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Biology exam 1 studyguide

by: Taylor Fortenberry

Biology exam 1 studyguide 100

Marketplace > University of Montevallo > Biology > 100 > Biology exam 1 studyguide
Taylor Fortenberry
University of Montevallo
GPA 2.88

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Detailed overview of weekly notes
Principles of Biology
Martin Klinger
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Fortenberry on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 100 at University of Montevallo taught by Martin Klinger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of Montevallo.

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Date Created: 09/04/16
Biology 100 Exam 1 study guide 9/4/16  Atom:  smallest particle of an element  Main elements needed for life:  Hydrogen, Carbon, Iron, Sodium, Oxygen, Nitrogen,  Chlorine, Potassium, Phosphorus, Sulfur Mass Charge Symbol Particle + 1.0000 1 p◦ Proton 1.0005 0 n Neutron ~0.0005 ­1 e­ Electron  Nucleus:  1/10,000 volume of atom  Number of protons:  atomic number  Sum of protons and neutrons:  mass number  Isotopes:  same number of protons and different number of neutrons  Electron clouds determine chemical reactions  Chemical bonds form between outer energy levels of 2 or more atoms  Types of chemical bonds: ionic and covalent  Ionic:  transferred electrons o Creates positive and negative ions o Ions attracted to each other  Covalent:  shared electrons o Much harder to separate than ionic bonds (stronger)  Most molecules of life have covalent bonds  Hydrogen bonds o Form between water molecules o Much weaker than ionic or covalent  Surface tension o Many many hydrogen bonds  strong attractive force o High temperature to boil water  1967:  Henderson took over as chief of WHO campaign to eradicate smallpox &  vaccinate people  Between 1850­1950:  ~500 million people killed o ~2 million/year o Asia, S. America, & Africa  1980:  smallpox eradicated +  Acids:  ionic compounds that release Hydrogen ions (H ) in water  Base:  ionic compound that removes Hydrogen ions in solution when dissolved in water o Most bases release Hydroxide ions (OH) in water  Salts:  ionic compounds that release neither hydroxide or hydrogen ions in water  Strong acid:  releases nearly all of its H  in water  Weak acid:  releases only a few of its H  in water ­  Strong base:  releases nearly all of its OH in water  Weak base:  releases only a few of its OH in water  pH:  scale that describes the degree to which a solution is acidic or alkaline +  Buffer:  takes up extra H  ions to keep pH normal 1 Biology 100 Exam 1 study guide 9/4/16  Carbon o Can combine with other carbon atoms o Can form chains o Can form rings o Single bonds: 1 shared electron pair o Double bonds:  2 shared electron pairs  Organic:  contains carbon  Inorganic:  doesn’t contain carbon  Functional groups:  carbon chains attached to molecules  4 types of organic molecules o Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic acids  Carbohydrates o Energy and structure  Most contain hydroxyls (­OH)  Simple sugars o Monosaccharides  Greek for sweet o Disaccharides  2 attached monosaccharides o Polysaccharides  Many attached monosaccharides  Complex Carbohydrates o Many monosaccharides linked together in long chains  Chains of glucose differ in how glucoses are attached to each other  Proteins o Structure, control of cell activities, transport or carrier molecules o Smallest unit:  amino acid  20 amino acids o 3 amino acid parts  Amino group, Acid group, Side chain (R group) o Different by R groups o Basic structure:    2 amino acids linked through peptide bond  Dipeptide:  2 amino acids  Tripeptide:  3 amino acids  Polypeptide:  many amino acids  400 possible dipeptide  8000 possible tripeptide 2 Biology 100 Exam 1 study guide 9/4/16  Order of amino acids in polypeptide chain give different properties  Lipids o Energy, structure of cell membranes, hormones, help store heat  True fats o Fatty acid:  a long carbon chain with an acid group at one end  Most fatty acids are 12­20 carbons long  Saturated:  all single carbon bonds  Unsaturated:  1 or more double carbon bonds  Sat. fats are solid at room temp.  Unsat. Fats are liquid at room temp.  Monoglyceride o A molecule of glycerol and one fatty acid (aka glycerin)  Diglyceride o Glycerol molecule with 2 fatty acids  Triglyceride o Glycerol with 3 fatty acids  Phospholipids:  very important part of cell membranes o Contains:  diglyceride, phosphate group, polar head group  Polar Head group likes water and being near water  Fatty acids don’t like being in or near water  prefer oils  Steroids o 4 carbon rings  3 hexagons and one pentagon  Different atoms = different properties  Nucleic acids:  polymers of nucleotides  Nucleotides o 5 carbon sugar RNA & DNA o Phosphate group o Nitrogen containing base  RNA:  a, c, g, u & DNA:  a, c, g, t o DNA is double stranded  2 polymers linked together through hydrogen bonds o CG & AT  RNA:  usually single stranded (except some viruses)  3 main types of RNA involved in manufacture of proteins  DNA:  genes determine order of amino acids in proteins  Cell theory:  ~1830 o All plants and animals made of cells  Cell membrane o Controls movement of molecules into and out of cell  Other substances carried across cell by special proteins 3 Biology 100 Exam 1 study guide 9/4/16 o Transmitting information from outside of cell to inside & then to nucleus:  signal  transduction o Most accurate model of cell membrane is the Fluid Mosaic model  Proposed in 1972 by Nicholson and Singer o 3 main types of molecules in cell membrane  Proteins (can move around), phospholipids, cholesterol (rigidity)  Cell organelles o Structures inside the cell that have special functions  Plasma membrane:  cell membrane  Endoplasmic Reticulum o Looks like a network of sheets and tubes o Rough ER has ribosomes & smooth ER doesn’t o Fat metabolism, detoxification  Golgi o Looks like a stack of pancakes o Packages certain molecules into vesicles  Lysosomes o Garbage disposal of cell o Enzymes break down macromolecules o pH of ~5  Cell Nucleus o Contains DNA o Has double membrane (2 lipid bilayers)  Mitochondria o Produces energy o Glucose + O 2 o Contains small amount of own DNA  Ribosomes o Make proteins  Cytoskeleton o Tubes and fibers inside cell that provide shape and ability to move  Cilia o Small hair like structures that are on the outside of some cells o Moves materials, bacteria, and dirt away from cell  Exchange through membranes o Nutrients in o Wastes out  Types of exchange o Diffusion  Simple, Osmosis o Controlled transport  Facilitated, active, endocytosis & exocytosis  Simple diffusion 4 Biology 100 Exam 1 study guide 9/4/16 o Net movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration  Simple diffusion across a membrane o High to low concentration  Mostly gases  High to low concentration:  moving down a concentration gradient  Osmosis o Special kind of diffusion  Net movement of water molecules down a concentration gradient 5


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