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Biology 102 Exam #1 Study guide

by: Kaeli

Biology 102 Exam #1 Study guide BIOL 102 001

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Everything from Darwin to protocells, including Hardy-Weinberg with a DETAILED explanation and step by step example problem.
Biological Principles II
Mihaly Czako
Study Guide
Biology, Hardy-Weingberg Principle, Hardy Weinberg, protocells, speciation, evolution, darwin
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaeli on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 102 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Mihaly Czako in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
Biol 102 Exam # 1 Study Guide Evolution Definition­ Change in the allele frequencies of a population over time Caused by:  Genetic drift o Decreasing frequencies of a certain allele  Non­random mating  Gene flow o Migration from one population to another  Natural selection o The only one that causes adaptive evolution Requires:   Genetic variability  Heritable traits Genetic variation caused by:   Mutation  Duplication  Recombination (During meiosis) o Must result in new alleles o Most important for variation Effects of gene changes in position or number:  Typically harmful  Small duplications can lead to beneficial functions Hardy Weinberg:   p + q = 1 p +2pq+q =12  o p = frequency of dominant allele o q = frequency of recessive allele  Used to determine if evolution has occurred  To be exact: o No genetic drift o No non­random mating o No gene flow o No natural selection o Very large populations Example: You know that a lake contains a population of 400 halloween fish. A fish can be either black or  orange, and a black fish is the homozygous recessive bb genotype. 152 of the fish in the lake are  black. How many of the fish do you expect to be homozygous dominant? How many  heterozygous? q2 152/400 = .38 =   Because you know that 152 of the 400 are black, you know how many are  2 homozygous recessive. This genotype is expressed in the equation as  q .  2 Therefore  q =.38 .             38  = q = .616  Take the square root to find q p + .616 = 1 p = .384  Use basic algebra to find p 2 p  = .147 2pq = .473  Substitute to find frequencies for the unknowns .147 * 400 = 59 .473 * 400 = 189  Multiply the frequencies by the original population and you’re done!  If you were to then find out the real population of homozygous dominant was instead 100, would you expect that evolution had occurred?  YES! – because they differed from the expected populations, a mechanism of evolution  must have occurred. Founder effect   When a few individuals create a new population  New allele frequencies will differ Bottleneck effect  When the population decreases immensely   Gene pool may differ   Random process Modes of selection  Directional o Favors one extreme end of phenotypic range o Directional shift  Disruptive o Favors extreme ends of phenotypic range o Bimodal  Stabilizing o Favors intermediate and acts against extreme phenotype o Narrow distribution Sexual selection  Intrasexual selection o Direct competition among males for mates  Intersexual selection o One sex (usually females) are choosy about mates  Balancing selection o When natural selection maintains stable frequencies of alleles o Heterozygote advantage  Example: Sickle cell and malaria  Frequency­dependent selection o One phenotype becomes too prevalent and is eliminated or decreased Speciation  General  Speciation o The process of forming new species o Consists of   Morphology  Physiology  Behavior  Biochemistry  DNA Types  Allopatric o Distance creates a reproductive barrier  Sympatric o Non­ distance based o Causes:  Polyploidy  Sexual selection  New ecological niches Types of species  Biological  o Potential to interbreed  Produce fertile, surviving offspring o Do not successfully breed with other populations o Gene flow between populations holds them together genetically o Species can have diversity  Morphological  o Structural features  Asexual inclusive o Objective  Ecological  o Based on niche  Phylogenetic o Smallest group on phylogenetic tree o Difficult to determine what degree of difference is required for a different species Reproductive isolation  Pre­zygotic o Temporal o Habitat o Behavioral  Post­zygotic o Reduced or no fertility o Reduced or no viability  o Hybrid breakdown Fossils  Form in sedimentary rocks o Layers called strata  Prefer species that:  o Had hard parts  Such as shells o Were very numerous o Existed for a long time  Ages found by radiometric dating Protocells   May have formed by a vesicle containing self­replicating RNA o MUST have been replicating to count as a protocell o Also had a lipid bilayer  Spontaneously form in water  Clay increases chances of forming


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