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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Carina Sauter

Exam 1 Study Guide Ecology 1000

Carina Sauter
GPA 3.79

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This comprehensive study guide covers all potential terms and case studies that could be on the exam. In addition, there are summaries of the required readings from ELC on the study guide as well....
Introduction to Environmental Issues
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Monday September 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Ecology 1000 at University of Georgia taught by Connelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 431 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Environmental Issues in Ecology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
ECOL 1000 Exam 1 Study Guide Terms: 1. Ecological Footprint: land needed to provide resources and assimilate waste; the ecological footprint of a population is determined by its size and amount of resources used per person 2. Natural Capital: range of natural resources provided by ecosystems (oxygen/timber, energy/fuel, food) 3. Ecosystem Services: conditions and processes of natural ecosystems and species that provide some human value; losing ecosystem services due to introduced species 4. Colony Collapse Disorder: affected at least half of all US commercial honeybee colonies; bees do not return to hive (but there is no proof of dead bodies), rapid losses in large numbers, queen bee and adequate food supplies are left behind, insects and predators don’t immediately invade abandoned hive – we lost more than just honey (plants that bees pollinate) 5. Bycatch: non-target species that get captured and discarded, often after they are dead (ex. turtles in shrimp nets) 6. Externalities: costs that businesses do not directly pay and therefore are not reflected in the price the consumer pays for the product 7. Sustainable development: meet present needs without preventing future generations from meeting their needs 8. Direct Use Value: resources used directly 9. Indirect Use Value: resources used indirectly 10. Option value: our future possible use 11. Bequest value: future generations’ possible use 12. Existence value: right of existence 13. Use value: direct and indirect use value 14. Non-use value: bequest and existence value 15. Hydrological cycle: linkage of all marine and freshwater aquatic environments; process of water travel from atmosphere to earth back to atmosphere 16. Aquifer: an underground region of soil or porous rock which is saturated with water 17. Watershed: the land area surrounding a body of water over which water (such as rain) could flow and potentially enter that body of water 18. Infiltration: the process of water soaking into the ground 19. Water Table: the top of the underground water-saturated region 20. Saltwater intrusion: normally full freshwater aquifers will not take in seawater but if the aquifer becomes depleted by over withdrawing water, salt water can push in and contaminate the aquifer; proximity to seawater and lower water tables result in saltwater intrusion into the freshwater sources 21. Point sources: some industrial and agricultural sources discharge pollutants directly into a body of water 22. Nonpoint sources: a variety of sources contribute pollutants that can run off the surface of the land during rainfall and enter the water; air pollutants can fall directly with the rain 23. Riparian areas: plot of land adjacent to a body of water that is affected by the water’s presence and that affect the water itself; need to be protected (or restored) by planting vegetated buffer zones that slow runoff and give rainwater time to soak into the ground 24. Traditional agriculture: human labor and draft animals used to produce food for the family; shifting cultivation in tropical forests; nomadic livestock herding 25. Industrialized agriculture: large inputs of energy (fossil fuels, fertilizers, irrigation, and pesticides); primarily in developed countries 26. Sustainable yield: in order to ensure a similar yield at each harvest, there must be sufficient time between harvests for the resource to recover to pre-harvest levels 27. Maximum sustainable yield: the maximum rate at which individuals can be harvested from a population without reducing population size long-term; recruitment balances harvesting 28. Nitrate contamination: Water contamination caused by the presence of excessive amounts of nitrates washed out from inorganic fertilizers (the ones most commonly sold and used). These compounds cause eutrophication and are suspected in instances of blood poisoning in infants and stomach cancer in older persons. 29. Bioaccumulation: the process by which toxins are stored in the tissue of living things, and increase in concentration when passed through the food chain 30. Natural selection: the differential success (survival and reproduction) of individuals within he population that results from their interaction with their environment’ the elimination of inferior individuals (ones that are less adapted to their environment) 31. Fitness: the proportional contribution of an individual to future 32. Pesticide Resistance: the ability of a pest to withstand exposure to a given pesticide, the result of natural selection favoring the survivors of past pesticide exposure 33. Biological pest control: using natural predators and parasites to manage pests – biologically based methods can control pests without collateral damage to the ecosystem 34. Integrated pest management: the effective combination of three types of pest control to manage pest populations while minimizing environmental damage 35. Exponential (Logistic) Growth: used for populations with continuous reproduction and/or overlapping generations 36. Geometric Growth: used for populations with reproduction occurring at discrete intervals 37. Rate of Change in population formula: dN/dt = rN à rate of change in population size = contribution of each individual to population growth times number of individuals in the population 38. Life Tables: summarize age-specific schedules of survival and fecundity (typically for females) in a convenient format, including age, number alive, probability of survival, mortality rate, fecundity 39. Cohort: a group of individuals of the same age-class 40. Carrying Capacity: the number of individuals that the environment can support indefinitely 41. Density-dependent factors: factors that influence population growth in accordance with population size (e.g. change births and deaths) – resource availability, competition, disease 42. Density-independent factors: factors that affect population growth regardless of population size – temperature, precipitation, catastrophic disturbances 43. Regulation: tendency of a population to decrease in size when above a certain level and increase in size below that level – density dependent Case Studies: 1. Interface Carpet Company: Ray Anderson; realized the major yet legal ecological footprint his company was making on the environment; Anderson began to recognize that we must not only minimize our impact on nature, but also understand that our resources come from nature; methods: Eliminate waste Benign emissions, Renewable energy, Closing the loop, Efficient transportation, Sensitizing stakeholders, Redesigning commerce th 2. Aral Sea: 1960’s: 4 largest land-locked sea in the world, after it was dammed to irrigate for crops, water completely evaporated and water table was destroyed making it a desert, and could potentially be completely gone by 2020; Coastal citizens relied on the fishing industry which then tanked; with salt concentrations increasing, dried remains cause illness, diseases with breathing, salt collects on skin and tongue from wind and into lungs, concentration of toxins increase disease; Drinking water quality declining, pollution and pesticides contaminate water 3. Lake Victoria: Home of extremely rare and unique fish; Wanted to bring in bigger fish for tourism and a greater fishing industry - The Nile perch was introduced to the lake in the 1950’s; Cichlids made up 80% of biomass until the 1970’s and eventually 1980 when it made only 1% of the biomass; huge 200 lb. fish eating small, unique fish; local fisherman pushed out by large commercial operations; Large corporations with industrious, big boats to catch large fish take over small fishermen; De-forestation - Small fish needed to be placed in sun and dried out whereas Nile perch must be spoked with fire to export, tree clearing for firewood; now local fisherman can’t even turn to farming 4. Tri-State Water Wars: Each state has its own concerns about the allocation of water: Georgia - The upstream user, Georgia wants to have enough water to continue growing, particularly around the fast-growing Atlanta area; Alabama- A downstream user, they are concerned that Georgia’s increasing need for water will severely limit its own use of water for power generation, fisheries among other uses; Florida- The other downstream user, Florida wants enough freshwater to reach the Apalachicola Bay to support its multi-million dollar shellfish industry; To date, the state Georgia have spent close to $20 million in outside legal fees in the two-decades-long tri-state water wars negotiating and litigating to preserve Atlanta’s access to drinking water from Lake Lanier 5. Three Gorges Dam: Three Gorges Dam is a massive hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River in China; It’s the world's largest power station in terms of capacity (22,500 MW); produces much needed electricity; increased the Yangtze River's shipping capacity; reduced the potential for floods downstream by providing water storage space; The Chinese government touts the project as a historic engineering feat, and a social and economic success; Chinese government relocated 1.2 million residents to provide space for the dam and upstream flooding, additionally, ~1,300 archaeological sites were moved or lost as the water level rose over 300 ft.; Freshwater fish are adversely affected by dams due to changes in the water temperature, altered flow regime, and by the turbine blades of the power plants; The dam sits on a seismic fault. Earthquake potential; Because the flow is slower above the dam, sediment now settles there instead of flowing downstream, and there will be less sediment downstream. 6. The Dead Zone: Excess nitrogen from any rivers and streams within the watershed will eventually flow to a larger body of water. The Gulf of Mexico is one area where excess nutrients have impacted the ecosystem to the point of making a “dead zone,” or hypoxic area, where most organisms are unable to survive. 7. DDT and pesticide resistance: Enthusiastically used to control outdoor & indoor insect pests; Aerial spraying, sprayed on swimming pools, sprayed on agricultural fields; Long- lived compound; not easily broken down; Does not easily break down in body, attaches to and retained in body fats; Passes up the food chain = bioaccumulations; originally encouraged to use on everything Reading Summaries: 1. Louisiana Flood • Worst US disaster since Hurricane Sandy • At least 13 have died • At least 7,000 moved to shelters from their storm-struck homes • Even more without power • Anticipated cost exceeds $20 million • “President Barack Obama had directed FEMA Director Craig Fugate to "utilize all resources available to assist in the response and recovery," the White House said. Obama has declared at least 20 parishes as disaster areas” • More than 30,000 people and 1,400 pets have been rescued by the US Coast Guard, National Guard and other emergency responders • Many of the homes do not have flood insurance • Because of Louisiana’s topography the recovery will likely be slow – very flat 2. The Tragedy of the Commons (1968) • Excerpt from this article, written by J.B. Wiesner and H.F. York • Regarding the problem of national security in a nuclear world, there is no technical solution to the problem • Technical solution: one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of morality • Metaphor to tick-tack-toe • You cannot win if you know your opponent knows the game perfectly; the only way to “win” would be to cheat or abandon the game • The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way just like tick-tack-toe • Is our world finite? • We will “greatly increase human misery if we do not assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is finite” • Population growth must eventually = zero • The greatest good for the greatest number? • No: • It is not mathematically possible to maximize for two variables at the same time • To live, any organism must have a source of energy – we must make work calories (used for “work” and “play”) per person get as close to 0 as possible – i.e. no vacations, no sports, no “extras” • The problem is our use of energy • The optimum population is less than the maximum • Extremely difficult to define “optimal” • The most rapidly growing populations on earth today (in general) are the most miserable • “The Invisible Hand” • the man that tends to his own grain is led by an invisible hand to promote the public interest • We want the maximum good per person • Extremely difficult to define “good” • Tragedy in the commons: “the essence of dramatic tragedy is not unhappiness. It resides in the solemnity of the remorseless working of things – This inevitableness of destiny can only be illustrated in terms of human life by incidents which in fact involved unhappiness. For it is only by them that the futility of escape can be made evident in the drama” • Herdsmen metaphor • Each herdsman tries to keep as many cattle as possible in a shared pasture • Population of both species is controlled due to war and disease • The goal of social stability becomes a reality • Each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain • Yes, +1 helps his herd but +1 also hurts the land he cares for BUT he shares the land so who cares? He adds one. • ALL herdsman add cattle infinitely in a world that is finite • Pollution due to tragedy of the commons • Additional pollution: adding something in rather than taking it away (sewage, chemical, radioactive, heat waste, etc.) • As long as we behave as independent, rational, free enterprisers, we don’t care much about the pollution at a grand level


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