurse: Male nurse (common) female nurse (rare, odd) Ex: Teacher: Male or Female sounds odd Semantic Derogation Where words related to a particular social group come to take on a derogatory meaning across time Ex: Master/Mistress, King/Queen, “that is so gay”–gay became negative overtime Language & Violence Against Women Use of passive voice when discussing sexual violence Active Voice Portrays the perpetrator as agent of the sentence Ex: Sue hugged the child / A man rapes a woman every 6 minutes Passive Voice The responsibility is avoided linguistically Ex: The child was hugged / A woman is raped every 6 minutes Shared Responsibility/Diffuse Terminology Suggesting shared responsibility Strong effect on how people understand the situation Nominalization Stating an action as a noun Diminishes the action; state rather than act Ex: The rapes occurred. Influence Reduces severity Produces an enabling factor of women’s violence
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