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BIOS 1300 Exam 1 study guide

by: Samantha Ragland

BIOS 1300 Exam 1 study guide BIOS 1300

Marketplace > Ohio University > Biological Sciences > BIOS 1300 > BIOS 1300 Exam 1 study guide
Samantha Ragland

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These should help prepare you for our first test
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Dr. Foster
Study Guide
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Ragland on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOS 1300 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Foster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 435 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biological Sciences at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 09/04/16
BIOS1300Exam 1  Chapter1  Anatomy is thestudyof thestructure oforganismsandtheir relationshipstoeachother  Physiology is thestudyof function  There are differentdivisionsofanatomy;grossanatomyand microscopicanatomy o GrossAnatomy-Structuresthatare visibleto thenaked eye  Thisincludesinspection,palpation,auscultation, percussion,anddissection  Inspection-simplylookingatthe body’sinitial appearance.  Palpation-Feelingastructure withyour hands  Auscultation-listeningtothenaturalsoundsmade bythe body.  Percussion-Tappingthebody,feelingfor abnormal resistance.  Dissection-Carefullycuttingandseparatingtissues to revealtheir relationships o MicroscopicAnatomy-Studyofanatomyusingopticalaids  These are whatwe use when we cannotsee something with thenaked eye  Histology-The studyoftissue  Histopathology-Microscopicexaminationoftissues for signs ofdisease.  Cytology-The studyofthe structureandfunctionof individualcells  Ultrastructure-Refersto fine detail,downtothe molecularlevel. 1.3 1.5  Atom-> Molecule-> Macromolecule-> Organelle -> Cell -> Tissue-> Organ ->Organ system-> Organism o Organism-a single,complete individual o Organ system-a group oforganswith a uniquecollective function  Circulation,respiration,digestion o Organ-a structure composedoftwo or more tissuetypesthat worktogether to carryouta particularfunction 2 o Tissue-a mass ofsimilarcells andcell productthatforms a discrete regionofan organand preformsa specificfunction  The bodyis composedofonlyfour primaryclasses of tissue  Epithelial,connectivenervous,andmuscular o Cells-the smallestunitsofan organismthatcarry outallthe basicfunctionsoflife o Organelles-Microscopicstructuresin a cell thatcarryout its individualfunctions  Mitochondria,centrioles,lysosomes 1.6  A collectionofpropertiesdistinguisheslivingandnonlivingthings o Organization,Cellularcomposition,metabolism,responsiveness andmovement,homeostasis,development,reproduction,and evolution.  Cellularcomposition-Livingmatteris always compartmentalizedintooneormore cells  Metabolism-thesum ofallthisinternalchemicalchange  Anabolism-relativelycomplexmoleculesare synthesizedfromsimplerones  Catabolism-relativelycomplexmoleculesarebroken downintosimplerones  Responsivenessandmovement-Theabilityoforganisms to senseand react tostimuli(changes intheir environment)  Homeostasis-theabilityoforgansystems to coordinate the bodyfunctiontomaintainequilibriumwhen faced with anexternaldisturbance 3  Development-Anychange in form or functionoverthe lifetimeofthe organism  Differentiation-thetransformationofcells with no specializedfunctionintocellsthatarecommittedto a particulartask  Growth-an increasein size  Reproduction-Organismsproducecopiesofthemselves  Evolution-Livingspeciesadapttotheir newandchanging environmentstosurvive o Homeostasisexamples 4 o o Gradient-adifference in chemicalconcentration,electrical charge, physicalpressure,temperature,or othercariable betweenone pointandanother  Pressure gradient-from a region ofhighpressureto low pressure  Concentrationgradient-distributionofmoleculesis higher on more sidevs.the otherside.The sidesare oftendivided bya membrane  Electricalgradient-differentvoltageform oneside to another.Difference inthe amountofcharged particles  Thermalgradient-temperaturedifferences Terminology  BodyPosition o Anatomicalposition-Positionofbodystandingwithpalms outward 5 o Supine-Positionofbodylyingface up o Prone-Positionofbodylyingface down  Planesof Section o Coronalplane/frontalplane-Aplanethatpassesside-to-side throughthebody,dividingitintoanteriorandposterior o Obliqueplane-Aslantedplane,thatpassesthoughtthebody o Sagittalplane-Planethatpassesfrom front to backdividinginto right andleft portions o Transverseplane-passesperpendicularandmakessuperiorand inferiorportions  DirectionalTerms o Anterior-towardfrontofthe body o Deep-Awayfrom surface (insidebody) o Distal-Farther from trunkoforigin o Inferior-downward o Superior-upward o Lateral-away from midlineofbody o Medial-towardmidlineofbody o Posterior-towardbackof body o Proximal-closertotrunk o Superficial-towardsurface ofbody 6  Chapter2  TheChemical Elements o Element-the simplestformof matterto haveuniquechemical properties  Water (H2O) can be brokendown intotwo elements hydrogenandoxygen  Each elementis identifiedbyanatomicnumber-the numberofprotonsinits nucleus  The atomicnumberofcarbonis 6 andfor oxygen it is 8 o There are 91 naturallyoccurringelementsonearth. o In the humanbodythereare major elements,lesserelements andtrace elements 7  Major elements(total98.5%) inthe humanbody  Oxygen,Carbon,Hydrogen,Nitrogen,Calciumand Phosphorous  Lesser elements(total0.8%)  Sulfur,Potassium,Sodium,Chlorine,Magnesium, andIron  Trace elements(total0.7%)  Chromium,Cobalt,Copper,Fluorine,Iodine,and Maganese o Minerals-inorganicelementsthatare extractedfrom thesoil by plantsandpassesupthe foodchainto humansandother organisms  Mineralsalsoenableenzymesandotherorganicmolecules to function  Atomic Structure o Protonshavea positivecharge,neutronshaveno charge (neutral),andelectronshavea negativecharge o Electronsswarm aboutthenucleusin concentricregions called electronshells  Valence electrons-electronsofthe outermostshell  Isotopes and Radioactivity o Isotopes-Varietiesofelements  Radioisotopes-Unstableisotopes  Radioactivity-theprocessofdecay o Everyelement hasat leastoneradioisotope  Oxygen for examplehasthreestableisotopesandfive radioisotopes o Each radioisotopehasacharacteristicphysicalhalf-life 8  Physicalhalf-life-time requiredfor 50% ofits atomsto decayto a more stablestate  Biologicalhalf-life-timerequiredfor halfofit to disappear form the body  Ions,Electrolytes, and Free Radicals o Ions-charged particleswithunequalnumbersofprotonsand electrons  Anion-particlesthatgainelectronsacquiresa negative charge  Cation-particlesthatloseelectronsacquiresa positive charge o Electrolytes-Substancesthationizeinwater (acids,bases,or salts)andform solutionscapableofconductingelectricity o Free radicals-chemicalparticleswithan oddnumberof electrons  For example,oxygen normallyexistsasa stablemolecule composedoftwo oxygen atomsbutifan additional electronis added,it becomesa free radicalcalledthe superoxideanionO •.2ree radicalsare representedwith a dotto symbolizetheoddelectron. o Antioxidant-achemicalthatneutralizesfreeradicals  For example,the bodyproducesanenzyme called superoxidedismutase(SOD),thatconverts superoxideinto oxygen andhydrogenperoxide  Molecules and Chemical Bonds o Molecules-chemical particlescomposedoftwo or more atoms untiedbya chemicalbond o Compounds-moleculescomposedoftwoor more elements 9 o Isomers-moleculeswithidenticalmolecularformulaebut differentarrangementsoftheiratoms o Molecularweight (MW)- thesum ofthe atomicweights or its atom  Molecularweight ofglucose is 180amu o Amu is theatomicmassfoundon theperiodic table.  Examples-He amu=4  6 C atoms* 12 amu each = 72 amu  12 H atoms* 1 amu each = 12 amu  6 Oatoms * 16 amu each = 96 amu  72+12+96=180 amu o Chemicalbonds-theforces thatkeepsmoleculestogether and moleculesattractedtoone another o Ionicbond-theattractionofa cationto an anion o Covalentbonds-sharingofelectrons  Singles covalentbond-sharingofa singlepairofelectrons  Doublecovalentbond-sharingoftwo pairsofelectrons  Nonpolarcovalentbond-electronsareequallyshared  Polar covalentbond-electronsareunequallysharedand mayresultin slightlypositiveandnegativeregionsinone molecule o Ionicbond-relativelyweakattractionsbetweenananionanda cation o Hydrogen bond-a weal attractionbetweenaslightlypositive hydrogenatomin one moleculeanda slightlynegativeoxygen or nitrogenatomin another 10  For example,water moleculesare weaklyattractedto each otherbyhydrogenbonds o Van der Waalsforces-weak, briefattractionsbetweenneutral atoms  Whenelectronsorbitan atom’snucleus,theydon’t maintainauniformdistributionbutshowrandom fluctuationindensity.Ifthe electronsbrieflycrowd toward one sideofan atom,theyrenderthatside slightlynegative andthe othersideslightlypositivefor a moment  Water and Mixtures o Mixture- consistofsubstancesthatarephysicallyblendedbut notchemicallycombined  Water o Solvency-the abilitytodissolveotherchemicals o Hydrophilic-Substancesthatdissolveinwater o Hydrophobic-Substancesthatdonotdissolveinwater o Adhesion-thetendencyofonesubstanceto clingtoanother o Cohesion-thetendencyofmoleculesofthe same substanceto clingto each other o Chemicalreactivity-its abilitytoparticipateinchemical reactions o Calorie(cal)-The baseunitfor heat  1 cal is theamountofheatthatraises thetemperatureof 1 g ofwater to 1degree Celsius  Solution,Colloids,and Suspensions o Solution-consistsofparticlesofmattercalledthe solutemixed with a more abundantsubstance(usuallywater)calledthe solvent. 11  The solutecanbe a gas,solid,or liquid o Solutionsaredefinedbythe followingproperties:  The soluteparticlesareunder1 nanometer(nm)in size. The soluteandsolventthereforecannotbevisually distinguishedfromeach other,even with a microscope  Such smallparticlesdo notscatter lightnoticeably,so solutionsareusuallytransparent  The soluteparticleswillpassthroughmostselectively permeablemembranes,suchas dialysistubingandcell membranes  The solutedoesnotseparatefrom the solventwhenthe solutionisallowedtostand o Colloids-Anaqueousmixtureofparticlesthataretoolarge to passthroughmost selectivelypermeablemembranesbutsmall enoughto remainevenlydispersedthroughthesolventbythe thermalmotionofsolventparticles  An exampleisthe proteinsinbloodplasma o Colloidsaredefinedbythe followingphysicalproperties:  The colloidalparticlesrangefor1 to 100 nm insize  Particles thislarge scatterlight,so colloidsareusually cloudy  The particlesare toolarge to passthroughmostselectively permeablemembranes  The particlesare stillsmallenough,however,to remain permanentlymixedwiththesolventwhen the mixture stands o The bloodcellsin ourbloodplasmaexemplifyasuspension o Suspensionsaredefinedbythe followingproperties:  The suspendedparticlesexceed100nm in size 12  Such large particlesrendersuspensionscloudyoropaque  The particlesare toolarge to penetrateselectively permeablemembranes  The particlesare tooheavytoremainpermanently suspended,sosuspensionsseparateonstanding.Blood cells for example,form a suspensionin thebloodplasma andsettleto the bottomofa tubewhen bloodisallowed to standwithoutmixing o Emulsion-asuspensionofoneliquidinanother  Oil andvinegar saladdressing  Acids, Bases, and pH o Acid-a moleculethatreleasesa protoninwater o Base-a protonacceptor o pH- a measurederivedfrom the molarityofH+ o pH scale-a scale thatgoes from 0-14 thatshows H+ molarity  a solutionwithapH of7.0 is neutral  solutionswithpHbelow7are acidic  solutionswithpHabove7 are basic(alkaline)  bloodnormallyhasapH range od7.35-7.45  Energy and Work o Energy-the capacitytodo work  Work-meansto movesomething  Potentialenergy-energycontainedinanobject becauseof its positionorinternalstatebutthatis nodoingwork at the time  Kineticenergy-energy ofmotion,energythatis doing work 13  Chemicalenergy-potentialenergystoredin thebondsof molecules  Electromagneticenergy-kineticenergyofmoving “packets”or radiationcalledphotons o Free energy-the potentialenergyavailableina system toso usefulwork  Classes of Chemical Reactions o Chemicalreaction-a process inwhich a covalentor ionicbondis formed or broken  Decompositionreactions-alarge moleculebreaksdown intotwo or more smallerones  Synthesisreactions-two or smallmoleculescombineto form a larger one  Exchangereactions-two moleculesexchange atomsor groupsof atoms  AB + CD -> AC+ BD  Reversiblereactions-chemicalreactionsthatcan go either way  CarbonDioxidecombineswithwater toproduce carbonicacid,which inturn decomposesinto bicarbonateionsandhydrogenions o Equilibrium-therationofproductstoreactantsis stable  Reaction Rates o Concentration-Reactionratesincreasewhenthe reactantsare more concentrated.Thisis becausethe moleculesare more crowded andcollidemore frequently o Temperature-Reactionrateincreasesas the temperaturerises. Thisis becauseheat causesmoleculesto moverapidlyand collidewithgreater force andfrequency 14 o Catalysts-Theseare substancesthattemporarilybindto reactants,holdthemin a favorablepositiontoreact witheach other,andmay changethe shapesofreactantsin watsthat make them more likelyto react.By reducingthe elementof chance in molecularcollisions,acatalystspeedsup a reaction.It thenreleasesthe productsandis availabletorepeattheprocess with more reactants.Thecatalystitselfis notconsumedor changedby thereaction.  Metabolism, Oxidation,and Reduction o Metabolism-Allthechemical reactionsinthe body  Metabolismhastwodivisions:catabolismandanabolism  Catabolismconsistofenergy-releasing decompositionreactions  Anabolismconsistofenergy-storingsynthesis reactions,such asthe productionofproteinorfat o Oxidation-anychemicalreactioninwhich a molecule gives up electronsandreleasesenergy  A moleculeis oxidizedbythisprocess,andwhatever moleculetakes the electronsfrom it isan oxidizingagent (electronacceptor). o Reduction-achemical reactionin whicha moleculegains electronsandenergy  Whena molecule accepts electrons,itis saidto be reduced;a moleculethatdonateselectronstoanotheris thereforecalleda reducingagent (electrondonor).  CarbonCompoundsand Functional Groups o Functionalgroups-smallclusterofatomsthatdeterminemany ofthe propertiesofan organicmolecule  Functionalgroups: 15  Hydroxyl(-OH) o Occurs in sugarsandalcohols  Methyl(-CH3) o Occurs in fats,oils,steroids,andaminoacids  Carboxyl(-COOH) o Occurs in aminoacids,sugars,andproteins  Amino(-NH2) o Occurs in aminoacidsandproteins  Phosphate(-H2PO4) o Occurs in nucleicacids andATP  Monomers and Polymers o Polymers-moleculesmadeof repetitiveseriesofidenticalor similarsubunitscalledmonomers  Starch for example,is a polymerofabout3,000 glucose monomers o Polymerization-thejoiningofmonomersto form a polymer o Dehydrationsynthesis(condensation)-ahydrogenatom is removedfrom onemonomeranda hydroxylgroupis removed from another.Thesecombineto form water as a by-product. The monomersbecome joinedbya covalentbondto form a dimer o Hydrolysis-the oppositeofdehydrationsynthesis  In hydrolysisacovalentbondbetweentwo monomersis broken.Water donatesahydrogenatomto one monomer anda hydroxylgroupto the other  Carbohydrates 16 o Carbohydrate-ahydrophilicorganicmoleculewiththe general formula(CH2O)n where n representsthenumberofcarbon atoms  In glucose for example,n=6andthe formulais C6H12O6. As the genericformulashows,carbohydrateshavea 2:1 ratioofhydrogento oxygen o Monosaccharides-simplesugars  Glucose,fructose andgalactoseofmonosaccharides.  TheyallhavethemolecularformulaC6H12O6, theyare isomersofeach other  o Disaccharides-sugars composedoftwo monosaccharides  Sucrose (glucose + fructose),lactose(glucose + galactose), andmaltose(glucose + glucose) 17  o Oligosaccharides- shortchainsofthree or more monosaccharides o Polysaccharides-longchains(up tothousandsor monosaccharideslong) o Glycogen-anenergy-storage polysaccharidemadebycells ofthe liver,muscles,brain,uterus,andvagina  It is a longbranchedglucosepolymer o Starch-the correspondingenergy-storagepolysaccharideof plants  Theystoreit when sunlightandnutrientsareavailableand drawfrom it when photosynthesisisnotpossible. o Cellulose-astructuralpolysaccharidethatgivesstrengthtothe cell walls ofplants  It consistsofa few thousandglucosemonomersjoined together,with everyother monomer“upsidedown” relativeto thenext 18  Here is a listofthe carbohydratefunctions o Monosaccharides  Glucose-bloodsugar-energy source for mostcells  Galactose-convertedto glucoseandmetabolized  Fructose-fruitsugar-convertedto glucose and metabolized o Disaccharides  Sucrose-cane sugar-digestedtoglucose andfructose  Lactose-milksugar-digestedto glucose andgalactose; importantininfantnutrition  Maltose-maltsugar-productofstarch digestion,further digestedto glucose o Polysaccharides  Cellulose-structuralpolysaccharideofplants;dietaryfiber  Starch-energystorage in plantcells  Glycogen-energystorage inanimalcells (liver,muscle, brain,uterus,vagina) o ConjugatedCarbohydrates  Glycoprotein-componentofthe cell surface coat and mucus,amongother roles  Glycolipid-componentofthe cell surface coat  Proteoglycan-cell adhesion;lubrication;supportivefiller ofsome tissuesandorgans  Proteoglycans-macromoleculesinwhich the carbohydratecomponentisdominantandapeptide or proteinformsa smallercomponent. Proteoglycansform gels thehelpholdcells and tissuestogether,form a gelatinousfillerinthe 19 umbilicalcordandeye, lubricatethejointsofthe skeletalsystem, andaccountfor the toughrubbery texturesofcartilage  Lipids o Lipid-a hydrophobicorganicmolecule,usuallycomposedonlyof carbon,hydrogen,andoxygen,with a highratioofhydrogento oxygen o Fattyacid-a chainofusually4to 24carbon atomswitha carboxylgroupat one endanda methylgroupat the other  There are saturatedandunsaturatedfattyacids.  Unsaturatedfattyacidshavea doublebondand saturatedfattyacidsdo not  Here is a life oflipidfunctions o Bile acids-steroidsthataidin fatdigestionandnutrient absorption o Cholesterol-componentofcell membranes;precursor ofother steroids o Eicosanoids-chemicalmessengersbetweencells o Fat-solublevitamins(A,D,EandK)- involvedina varietyof functionsincludingbloodclotting,woundhealing,vision,and calcium absorption o Fattyacids-Precursor of triglycerides;source ofenergy o Phospholipids-majorcomponentofcell membranes;aidin fat digestion o Steroidhormones-chemicalmessengers betweencells o Triglycerides-energy storage;thermalinsulation;fillingspace; bindingorganstogether;cushioningorgans  Triglyceride-a moleculeconsistingofa three-carbon alcoholcalledglycerol linkedtothree fattyacids; 20 triglyceridesare more correctly,althoughlesswidely,also knowa triacylglycerol.Alsocalled neutralfats o Phospholipids-similartoneutralfatsexceptthatin place ofone fattyacid,theyhavea phosphategroupwhichin turnis linkedto otherfunctionalgroups o Eicosanoids-20-carboncompoundsderivedfroma fattyacid calledarachidonicacid o Steroid-a lipidwith17 ofits carbonatomsarrangedin fourrings  Proteins o Protein-a polymer ofaminoacids o Peptide-anymoleculecomposedto two or more aminoacids joinedbypeptidebonds o Oligopeptides-chainsoffewer than10or 15 aminoacids o Polypeptides-chainsofmore than15 aminoacids o Primarystructure-the proteinsequenceofaminoacids o Secondarystructure-a coiledor foldedshapehelptogetherby hydrogenbondsbetweenslightlynegativecarbonoxygen doublebondgroupofone peptidebondandtheslightlypositive N-H group ofanotheronesomedistanceaway o Tertiarystructure-formed bythe furtherbendingandfoldingof proteinsintovariousglobularandfibrousshapes o Quaternarystructure-the associationoftwoor more polypeptidechainsbynoncovalentforcessuch as ionicbonds andhydrophilic-hydrophobicinteractions o Denaturation-amoredrasticconformationalchangeinresponse to conditionssuchasextreme heator pH  Proteinshavemore diversefunctionsthanothermacromolecules o Structure-Keratin,a toughstructuralprotein,givesstrengthto the nails,hair,andskinsurface 21 o Communication-Somehormonesandothercell-to-cellsignals are proteins,asare the receptorsto which the signalmolecules bindinthe receivingcell.Anyhormoneorother moleculethat reversiblybindstoa proteinis calleda ligand o Membranetransport-Someproteinsform channelsincell membranesthatgovern whatpasses throughthemembranes andwhen.Others act as carriers thatbrieflybidto solute particlesandtransportthemtothe otherside ofthemembrane. Amongtheirotherroles,such proteinsturnnerve andmuscle activityon andoff o Catalysis-Mostmetabolicpathwaysofthe bodyare controlled byenzymes,which are globularproteinsthatfunctionascatalyst o Recognitionandprotection-theroleofglycoproteinsinimmune recognitionwas mentionedearlier.Antibodiesandother proteinsattackandneutralizeorganismthatinvadethebody. Clottingproteinsprotectthebodyagainstbloodloss o Movement-movement is fundamentaltoalllife.Proteinswith theirspecialabilitytochange shaperepeatedly,arethe basisfor allsuch movement. o Celladhesion-Proteinsbindcellstoeach other, which enables sperm to fertilizeeggs, enablesimmunecellsto bindtoenemy cancer cells,ad keeps tissuesfrom fallingapart  Enzymes and Metabolism o Enzyme-proteinsthatfunctionasbiologicalcatalysts o Activationenergy-the energyneededto get a reactionstarted o Cofactor-two-thirdsofhumanenzymesrequirea nonprotein partner o Coenzymes-organiccofactorsusuallyderivedfrom niacin, riboflavin,andotherwater-solublevitamins 22 o Metabolicpathway-a chainofreactionswitheach step usually catalyzedbya differentenzyme o  ATP,other Nucleotides,and Nucleic Acids o Nucleotides-organiccompoundswiththreeprincipal components:a singleor doublecarbon-nitrogenringcalleda nitrogenousbase,amonosaccharide,andoneormore phosphategroups o Adenosinetriphosphate(ATP)-the body’smost important energy- transfermolecule.  It brieflystoresenergygainedfrom exergonicreactions such as glucose oxidationandreleasesitwithsecondsfor physiologicalworksuch as polymerizationreactions, muscle contraction,andpumpingionsthroughcell membranes o Enzymes calledadenosinetriphosphates(ATPases)are specializedtohydrolyzethethirdphosphatebondproducing 23 adenosinediphosphate(ADP)andaninorganicphosphategroup P i o Anaerobicfermentation-whenthedemandfor ATPoutpaces the oxygensupply,excess pyruvicacidis converted tolacticacid bya pathwaycalledanaerobicfermentation 24


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