World Geography GR1123 Exam 1 Study guide
World Geography GR1123 Exam 1 Study guide GR 1123
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Juliette R on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GR 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Alexandria Grimes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
World Geography Exam 1 Study Guide Introduction ● Geography: study of the spatial distribution of social space and natural space ○ Physical geography: Tangible things ■ Ex: weathering, climate, weather and weather systems, major landforms, continental landforms ○ Human geography: I ntangible things, focuses on culture ■ Ex: religion, language, political systems, money ● Geography is studied through aps ● Cartography: the process of making maps ○ 4 Essentials: Title, Scale Indicator, Orientation, Legend ● Remote sensing: gaining information about an object or phenomenon without making direct contact with it ○ Ex: satellites, radar, sonar ○ Geographical Information Systems (GIS) applications: meteorology, elevation, hydrology, soil types, transportation, geology, ownership, site data, imagery ● Geographical Realms: combination of environmental, cultural, and organizational properties ○ 3 Criteria: ■ Physical: broad regionalization. Ex: Natural and social functions ■ Functional: interaction between human and the environment. Ex: farming and mining ■ Historical: historical impact on humanity Ex: Europe and the Industrial Revolution ○ Realm examples of variety ■ Monocentric: one country is influencing a realm the most ■ Polycentric: Many countries are influencing the realm ● Regions: subsets within a realm, areas of uniformity, defined by perception ○ Example: some Regions of North America are New England, Pacific Northwest, the South ○ 5 Criteria: ■ Area: physical presence on Earth ■ Location: has to exist, reference to a region nearby, Latitude/Longitude ■ Homogeneity: sameness; cultural, physical properties ■ Boundaries: neat lines to divide; natural and manmade Ex: Mountains, Islands, Oceans ■ Spatial Systems: Towns, cities, suburbs, have a function or purpose ● Main influences on physical geography: Trade and globalization ● Plate tectonics: ○ Divergent: floating apart (Ex: Mississippi Valley) ○ Convergent: Collisions (Ex: Ring of Fire volcano chain) ○ Transform: Slide (Ex: San Andreas fault) StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ○ How does Plate tectonics control the landscape? ■ 1. Building: collisions, mountains, volcanoes, island chains ■ 2. Destroying: Grand canyon ● Climate vs. Weather ○ Defines where people live ○ Peoples’ subsistence (what they eat) ○ Politics and economics ○ Some regions are essentially defined by climate ■ Ex: tundra, arid desert, tropics ● Latitude and Longitude ○ Latitude ■ North and South ■ Parallels ■ 0 to 90 degrees ■ lines never cross ○ Longitude ■ East and west ■ Meridians ■ 0 to 180 degrees ■ Lines converse at poles ○ Controls on Climate ■ Higher latitudes tend to be cooler (less direct sunlight) ■ Lower latitudes tend to be warmer (more direct sunlight) ■ Higher altitudes are usually cooler (Rocky Mountains) ■ Lower altitudes are usually warmer (Death Valley) ■ Coastal areas closer to water tend to have moderate temperatures ■ Locations near center of continent tend to have more extremes ● Top population clusters: 7.2 billion on 30% of planet’s surface ● Urbanization: population move into an urban area ○ Taking place worldwide ○ Most predominate in eastern asia (Dubai) ● Deurbanization: population moving away from urban areas ○ Crime, economy, jobs, taxes, climate, natural disasters (Detroit) ● Language and Geography ○ Heart of culture ○ 7000 languages worldwide ○ Indo European is the most widespread language type ■ Product of the European colonization of the world in the 18th and 19th centuries ○ Most business is done in the English language ● State: ○ 1. Politically organized territory ○ 2. Administered by a sovereign government StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ○ 3. Recognized by the international community ○ Permanent resident population ○ organized economy ○ Infrastructure: functioning internal circulatory system ● Nation: ○ All the citizens on a state ○ Group of people with a strong linguistic, ethnic, religious, and cultural community ○ Ex: Native American , Cherokee, Navajo, Quebec ● NationState: ○ A country whose population possess a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity ○ Ex: Japan, most European countries ● NonNationStates ○ Group that has control over a territory within a country but is not a country itself ○ Ex: Vatican City, Taiwan North America ● Water areas and river deltas ○ three major areas of drainage ■ Great Lakes, Mississippi River system, Great Basin ○ longest river in North America ■ Missouri, Mississippi River system ( 2341 miles) Montana to the Gulf of Mexico ○ largest lake ■ Lake Superior ( 31820 square miles) ○ deepest lake ■ Great Slave Lake ( 2010 feet deep) Northwest territory in Canada Geographic regions of North America 1. Coastal and Interior Lowlands a. Appalachians and Rockies b. area of plains and lowlands between eastern and western Mountains and the Atlantic coast c. constitutes bulk of continent d. most populated region e. largest area for natural resources i. Lumber, farming, maritime ( fishing and transport) 2. Canadian Shield a. area around Hudson Bay b. not a lot of farming ( no sediment) c. rich in minerals ( mining) d. iron, copper, diamonds, uranium 3. Atlantic Coastal Plain a. area of land at base of Appalachian Mountains to the coast StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 b. broad, flat, plain, gently sloping to Ocean c. known as Piedmont Landscape: Downwarping West Coast is more tectonically active, East Coast is not West Coast is rising while the east coast is sinking difference and coastline + West Coast is Rocky or the east coast is Sandy with estuaries 4. Mississippi River Valley and alluvial Valley a. Set by Ohio River, Tennessee River, Missouri River and dumps in the Gulf of Mexico b. Mississippi River i. covers 31 States and two Canadian provinces ii. the world's longest and 10th largest river system in the world c. Floodplain: Illinois to Louisiana i. Most important economic region in North America Ii. very fertile farmland Iii. cultural importance: Blues 5. Eastern mountains a. formed from Continental to Continental convergence in Pangea b. very old and eroded c. spans from Newfoundland to Alabama d. most Peaks less than 4000 feet ( Mount Mitchell 6600 feet) e. southern end has higher elevation 6. Western Plateau, mountains, valleys a. Plateau i. zone between Rocky and Sierra mountains ii. Colorado Plateau 7000 feet high iii. Uplift; rivers on Plateau drain into elevation below cutting Rock and sediment, creating Canyons b. Western mountains I. Sierra Nevada mountains ii coastal range iii Cascade Mountains: active volcanoes iv : Rocky Mountains( u.s. and Canada) V. coastal mountains( Canada) All have non active volcanoes EXCEPT the Cascade Mtns StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ● Mount St. Helens Video: ○ List all of the physical geographical features seen: ■ Terrain, mountain itself, climate, ecosystemplants (forests) & animal life, snow cover and ice, rivers and lakes ○ What Mountain Range is Mount St. Helens in and where are those located? ■ Coastal Mountains in Washington, Oregon, and Canada ○ What did the Native Americans nickname St. Helens? ■ Fire Mountain ○ What’s the older mountain peak mentioned? ■ Mount Rainier ○ What is used to classify the magnitude (strength) of an earthquake? ■ Richter scale ○ How many craters were there (prior to them merging) during the initial eruption? ■ 2 ○ Would you consider the complacent attitude of the mountain population part of U.S. culture or is it an isolated belief to only the local region? ■ U.S. culture. But, not necessarily the complacency of the volcano. ○ Can you think of any other regions that have complacent attitudes about natural disasters? ■ U.S. population is complacent in different regions for a variety of different natural hazards. ● In the Southeast, regions are complacent about tornadoes and hurricanes. ● In the Northeast, regions are complacent about snow storms. ● Californians are complacent about earthquakes, not that they occur, but about the likelihood of a major earthquake destroying their city/state. ○ How high did the plume cloud reach during eruption? ■ Approx 14 miles ○ How did the terrain change? ■ Lakes polluted: covered in ash and full of debris. ■ River systems full of snapped trees. Lower portion of Columbia River had to close off transportation (directly impacting human populations for a greater area, not just those close to Mount St. Helens). ■ Human structures destroyed. ■ Ecosystem plants and forests containing trees over 100 years old were gone. Animals had to relocate. ■ Snow and Ice melted. ■ Ash plume blocked the sun, changing the local climate temporally. ○ What about climate? How did it change and how did the cloud move? ■ Ash plume blocked the sun, changing the local climate temporally. Moved across Idaho and Montana within hours. Encircled Earth in a month. StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ○ There were 5 more eruptions following the main eruption on May 18, 1980. What physical geography impact do you think that influenced the most? ■ BOTH Climate and terrain of the local area. ● RainShadow Effect: ○ ● Lahar: dense, fast flowing rivers of mud water and ash ○ The last lahar, Electron Mudflow, heard about five hundred years ago, sweeping through the Puyallup Valley, toppling trees of largest 3 meters in diameter ● Columbus: believed have first European contact with North American natives at San Salvador Island ● Leif Erikson ○ Recorded in Sagas ○ Vikings sailors to Canada from Norway ○ discovered Greenland ○ Stone Slab land ○ Markland ( Northern tip of Newfoundland) Vineland ■ fish and grapes ○ Greenland named so to attract people to go there ● Native Americans of North America ○ before Columbus 3 4 million natives ○ after almost 90% died ■ mainly of disease ● Kennewick man ○ One of the most complete ancient skeletons ever found ○ 1996 Kennewick, Washington ○ dated to approximately 7600 8300 years old ○ claimed as an ancestor by Umatilla Tribe, as Allowed by NAGPRA ○ Court battle lasted 9 years ○ originally of Asian ancestry ○ One of the most complete ancient skeletons ever found ○ 1996 Kennewick, Washington ○ dated to approximately 7600 8300 years old StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ○ claimed as an ancestor by Umatilla Tribe, as Allowed by NAGPRA ○ Court battle lasted 9 years ● European Settlement ○ European dominated ■ disease, culture ○ dominated by English influences ○ Spanish ■ St. Augustine Florida ● oldest permanent settlement in North America ● Fort used to protect the shipping ● considered a weak settlement by Spanish crown ● acquired by the US in 1819 ■ Rio Grande area ● Santa Fe 60 and 10 much more successful ● Lots of missions ● later became part of Mexico, 30000 Spaniards state ● annexed by the United States in 1848 ○ French ■ First settled in North Eastern Canada ● 1606 Port Royal Nova Scotia ● 1608 Quebec City ○ still highly influenced by French culture ■ settled along major water bodies ● Great Lakes: Detroit, Des Moines ● Mississippi River column New Orleans ■ settlements based on fur trading ■ dispute over territory and for rights led to war with England ( 1754 1763) ● French and Indian War ( British name) ● La Guerne de la Conquete (War of Conquest) (French name) ■ French still influential ● Quebec and New Orleans ○ Dutch ■ Fort Nassau 1614 ● Nearby Albany, New York on Hudson River ● fur trade with Iroquois ● destroyed 1618 ■ New Amsterdam 1625 ● southern tip of Manhattan ● walled city of 800 by 1664 ● English Fleet took over, became New York City ● European Settlement: England ○ 13 colonies ■ Divided into three “Cultural Hearths” StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ● New England colonies ( Boston area) ● Midland / middle colonies ( Philadelphia area) ● Southern / Chesapeake Bay ( Virginia and the South) ■ Based on Lifestyles and economic worth ○ New England cultural hearth ■ Plymouth Colony 1620 ● poor, no education, low birth rate ■ Massachusetts Bay Colony 1629 ● Boston 1630 ● High birthrate ● Puritans ● Later Shift in agriculture to manufacturing and shipping ○ Midland colonies ■ Pennsylvania 1681 ● liberal policies of immigration and religion ● mostly agriculture ■ Philadelphia ● capital of the us at the time ● consider the American Revolution headquarters ● largest city at the time ● Declaration of Independence and Constitution were written in this city ○ Southern colonies/ Chesapeake Bay ■ Jamestown 1607 ● considered for location ● High death rate ■ Migrate to Williamsburg Virginia ● grow tobacco > money $ ○ Labor = indentured servants & slaves from Africa and the Caribbean ■ plantations and rural Society ● wealthy landowners and aristocrats ■ Charleston South Carolina ● Social and economic influence ● attracted the wealthy and elite ● 2 times more tobacco export ● Land acquisition ○ US gained independence in 1783 ○ Land acquisition 1780 1853 ○ Prior: areas east of Mississippi River ○ Louisiana Purchase 1803 from France ○ Gulf of Mexico and Florida 1819 from Spain ○ Annex of Texas from Mexico 1845 StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ■ Previously known as the Republic of Texas that declared its independence in 1836 ○ Oregon treaty 1846 from England ○ Gaston purchase 1843 acquiring New Mexico and Arizona areas From Mexico ○ by 1865… ■ Territory expanded 3 times, population in expanded 15x, economy expanded 20x, Urban population expanded 30X ■ US has third largest economy in the world Behind England and France ● Homestead Act of 1862 ○ Lincoln encouraged migration to West, but the most fertile land was already occupied by Natives ○ Requirements for the Homestead Act ■ have 160 Acres ■ lived on for 5 years ■ build a house ■ fee of $10 ( $38.10 today) ● Conservation Movement ○ Mid to late 1800s to early 1900s ○ Extermination of the American buffalo ○ response to exploited resources ■ Timber companies cut down trees without reforestation ■ ranchers overgraze the land ■ Mining companies unregulated ○ created national parks, nature reserves, and respect for environment ● Environmental Movement ○ Elitist movement to protect the environment, animals, and Wildlife ○ Teddy Roosevelt bear hunt ■ headline the u.s. News ■ Toy Shop to name stuffed bear Teddy Bear ● Manufacturing Corridor & Manufacturing Belt ○ 1870 Manufacturing Corridor ■ Boston to Baltimore ○ after 1870 ■ expand to Midwest ( St Louis and Milwaukee) ○ Advantages: cheap fuel, immigrant labor, concentrated Market, easy transportation ( Great Lakes and the st. Lawrence Seaway) ○ Expand to Midwest ■ lots of wealth ○ Rust Belt (today) ■ industry moved overseas ■ factories abandoned ■ impact people outside area StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ● North American Federal Trade Association ○ Canada Mexico and the United States ○ made trade easier between countries ○ elevated taxes, tariff to export ■ Motor Vehicles, computers and Tech, agriculture ○ protect intellectual property ○ increase trade ■ u.s. with Mexico by 100% ■ u.s. with Canada by 110% ● Urbanization Stages ○ Primary ■ extraction of raw materials from nature ○ Secondary ■ manufacturing of raw materials into finished goods ● Lumber into furniture, steel into cars ○ Tertiary ■ service economy to support production and consumption ● banking, Retail, transportation ● Fisheries ○ 90% comes from the ocean ■ especially North Atlantic and North Pacific ○ u.s. and Canada very important to the world seafood market ○ Canada exports to us more than 50% ○ overfishing problem ■ can lead to Extinction ● Forestry ○ At Least 50% of land cover originally ○ USA: 45% of original Forest lost ○ Canada: 10% of original Forest lost ■ less due to lower population ○ USA: 70% under private control ○ Canada: 9% private, 91% federal or provincial ○ Canada ■ World's leading exporter of forestry Products ■ Approximately 85% goes to USA ■ only consumes 20% of its own production ● Urban Areas Benefits and Structure ○ Nucleated, nonagricultural settlement ○ The most efficient habitation structure ○ maximize efficiency of resources ■ Time and energy ○ Facilitates transportation and migration ○ maximize social aspects StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ○ Towns and Cities ■ nucleated settlements ● buildings clustered around Center ■ Central business district ● Starkville = Main Street ● Memphis = Union Avenue ○ Suburbs ■ Specialized segments of a large Urban complex ■ 1. Residential ■ 2. Industrial ■ 3. Commercial ■ Outly City ● boroughs of New York ○ selfgoverning and independent towns within a city ○ Urban Locations ■ Reason for a city's existence is to: ● provide goods and services for itself and others ■ where to build a city? ● 1. Water ● 2. Food (Located near fertile soil or Marine Resources) ● 3. Trade/Transportation Access ● 4. Protection ○ 1,3,4 Still important today ○ Food not as important because of transportation ● Transportation Interstates ○ Developed by Eisenhower in the 50s to connect the country ○ Rules: ■ Routes with odd numbers run north to south ■ Routes with even numbers run west to east ■ N/S routes have lowest numbers in the west ■ E/W routes have lowest numbers in the south ○ Hawaii? ■ Technically o but do have routes that travel the island , funded by the same program that built the continental interstate system ■ H1, H2, H3 connect military facilities ○ Alaska ■ No ● Cultural Contrasts in Canada ○ Ottawa the capital is symbolically located by the Ottawa River ■ marks the boundary between Englishspeaking Ontario and frenchspeaking Quebec ○ Population is markedly divided by culture and tradition with a pronounced regional expression StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ○ Language ■ 68% of citizens speak English as native tongue ■ 13% speak French only ■ 17% is bilingual in English and French ■ 2% are speakers of another language ○ Quebec ■ More than 80% French Canadian ■ Remains the historic, traditional, and emotional focus of French culture in Canada ■ Ethnolinguistic division ● over the past halfcentury a strong nationalist movement has emerged in Quebec and at times has demanded outright separation from the rest of Canada ● Historical roots of the matter related to French British competition since the seventeenth century ○ The British monarch Remains the official head of state ○ Growing realisation among the Frenchspeaking people that continued integration in Canada combined with a high degree of autonomy is the best possible option ● Indigenous people in Canada ○ 1.2 Million native peoples ○ Dominated by First Nations, but also including Métis and Inuit ○ Breakthroughs have been achieved with the creation of Nunavut as well as local treaties for limited selfgovernment in northern BritishColumbia ○ Concern: Their aboriginal rights be protected by the federal government against the provinces ■ First Nation of Quebec, the Cree (historic domain covers the northern half of the province) ○ The Cree negotiated a groundbreaking treaty with the government whereby the First Nation dropped its opposition in return for the portion of the income earned by electricity sales in the James Bay Hydroelectric Project ○ Cree secured the right to control their own economic and community development ● 9 Regions of North American Realm ○ The North American Core ■ Integrates the most prominent parts of US and Canada ■ Contain ● largest cities and federal capitols of both countries, ● the leading financial markets, ● the largest number of corporate headquarters ● Dominant media centers ● Prestigious universities ● Cuttingedge research facilities StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ● Busiest airports and intercity expressways ■ Contain roughly ⅓ of their respective national populations ■ Megalopolis: term to describe coalescing metropolitan areas coined by geographer Jean Gottmann ■ Includes American Manufacturing Belt ○ The Maritime Northeast ■ One of North America's historic culture hearths ■ Extends from the northern border of Massachusetts to Newfoundland ■ Difficult environment, Maritime orientation, limited resources, a persistent rural character ■ Primary Industries ● Fishing, Logging, some farming, Recreation and tourism ■ Economic boost in Newfoundland and Labrador ( Canada's poorest province) by the discovery of significant offshore oil Reserves ○ French Canada ■ Economy ● Upper New England experiences the spillover effect of the Boston area is prosperity to some degree, but not enough to ensure steady and sustained economic growth ● Atlantic Canada has endured economic hard times as well ● French Canada historically West Industrial and more rural ○ Economic prospects of advancement tend to be overshadowed by the region’s political uncertainties and bursts of nationalism ● Northern Quebec Surplus hydroelectricity Export to Ontario and the northeastern United States ● Recent discovery of natural gas in the st. Lawrence River basin ○ The Southeast ■ Remain in economic stagnation and cultural isolation from the rest of the u.s. for more than a century following the u.s. Civil War ■ Sunbelt Migration stream drove people and enterprises into cities ■ Geography ● Many cities and certain agricultural areas have benefited ● the South contains some of the realm’s poorest rural areas ● the gap between rich and poor is wider than in any other region in the realm ● New South vs Old South ○ New: Northern Virginia's Washington suburbs, Central North Carolina's Research Triangle, Eastern Tennessee's Oak Ridge Complex, and the metropolitan Atlanta’s corporate campuses ○ Old: Appalachia and rural Mississippi ■ Climate: StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ● warmer than the Core region to the north and more humid than the Southwest ○ Tobacco, cotton, and sugar plantations thrived ● Serious threat of hurricanes ■ South Florida ● Before the 20th century it was too far from the northeastern Core of the country to warrant development ○ Climate, mosquitoes, no natural resources to exploit ● 1960s it became fully integrated into the national economy and urban system (air conditioning and affordable air travel) ● Miami: world city ● The Southwest ○ Regional identity ■ Environmental: steppes and deserts ■ Cultural: Anglo, Hispanic, Native American culture coexist ○ East Texas to the eastern edge of Southern California ○ Economy: ■ Texas once heavily dependent on oil and natural gas, now DallasFort WorthHoustonSan Antonio triangle has become one of the world’s most productive technopoles ● Stateoftheart, high technology industrial complexes ● Hub of international trade and the northern anchor of a NAFTAgenerated transnational growth corridor that extends into Mexico ■ New Mexico is the least developed economically ● Environmental and Cultural attractions benefits ■ Arizona’s technologically transformed desert now Harbors 2 large coalescing Metropolises ■ Texas claims 1/4 of all us oil reserves and nearly onethird of its natural gas deposits ○ Mexican population ■ in Arizona the in Spanish population has tripled since 1990 ■ In 2010 Arizona passed away we debated law making it mandatory for people to carry proof of legal residency ● Racial profiling ● The Pacific Hinge ○ California's border with Mexico All the Way North into Canada river Vancouver forms the northern anchor in the South Western British Columbia ■ Includes only Western portions of Oregon and Washington State for environmental and economic reasons ■ Counterweight to the historic tour in the US Northeast ○ major economic region not just in the realm but globally StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ■ includes Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Diego, Portland, and Seattle, as well as America’s most populous state ■ California's economy rank among the world's 10 large y country ■ economically passes one of the realms most productive agricultural areas in California’s Central Valley ○ Regional definition mainly based on economic considerations and intensifying trade connections across the Pacific Ocean ■ deeply involved in the development of countries in eastern Asia ■ Pacific Rim: The discontinuous region surrounding the Great Pacific Ocean that have experienced spectacular economic growth and progress over the past four decades. includes Coastal China, various parts of East and Southeast Asia, Australia, chilling, and the Western shores of Canada ● Classic example of a functional region: economic activity in the form of capital flows, raw material movements, and trading linkages that generate urbanization, industrialization, and labor migration. ○ Los Angeles ■ Region's largest and most dynamic activity complex ○ Silicon Valley Technopole ○ Redmond technopole (Microsoft’s headquarters) ● Western Frontier ○ Regions Eastward of the Sierra Nevada and Cascades to the Rockies encompassing segments of Southern Alberta and British Columbia, Eastern Washington State and Oregon, all of the, of Nevada, Utah, and Idaho ○ Salt Lake City Software Valley technopole ○ Place known for boom and bust cycles of mining, logging, livestock raising ○ Recent advances in Communications and transportation technologies , Sunny climate, Wide Open Spaces, lower cost of living, and growing job opportunities combine to form pull factors for Outsiders ○ Development Centers on its widely dispersed urban areas ○ Rome's fastest growing region ○ Las Vegas ● The Continental Interior ○ Express from interior Canada to the borders of the Southwest and Southeast ○ Agriculture dominant ○ Meat Belt ○ Corn Belt ● The Northern Frontier ○ Largest region in the realm ■ Covers 90% Canada, all of Alaska ○ Economy StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ■ Canadian Shield: rich in mineral resources, nickel, uranium, copper, silver, gold, lead, zinc ■ Yukon and Northwest Territories: gold and diamond mining ■ Voisey Bay: largest body of highgrade nickel ore ever discovered ■ Alberta: Experiencing one of the most spectacular economic booms in the realm’s history ● Oil reserves and tar sands ○ Alberta has become Canada's fastestgrowing province ■ Calgary it's fastest expanding major city ○ The population of Alaska ( just passed 750000) accounts for more than onethird of the Region's total ○ Climate change Middle America ● “Basic Facts” ○ Culturally complex ■ African and European influences on islands ■ Spanish and American influences on mainland ○ Most economically poor ■ Hati is the poorest nation in the Western Hemisphere ○ Has some of the most biodiverse landscapes in the world ■ Hold 7% of world’s biodiversity ■ Volcanoes, Deserts, Rainforests, Beaches ○ Religion: mostly Catholicism ○ Sometimes called Latin America or Mesoamerica ● Primary Regions of Middle America ○ Mexico ■ Largest portion ■ 31 states ○ Central America ■ 7 Republics ● Guatemala ● Belize ● Honduras ● El Salvador ● Nicaragua ● Panama ● Costa Rica ○ Greater Antilles ■ 4 large islands ● Cuba ● Puerto Rico ● Hati / Dominican Republic ( Hispaniola) StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ● Jamaica ○ Lesser Antilles ■ smaller Islands east of Greater Antilles ■ us British Virgin Islands ■ Bahamas ■ Antigua / Barbados ■ Trinidad and Tobago ■ Curacoa and Aruba ■ Other small islands ● Regional Divisions ○ Central America ■ Guatemala to Panama ■ Geo politically fragmented ■ Panama Canal Zone controlled by us until 1999 ■ population of approximately 30 million, mostly Mestizo ● Métis: Mixed Native Amreican and EndoAmerican ancestry ■ Exports of bananas, coffee, sugar, and cotton ■ Dependency on American market ■ Panama Canal ● French were the first ones to try ● Chinese invented the lochs ● Important to 144 trade routes’ ● Important to 160 countries ○ Caribbean ■ Large number of islands ■ About 35 million inhabitants ■ Lesser Antilles: crest of volcanic mountains ■ European and African influences ● Cuba 80% white ● Hati 90% black ● Dominican Repub 60% Mestizo ■ Important export functions ● Cuba: Sugar ● Hispaniola: coffee, sugar, cocoa ● Jamaica: bauxite ■ Tourism ● Important function ● Dependent on US ● Physical Geography ○ Land Bridge: Isthmus ■ Link between North and South America ○ Archipelago group of islands ■ 7000 islands in the area StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016 ○ Active tectonically ■ More moving plate tectonics ○ Natural hazards ■ Earthquakes and hurricanes ● Climate Zones ○ Mostly Tropical ○ Some desert climates ● Natural Hazards ○ Hurricanes ■ Central America one of the most hardest hit places ■ Storm surge and flooding ● Dangerous animals and sewage ■ Hurricane Patricia 2015 ○ Tectonic Plates ■ Caribbean plate ■ North American plate ■ Cocos Plate ■ Pacific Plate ■ Earthquakes and volcanoes ● Hati Earthquake 2010 ○ 7.0 magnitude ○ 3500000 people affected ○ 220000 deaths ○ Nearly 200000 homes destroyed ○ 4000 schools damaged or destroyed ○ 2016: Not much rebuilding StudySoup Juliette Reid: Fall 2016
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