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Exam 1 Lecture Objectives

by: Victoria Hills

Exam 1 Lecture Objectives BIOL 2220

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Here are the notes covered in the Overview, Review of Chemistry, Biochemistry powerpoints and everything that has been covered so far in the Cell powerpoint. After class on Tuesday, I will upload t...
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
John Cummings
Study Guide
Human, anatomy, Physiology, test, exam, one, john, Cummings, Clemson, 2016, Fall, overview, biochemistry, review, Of, Chemistry, Cell, powerpoint
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Lecture Objectives Overview 1. Define anatomy, and differentiate its many subdivisions.  “Anatomy”comesfromthe Greekword“anatome”  Means“dissect”  Definition of Anatomy - Study ofstructureandtherelationship amongstructures;study of parts - It is notabouthowthe partswork or do butis alookat what the parts are - Therearedifferentapproachesto studyanatomythat areknown as anatomical subdivisions  AnatomicalSubdivisions - Gross anatomy: o “Gross”meansthatsomething canbeseenwith the naked eye; Object is macroscopic o Lookingat bones,muscles,heart,brain, organsetc. - Regionalanatomy: o Refersto aspecific regionofthebodysuchasthe thoraciccavity, leg, abdominalcavity, etc. o Ex: Neck Lookingatthe musculature,bloodvesselcomponents, etc. ofthe neck - Systemic anatomy: o Refersto specific organsystemssuchasthe muscular,skeletal, nervous,endocrine,anddigestive systems o Ex: Cardiovascular system Lookingat theauricles, ventricles, aorta,etc. ofthe heart - Surfaceanatomy: o Study oftheformandmarkings onthesurfaceofthebody o Ex: Pictureofhand  Canseethebloodvesselsunderlyingthe surfaceofthehand(Vasculature),tendonsthat aremusclesthat movethe fingers,andabnormalfeatures(Femalesufferingfrom rheumatoidarthritis) o Ex: Ableto seetheendofanarm wheretheboneis andwatch as the musclesmoveand contract o Surfaceanatomyhasledto the forensic reconstruction field:  Becausemarkingsonthe surfacearedueto things underneaththesurface,this idea can beworkedbackwards  Ex: Ifbonesarefoundinthemiddle ofaforest,it is possible to look atthe featuresofaskull (For example)  Placing of the rightthickness ofmuscleandskin ontop to reconstruct the headso thatit lookslike a realperson - Microscopic anatomy: o Unable to seespecimen without aid o Generallyreferringto specimenthat areless than½ mm  Requiressomethingto magnifyspecimen o 2types ofmicroscopicanatomy: a) Cytology:  Study ofcells  Ex: Ovaryin picture  Primordial andGraafiancellsshown b) Histology:  Study oftissues  Ex: Ovaryin picture  Epithelial, connective, andsmooth muscle tissue areallpresent - Developmental anatomy: o Study ofchangesinanatomy fromtime whenthe eggis fertilized until death o Subdivision ofdevelopmentalanatomy: Embryology  Refersto thetime the eggis fertilized until birth th  Technically: Embryo term isusedup throughthe8 week post-conceptionandthen fetusterm is usedafter then— Someusealternative definition - Pathologicalanatomy: o Study ofthechangeofstructuredueto disease - Radiographic anatomy: o Firstcame aboutin the1940’sduringWWIIwith X-raytechnology o Study of structureusingspecialized imaging technology 2. Identify the types of images formed by various types of medical imaging, and contrast the form of energy used to make these images. a) X-ray: Light energy o Passesshortlengthlight waves(Gamma radiation) throughthe body o Aslight wavesareshotthroughthebody,somelight wavesare absorbedwhileotherspassthrough o The componentsofthebodythat absorb themostlight energy glow thebrightest –These aregenerallythehardpartsofthe body suchasbones o Unable to seesofttissue with X-rayimaging b) CT Scan:Lightenergy o CT standsfor computerizedtomography o Useslight energylike X-rays butessentially X-rays aretakenin sections o Ex: Pictureofhead  If youstart atthe topofthe head,youare ableto changethedepth andfocusso thatlayering ofX-raysis what is composedinthe computer o Alternative explanation: AnX-ray isa verylargeimage andthe computer is ableto lookat onethinpiece; CT scansareableto section differentpartsofthegeneralX-ray without overlap o Bonesareverybright o Becauseacomputer is beingused,thereis someshadowingin the picture for wherethebraintissue ispresent  Ableto seethelenses becausetheyarehard o CT scansarehelpfulin searchingfor braintumors,nasalpolyps, etc. c) Xenon CT: Lightenergy o Makesthe resulting image morevivid thana CT scan o Xenon:Gasthat gets radioactivelylabeled  Radioactive substanceis what givesoffgamma radiationthat gives thebright image ofthebody o Computer is usedto determine howbrightthe image is o Process:Thesubject patient inhales thexenongas  lungs  bloodstream Deliveredto tissues ofthe bodythatis most active which then accumulatethe gas o Application ex: Inthe picture, amild strokeis apparentsincethere is abloodsupplyreductionin the lessbright areasofthebrain (That particular partofthebrainis less active thanother parts that arehealthybecauseofthestroke effects) d) DSR Scan:Lightenergy o DSRstandsfor Dynamic Spatial Reconstruction o The samelight energyandX-ray technologyis usedinDSRscan but nowpicturesarebeing takenall the way aroundthebodyto give a3D image instead offromonepane o Ableto rotatearoundbitsand pieces oftheoverall3D image as well e) DSA: Lightenergy o DSAstandsfor Digital Subtraction Angiography o Angiography:Relatedto bloodvessels o Process:  Take 2pictures  Firstpicture acts asabaseline  Acontrast medium is injected into thecirculatory system so that is visible when thesecondpictureis taken andonly the bloodvesselswill beseen  Subtractthe first picturefromthe secondpictureto only showthe bloodvessels o Ex: Resulting bottomright picture showshowthereis aleaker in the dueto the patient sufferingtrauma o DSAcanalso be usedto showthrombosisin vesselsin theleg, arteriesin theheart, etc. f) PET Scan:Lightenergy o PET stands for PositronEmissionTomography o Similar to XenonCT butthe patient is injected with aradioisotope instead ofinhaling agas o Like XenonCT, theradioisotopewill traveland bepicked upbythe most active cells o Ableto lookat metabolic processes o Usedto lookat softtissue NOT bone o Ex: Pictureshowing drugfor Parkinson’sdisease  NormalPET scan shown in topleft  Middle section showsanindividual sufferingfrom Parkinson’sdisease(Whencertainpartsofthe braincalled basalnuclei which fine tunemuscle contractionsarenot functioning properlyso thepatient developsapalsy— tremorsandshakes)  Patient with Parkinson’sdiseasedoesnotgetas much activity in the basalnuclei in thebrainand thedrugworks to help with symptomatic relief ofthedisease  Evident in the bottomleft image wheretherearebrighter images indicating higher activity g) Ultrasound:Soundenergy o Canbeusually usedonsofttissue in thebody o Usessoundwaves NOT light energy o Process:  Havea transmitter andreceiver in aparticular device  Soundwavesgo throughsofttissueand bouncesoffthe tissue  Picked upby thereceiver andsent to the computer to seehow intenseit is  Softtissue that absorbsmoresoundenergyresultsinnotas much beingsent backto thereceiver o 2D,3D, and4D ultrasoundsareavailable h) MRI:Magneticfield o MRI standsfor MagneticResonanceImagery o Process:  Use ofawaveofmagnetic energythatpassesthroughthe body  Ionsin our bodyarecharged  Magneticenergywaves becomepolarizedasthey pulsethroughthebodyandforce the ionsto line up momentarily  MRI useshydrogenionsthataremostprevalent in soft tissue filled with water (Hardtissue like bonetissue doesnothaveasmuchwater in it as softtissues—Softtissue is better for MRI’s)  MRI’sareableto also usethecomputer to go backinto the image andaddin missing pieces suchasthe skull o Ex: Pictureshows anMRIofthe head  Taken to look for sinuspolyps—Comesupaslittle shadow i) MRS:Magnetic field o MRSstands for MagneticResonanceSpectroscope o Usesthe samebasic setupandtechnologyas anMRI—Usesa magnetic field pulsebut instead MRSgo after ionsother than water o Ex: Whenlookingat thekidney, MRSwill go after the charged sodiumions o Ex: Whenlookingat muscles, MRSwill go after the charged calcium ions j) M2A o “Pillcam”  M2A isa digital camera inpill formwith a built in light source o Asit is swallowed, it movesthroughthedigestive tractand takes pictures o Patient must wherea devicefor wherethedigital camerasendsa signal to everytime apicture is takenand thenthe picturesare storedonanSD card o Batterylife onthe camerais lessthan 18hoursso itgenerally burnsoutwhenit reachesthesmall intestine o Produces3D coloredpicturesinsidethebody o Greatalternative to having to havean endoscopy 3. Define physiology, and explain its relationship to anatomical structure.  Physis is Greekfor “function”  Logos isGreekfor “Study of”  Physiology:Study offunctionsofbodyparts—Includeschemical and physical/mechanical processes  The Big Integration - Structurecandictate function - Functioncan regulatestructure - Partsofthe bodyarebasedontheir functionandvice versa - Ex: Redbloodcellsshownin picture  RBCprimary purposeisto carry oxygen;Theyhaveno nuclei or cellular organellesinorder for the pigment to bindto oxygen 4. Name the different levels of structural organization, and describe their relationships with one another.  Chemical: - Lowestlevel - All ofthe chemicals that areessentialto life andwhat rolestheyplay in our body - *Levelsbelowchemical organization include atomic and subatomic  Cellular: - Multiple chemicals puttogether make upa cell - Ex: Lipidsmake upthe plasma membrane;Proteinsmake upthe cytoskeleton; Nucleic acidsmake up DNA - Cell: Structural andfunctional unit oflife - Cells make newcells - Overall: Cells arecomprisedofabunchofchemicals  Tissue: - Acombination of2or morecells working together for aparticular task make upatissue o Activities occurringwithin higher levels areoccurringwithin the cell o Cells arecollaborativelyperformingaspecial task - Ex: Nervousandconnectivetissue - Ex: Pictureshows 300-400neuroncellsthat functiontogether to make the nervoussystemwork;Neuronsallwork together to sendanaction potential downa nerve;Neurogliacellsprotect thenerve  Organ: - Acombination of2or moretissuesput together make upanorgan - Liver:Largestinternal organ - Skin: Largestorganoverall  Organ system: - Put 2or moreorganstogether witha specific functionmakes upanorgan system - Ex: Nervousandmuscular systems  Organismic: - All oftheselevels oforganizationallow usto definethe individual to work - Organismic level = Humanbody 5. The processes in which living organisms participate define life. List and describe these processes.  Limiting boundaries: - Skin separatestheinsides fromtheoutside - Intact barrier that keepsthings fromgetting into outbody - Skin allows adifferent environmentto beinside our bodythanfor it to match the outsideofour body  Excitability: - Living things areexcitableand havetheability to sense changewithin or aroundtheir bodies - Responseto stimuli - Ex: Sunsetting in the pictureis an externalstimulus that causesthebody to respondandhavethepupils dilate  Conductivity: - Bodycansensechangesandcancommunicate thesechangesfromone partofthe bodyto another - Simply, conductivity has to do with connecting onepartofthe bodyto another  Metabolism: - Sum total ofall thechemical reactionsthat occur in our bodies - 2subdivisions ofmetabolism: a) Catabolic: o Breakdownpathways o Ex: Whenoneeatsbread,chemical breakdownoccurswhere starchesarebrokendownto monosaccharides b) Anabolic: o Build upthings o Ex: Useamino acidsto make proteinsin order to buildmore muscle  Digestion: - Once foodisin thebody,mechanical breakdownoccursfirstwith chewing  Chemical breakdownin order to getnutrients outofthe food  Excretion: - Elimination ofwaste - Wasteinclude fecalmatter, urine(Nitrogenouscompounds),sweat, carbondioxide(Excretedthroughexhalation)  Movement: - Ex: Movementofskeletal muscle requiresmuscular contraction - Ex: Smoothmusclemoves throughdigestivesystem - Ex: Pumpbloodthroughcardiovascular systemviacardiac muscle  Growth: - Increasein size o Bygrowing morecells o Bygrowing thesizes ofthecells alreadypresent - For themostpart, youarebornwith mostofthe muscle cellsyouwill ever have –Generally, thesize ofthe musclecells arechangedwith age (Same with adiposetissue)  Reproduction: - Cells reproducethemselvesviamitosis - Reproductionofnewindividuals = procreation/makingoffspring *All ofthese componentsoflife processes thatlivings carryoutis to make it possible for reproductionto happen 6. What factors are needed for survival?  Survival needsare requiredto beableto carryoutlife processesandthey needto bein the right amount(Not too little or too much)  Nutrients: - All chemical substancesareusedfor energyandcellproduction - Get all thenutrients fromthefoodweeat  Oxygen: - Neededbecauseitis an electronacceptor for cellular respiration - In order to produceenoughATP,oxygenisrequired - Extra: Atmosphereiscomposedofonly20%oxygen,andasonetravelsat higher in altitudes oxygenlevels decrease  Water: - Bodyis madeupof60-80% water  Therefore,water is the most prevalentsubstancein the body - Water comesfromfluids andfoodconsumed - Ableto take in water andlose water throughsweatevaporationand urine,for example - Extrawater taken in must betaken out  Normal Body Temperature: - 37degreesC(98.6 degreesF) - <95 degreesF  Metabolicactivity slows down - >99 degreesF  Startto denatureproteinsin body - Go too highor too low normalbodytemperature  Death  Atmospheric Pressure: - Bodyrequiresthesurroundingair to be pressurizedor elsebreathing wouldnot bepossible *Ifwe haveall ofthesesurvival needsin optimal amounts,the bodywill exist in homeostatic condition 7. What is homeostasis? What is needed for homeostasis to occur? What do we call factors that can disrupt homeostasis?  Homeostasis - Homoios is Greekfor “Same” - Stasis is Greekfor “Standing” - Homeostasis=“Standing Still” - Condition ofstableinternal bodyenvironment  Bodyis never constant but israther adynamic equilibrium  Requirements for Homeostasis - All ofour survivalneedsareat anoptimum for homeostasisto exist - Whensurvivalneedsareat optimum o Therefore,optimuminternal nutrition, optimum internal gases, optimum internal water, optimum internal temperature,and optimum internal pressure - Thereis anarrowrangeunder whichhomeostasiswill occur o Deviationsfromhomeostasis  Ill health(Ex: Fever,hangover) o Deviatetoo broadly  Death  Stress - Estresse isold Frenchfor “Narrowness”or “Drawntight” - Causeshomeostasisto belost o Anystimulus causingan imbalance inthe internal environment o Canbeinternal (within the body)andexternalstresses o All stimuli causea response,notalldisturb homeostasis - Again: o Notall stimuli arestressesbutall stressesarestimuli o Notall stimuli causeadisruptionbut someofthem do - Bodyhasatremendousresistanceto stress  Hasmechanisms that respondo stressandgetthebodyback to homeostasis  Stress Regulation Mechanisms - Nervous System: o Detect changesandsendchangesthroughoutthebodyto counteractthem o Sendselectrochemical messengers o Includesa detector,integrator,etc. throughbrainor spinalcord - EndocrineSystem: o Chemical messages(hormones)canbesentto counteract homeostasis 8. Differentiate positive and negative feedback systems. Describe how each function to maintain homeostasis.  Fedan isAnglo Saxonfor “Food”  Baec is Anglo Saxonfor “Back”  Systema is Greekfor “System”  Definition of Feedback Systems - Anycircular situation whereinformationaboutthe status ofsomethingis continually reportedto acentral controlregion - Thereis acentral controlsystem inour bodiesthat playa roleinfeedback systems, which is usually thebrainor spinal cordofthecentralnervous system (CNS) - Somefeedbacksystems don’tusetheCNS  Ex:Chemical messagesare detected byasensor thatcausesthe secretionofacertain chemical  Feedback Systems - Basedonthepicture, the flat graybar atthe bottomrepresentsthebody at homeostasis - Astimulus (Stress)that is applied causesadisruptionin homeostasis  Stressis detected byareceptor (Lossofhomeostasis)  Controlcenter takes in informationthat stresshasoccurred  Actioncarriedoutbyan effector - Ex: Ifonesits onathumb tack  Balanceis disrupted  One’sreactionis to stand  Regaincomposureandsit backdown - Overall: Feedbacksystems haveto do with acircular situation that is trying to restorehomeostasis  Negative Feedback - Wheretheeffector isreversingtheoriginal condition - Ex: Thermostat—Ifa thermostatis set ata certaintemperature, andthe temperaturegoesabovethattemperature ACturnsonandreversesthe original conditionto makeit cooler - Ex: Ifbloodglucoselevelsget too low  Glycogenis brokendownvia catabolic reactionsto releaseglucose  Bloodglucoselevelincreases  Positive Feedback - Whereacceleration/intensification oftheoriginal conditionoccurs - Ex: Child birth—Whenthefetus grows,it puts stretchonthe muscular wall ofthe uterus  Signal is sentto thebrain  Secretionofoxytocin  Muscle contraction  Morepressureputontheuterus  Moremuscle contraction  Morereleaseofoxytocin,etc.  Cycle repeatsandtheonly way to get backto homeostasisis to get ridofthe stimulus (Fetus) completely andgive birth to the baby - Ex: Consumptionofalcoholaffectsthebrain, causingoneto want to consumemoreuntil the pointwherethe bodycannothaveanymoreand the stomachgetsrid oftheoriginal stimulus ofalcoholvia vomit  Returnto homeostasis Reviewof Chemistry 1. Define matter, and differentiate the forms in which it can occur.  Cell: - Structuraland functionalunit oflife - Carriesoutchemical reactions o Ex: Thebreakdownofglycogento releaseglucoseis achemical reactionthat occursinside thecell  Matter - Materia is Latinfor “timber” or “substance”  Definition of Matter - Anything that occupiesspaceandhasmass - Is composedofchemicalelements - Bodypossessesmatter andis composedofchemicalelements  Elements - Substancesthat cannotbedecomposedinto smaller substancesbyany ordinary/naturalchemicalreactions  ChemicalElements - 118chemical elements o 92occur naturally o Others aremanmadein particle acceleratorswhereparticles collide together to make anelement eventhoughit maynot last long - Humanbodycontains 24chemical elements o O, C, H, andN  Makeup96%ofbodycomposition o O, C, H, N+ CaandP  Makeup99% ofbodycomposition - All ofthe other 24elementsin the bodyare calledtraceelements (18/24) o Ex: Generationofnervousimpulseshasto do with sodium and potassium  States of Matter - Matter canexist in 3differentstates  Bodypossessesallofthesestates - Differencebetweenonesateofmatter andanother isbecauseofthe speedofmoleculesthat make upthe matter - Moleculesareconstantly in motionwhether it’sslow or fast - Solid: o Matter hasadefinitive form o Slowest formofmoleculemovement o Ex: Crystalline structure o Ex: Teeth andbones - Liquid: o If onetakesa solidandincreasesthe motionofthe moleculesthat make upthat solid, it will loseits definitive shapeandbecomea liquid o Liquidhas slightly faster moving molecules o Takes theshapeofits container o Hasa certainvolume o Ex: Plasmain the bloodthattakes the shapeofbloodvessels,urine collected in thebladder takes theshapeofthe bladder - Gas: o If onetakesa liquid andspeedsupthemotion ofthe molecules that make upthat liquid, agaswill result o Doesn’thaveadefinitive shapeor volume o Volumechangesasthe container that holdsthegaschanges o Ex: Air in lungs  Bychanging thevolume ofthelungs, this changesthepressureofthegas(Air) that allowshumans to breathe - Matter canchangefromonestateto another: o Water:Subtract heatto slow downthe molecular motion  Formationofasolid(Ice) o Bones(Solid): ChangingthepH condition  Changesinmolecular motion  Bonesbecomingsoluble  Liquidform 2. Define energy, and differentiate the forms in which it can occur.  En-ergon is Greekfor “atwork”  Differentformsofenergy  a) Potential: - Storedenergy - Ex: Roller coaster car atthe topofahill representspotentialenergy b) Kinetic: - Energyin motion - Ex: Whentheroller coaster car startsgoingdown thehill, thepotential energyis convertedinto kinetic energy - Energyput into asystem canbestoredto uselater  Whenthe stored energyis released,it is convertedinto kinetic energythat canbeused c) Chemical: - Energycontainedwithin bondsbetweenelements (In the formof chemical bonds=Storedenergy) - In order to releasechemicalenergy,thechemical bondsneed to be broken - Absorbingchemical energy  Creationofabond  Createspotential energy - Breakingbonds  Releaseofkinetic energy d) Electrical: - Results fromtheflow ofchargedparticles - Ex: Battery o Haspositive andnegative ions  Becausetheyareattractedto eachother,the ionscreateacurrent - Ex: Inthe bodytherearepositiveand negativeions also o Flowofions createselectrical energyinthe body e) Mechanical: - Energythat is requiredfor movement - Ex: Windturbine: o Wind blowinghits the turbineblade that causesit to spin (Wind sets theturbineinto motion)  Canconvertthe mechanical energyinto electrical energy  Powershouses f) Electromagnetic: - AKA radiantenergy - Energythat travels inwaves - Includeslight, sound,andheat waves **Energycomesfromchemical, electrical, mechanical, andelectromagnetic energy  Kinetic energy(Energyin action) g) Energy Conversions - First Law of Thermodynamics: o Energycanneither becreatedor destroyed o Energyis instead converted fromoneformto another - Second Law of Thermodynamics: o No energyconversionis100%efficient o Someenergyis goingto belost to the environment o Lostenergyinthe bodymakes heat,which helps maintain constantbodytemperature  Metabolic processesareresponsiblefor generatingthis heat h) Bodysystem overall:Changesenergyfromoneformto another allthe time - Ex: Consumedfoodisconvertedto chemical energy,mechanical energy, etc. 3. How are atoms and elements related to one another?  Atomos isGreekfor “Indivisible”  Definition of an Atom - The smallest unit ofmatter thancan enter achemical reaction - All elements ofcomposedofatoms - Matter is composedofelements  Elements cannotbebrokendowninto anything smaller under normalreactionsbuttheycontain atomsthat allow elements to reactwith other elements 4. List the subatomic particles. Identify their charges, relative sizes and location in the atom.  Composition of an Atom - Anatom is composedofanucleusatthe center wheremost ofthemass of anatom is located - Nucleus: o Composedof protons(+)and neutrons (Neutralcharge) - Outside the nucleus,electrons (-) revolvearoundthenucleusandare constantly in motion o In order to keeptheelectronsmoving aroundthenucleus,there hasto be thesame number ofprotonsaselectrons  Atomic Number - Number ofprotonsthatexist in anatom - #ofprotons=#ofelectrons - Increasingthe atomic number  Moreprotonsinthenucleus  Increasesthemass oftheatom  Atomic Mass - Sum ofthenumber ofprotons+number ofneutrons - Mostofthe massofanatom is thenucleus - Increasingthe atomic number  Moreprotonsinthenucleus, which is partofthe atomic massbut other partincludesthe neutrons - Isotope: o Anatom that contains thesamenumber ofprotonsandelectrons but adifferentnumber ofneutrons o Ex: IsotopeofLithium  Will contain 3protonsand3electrons but will haveadifferentnumber ofneutronsthanaregular Li atom  Periodic Table of Elements - Eachelement in the periodictable hasanatomic number that gives the number ofprotons(Andelectrons)theatom possesses - Chemical symbolsand atomic weights arealso listed - Elements that havesimilar characteristicscan beplacedinto columns  Tells us howtheelement is going to reactin chemical reactions o Someelements will donateor acceptelectronswhile other elements shareelectrons  Energy Levels - Orbitals/shells: o Regionsin which the electronsmovearoundthenucleus o Electronsarein constantmotion o Eachorbital hasamaximum number ofelectronsit canhold  Valence - The number ofextraor deficientelectronsin theoutermostenergylevel - AKA: Electronsthat in the outermostorbital/shell - If anorbital/shellis full like neon, theelement is inert andnotreactive (Includes thenoblegases-Lastcolumn in theperiodic table) - If anorbital/shellisn’t full, the element is reactivebecauseit hasa deficient or extraamountofelectrons  **All atomswant to havefull outermostorbitals/shells  ChemicalReactions - Combining or breakingapartofatomsformingnew productswith differentpropertiesfromtheoriginals - Ex: Inthe picture, aredliquid was mixed with a greenliquid o Results in color changesthataredifferentproperties o Canseethis is an exergonicreaction(Givesoffenergy),which causesit to bubbleandboilso that the liquid is changedinto a gas - Again: Inchemical reactions,atomscombine that resultin new substancesthat havedifferentproperties  ChemicalReactions - Atoms alwaystry to fill the outermostenergylevel o Accomplished bygiving up, accepting, or sharingelectronswith another atom - AKA: Achemical reaction isan interchangeofelectronsamongatoms 5. Differentiate among, element, molecule and compound.  Molecule - Combination oftwo or moreatomsfromachemical reaction o Interactions oftwo or moreatoms  Molecule - Moleculesdo nothaveto beacombination ofthesame atoms  Compound - Substancethat canbebrokendowninto two or moreothersbya chemical means - Always contain combinationsoftwo or moredifferentelements - All compoundsaremoleculesbutnot all moleculesarecompounds 6. Identify the types of bonds that can be formed between molecules. Explain why different molecules use different bonding.  ChemicalBonding - Attractive forcesthatholdtogether theatoms ofamolecule - Bondshaveto formbetweenatoms in order for thecompoundto be made  Ionic: - Relates to the ideathat oppositesattract  Ionsofoppositechargesare attracted to oneanother - Electronsin the outermostshellgive an ionic charge - Atoms with a small excessnumber ofelectronsareattractedtowards atomsthat have aweak deficiency in electrons(Atomsthat alreadyhave much moreelectronsintheir outermostshell) - Ions: o Positively or negativelychargedparticles which resultwhen an atom gainsor loseselectrons  Cation:(+)  Givesup electron=Electron donor;Willhave moreprotonsthanelectrons  Anion: (-)  Accepts electron=Electronacceptor;Will havefewer protonsthanelectrons o In other terms:Ionic bondswill createions that will havecharges that areconsideredto be polar—Dueto thepositive andnegative charges o Ex: Inthe picture  Thereis1 extraelectronin theoutermost(valence) shellin Naand1 lesselectronin the outermostshellin Cl  Dueto ionic bonding,bothatoms havefull outer shellsdue to Na donatingits electronto Cl (Acceptor)  Covalent: - Shareelectronsbetweenatomsin a chemical reaction  Electronswill circle aroundbothnuclei - Morestableandcommonthan ionic bonds - Ex: Carboniscapableofmaking 4covalent bonds - Types: a) Single covalentbond: o Share1pair ofelectrons o Ex: CandH make asingle covalentbond b) Double covalent bond: o Share2setsofelectrons o Ex: 2O moleculesmake a doublecovalent bond c) Triple covalentbond: o Share3pairsofelectrons - Electronsaremoving aroundatomsequallyor unequally,which creates partial polar or non-polar covalentbonds *Ionicbondsarepolar,andgenerally,polarity is notassociatedwith covalentbonds  Hydrogen: - Technically notabondandis instead moreofanattraction that isdue to electronegativity - Ex: H2O o Water is composedofanOwith 2H aroundit o Electronsspendmoretime aroundOthanH  CreatesH= partial positive chargeandO =partial negative charge o Betweenwater molecules: O areattractively held in placeasa result(Dueto hydrogenbondingbetweentheO andH) - H usuallyattracts O andN - Hydrogenbondsareveryweak,andagainthey areessentially electronegativeforcesthat holdmolecules together  Summary: Covalentbondsarethestrongestbecausetheyinvolve sharing electrons.Ionic bondsareweaker andinvolvesharingcharges.Hydrogen bondsaretheweakest andinvolve sharingpartial charges. 7. Define chemical reaction, and list the various types of possible reactions.  Making or breakingbonds  Number ofatomsremainsthe samebut arerearranged  Chemical formulaexample:2 H2+ O2  2H2O - Balancedequation - Leftside ofthearrow:Reactants - Right side ofthearrow:Products - Productsalways haveto havethe samenumber ofatomsasthe reactants - Molecular formula=2H2O - Wholeformula=Chemical equation  Somereactantscan go backthe other wayto theleft ofthe arrow  Seenin situations wherethings canbebuilt upto bestoredfor later andthenthey canbebrokendownwhen needed  Types ofchemical reactions: a) Synthesis - Metabolism: Consistedofcatabolic andanabolicreactions - Synthesis reactionsareanabolic  Building things upandmaking them better - 2or moreatomsor moleculesarecombinedto formabigger one - Ex: Amino acid + Amino acid combineto produceaprotein b) Decomposition: - Catabolic  Breakingthings down - Bondsinlargemolecules arebrokendownto yield smaller substances **All things arebasedupsynthesisanddecomposition c) Exchange: - Partsynthesis andpart decomposition - Oxidation-reduction reactions o Important reactionsthat occur inthe body o Haveto do with anexchangeofelectrons o Wheresomeatomswill donateanelectronto something else o Anatom that gives upanddonatesanelectron= Oxidized o Anatom that acceptsand electron=Reduced d) Reversible: - End productscanrevertbackto the reactants - Happenswhenneither thereactants or theproductsareverystable (Want to reach equilibrium) e) Exergonic: - Catabolic - Releasesenergy(Netenergyis givenoff) - Productshavelessenergythanthe reactants - Cannothaveany chemical reactionsunlessthereis aninput ofsome energyto make it happen f) Endergonic: - Anabolic Requirestheinput ofenergy - Productsareata higher level ofenergythanthereactants - Ex: Chemical energystoredinbonds Makingsomething big between reactants 8. What factors limit the rate of chemical reactions? Explain how these are related to activation energy.  Collision Theory - Explains howandwhy chemical reactionsoccur - All particles arein constantmotion andcontinually collide with one another o Alternative explanation: All matter consistsofelements and elements consistofatoms andall elements havethose atomsin constantmotion  Atoms ultimately bump into oneanother - If collision providesactivation energy,bondsarebrokenor formed o Alternative explanation: Ifthe collision is strongenoughto getthe atomsclose enoughto interactwith oneanother  Activation energyis producedwhichallowsbondsto beformedor broke  Activation Energy - Collision energyisneededfor achemical reaction o All chemical reactionsneedto haveaninput ofsomeenergyin order to allowthem to take place(That energy typically comes fromacollision) - Activation energy:Amountofenergyneededto rearrangetheelectronsof amolecule  Velocity of collidingparticles: - The faster particlesaremoving, the moreimpact, the higher theenergy, andthe greater thereactivity - Mostexperiments requireheatingsubstancesbecause temperatureis a measurementofmolecular motion - Ex: Bodytemperatureiskept at around98degreesF  Keepsmolecules in veryfastmotion which allows them to bevery reactive  Energy of collidingparticles: - Energyisn’t just basedonthespeedofmotion, it is also basedon particle size - Smaller particle sizesarebetter  Smaller thingscan movefaster than bigger things andthereforehavemoreenergy - Big things movingslowly still impart energythough  Concentration ofcollidingparticles: - The moreparticlesthereare,the morecollisions that will occur  Catalysts: - Increasetherateofa chemical reactionwithout being consumedinthe reaction - Ex: Bodyhavebiologicalcatalysts, which areenzymesour bodiesproduce that aresubstancesthat speedupchemical reactions o Reactionswithout catalysts wouldcausethe reactionsto occur to slowly to keep humansalive Biochemistry 1. Define biochemistry.  Chemical composition andreactionsofliving matter  Lookingat biologicalcompounds(Compoundsoflivingorganisms) 2. Differentiate organic and inorganic compounds. List important compounds from each group.  Inorganic: - Doesn’tcontaincarbon - Includeswater, salts, acids, and bases - Whensalts, acids, andbasesdissolve in water theydissociate into chargedparticlescalled ions - Chargedparticlesin the humanbodyarecalledelectrolytes (Again, coming fromthedissolving ofsalts suchasNaCl, KCl, etc.)  Organic: - Do containcarbon - Carbonhasthepotential for 4covalent bonds,which meansit won’t dissociate into electrolytes (NOT ionic) - Focusisoncarbohydrates,proteins,lipids, andnucleic acids ImportantInorganic Compounds  Water:  60-80% ofthemassofthe humanbodyis madeupofwater  Propertiesofwater: a) High heatcapacity: o Water is resistant to changesin temperature o This is important becauseofthebodyhavingahomeostatic body temperature  Water makes it easier to maintain this homeostatic bodytemperature b) High heatof vaporization: o Water requiresalotof heat (Andthereforeenergy)inorder for it to turn fromaliquid into agas o Allowing water to evaporatefromour bodiesmeansthatit also hascoolingpowers(Regulator ofbodytemperature) c) Universal solvent: o Solution:  Createdwhena solutedissolves into asolvent  Solute: Substancebeingdissolved  Solvent: Whatthe substanceisbeing dissolvedin  Ex: Thesolute in asaline solutionis salt o Ionic molecules(Moleculesmade throughionicbonds)areableto dissolvein water o Polar compoundscandissolve in water, which meansthey have the ability to createionswhich areableto thenbetransportedby water (Sincesolvents also act astransportmediums)  Important becausefor anythingto bebiologically active, it hasto bein solution o Ex: Consumption ofFood  Foodismoistenedinthe mouthin order to putit into solution andhaveenzymesbreaksome componentsdown  Foodmovesto thestomach wheregastric juice is secretedin order to allowdifferentenzymes to workon differentcomponents  Main idea:Foodandits componentsareputinto solution for thesebreakdownmechanismsto happen d) Hydrolysis/condensation: o Water allows thebodyto engagein hydrolysisandcondensation reactions o Reminder: All ofthemetabolic activities ofthe bodyareeither anabolic(Build up) or catabolic(Breakdown)  Therefore, everythingin our bodygoesthroughasynthesis(Anabolic)or decomposition(Breakdown) reaction o Condensation/Dehydration synthesis reaction:H O rem2ved  If thereare2reactantsgoingthroughananabolicreaction in order to buildsomething up,water is removed o Hydrolysis reaction:H O added 2  If thereisa substancethat is to bebrokendown,water is split andaddedso thatthe OH goesto onesideandthe H goesto the other side e) Cushion o Water hastremendouscushioningpotential that canbefound betweenbonesandjoints (Sacoffluid is presentso that bonedon’t crushinto eachother,for example) o Cerebralspinalfluid surroundsthebrainandthewater actsa cushionto protect fromhead trauma  Salts: - Substancesthat dissociate to formcations(+) andanions(-) which are electrolytes o AKA: Salts createelectrolyteswhen theydissociate into solution - Important becausethemovementofchargedparticles produceselectrical energy - Movementofchargedparticles arespecifically necessaryfor electrical energyusein nervepulsesthat transfer throughoutthebodyandthat also act assignals that causemusclesto contract - Again: Electrical energyis usedfor lifeprocesses - Salts canalso bedepositedinto a matrix andbuildtissue suchas bone andteeth (Createhardtissue substances) o Ex: Ifmorediet is consumedfromthediet than for whatis needed at thetime, it isput into bonesandwhenit’s neededlater it will be releasedfrombone - Salt balancein our bodyiscritical for life  There isa verynarrow homeostatic optimum for saltbalance o Kidneys areresponsiblefor regulatingtheionicbalance o If onewereto go into renalfailure,death canfollowveryquickly since it is veryhardto re-establish salt balanceafter it is lost  Acids: - Substancesthat dissociate - Whenacidsdissociate, they increasethe hydrogenionconcentration - Hydrogenionshaveapositive chargeso theyhavemoreprotons  This meansthat an acidis a proton donorsince it gives upahydrogenion somewhereinanother chemical reaction o AKA: Acids dissociateto produceH(+) - Acids throughdissociationcanalso createelectrical currentsandproduce electrical energy  Bases: - Substancesthat increasethehydroxylion(OH) concentration-Typical chemistry definition - In termsofanatomy/physiology:Abaseis asubstancethat reducesthe hydrogenionconcentration,making bases proton acceptors 3. Identify the special properties of water (See question 2) 4. Explain the concept of pH, and discuss how the body maintains pH biochemically.  pH: - Descriptionofthe levelofacidity or alkalinity ofasolution - Expressedonascalefrom0-14 o Basedonconcentrationofhydrogenionsinsolutionin moles/liter (Dissociation ofhydrogenionsinwater) o p= negative logandH= hydrogenionconcentration o <7  Acidic o >7  Basic(Basesremovehydrogenionsso theyshift thescale higher) o 7= Neutral  Is homeostatic: o Differentpartsofour bodyhavedifferentoptimal pH’s  Ex: MouthpHis differentthan thestomach’spH  All partshaveto haveahomeostatic pHthoughin order to workproperly o HomeostasisofpHis maintained by: a) Neutralization:  Addition ofanacid andbase  Water +Salt  Water aneutral pHof7  Summary: Combinationofwater andasalt results ina neutralsolution b) Buffering:  Processinwhich the addition ofsmall amountsofacid or basedo notresultin a pHchange  Resists pHchangesbyeither accepting or liberating hydrogenions *Mechanismsareimportant becausehumansconstantly floodtheboy with acidic or basicfoods(Predominantlyacidic foodssuchascoke that is acidic dueto its ingredientsand carbonation,for example;Ex: Overindulgencein alcohol Acidosis  Death) 5. Describe the building blocks and general structures of the important organic molecules.  Carbohydrates: - Include sugarsandstarches - Bodyis composedof60-80%water,which means that thecell is madeup of1-2% carbohydrates - Main functionofcarbohydratesis to beasourceofenergy - Glucoseactsas themajor player in energyproductionsinceit mosteasily entersglycolysis whereit is then brokendownto pyruvate  TCA cycle  Electron transportchain  Ultimately making ATP for energy - Energycancome fromsourcesother thanglucoseaswell  Monosaccharides: o Smallest formofsugar;Individual units = simple sugars o Taste verysweet o Canbeabsorbedimmediately acrossthewall ofthe digestive tract o Canbeimmediately usedto provideenergydirectly fromthe bloodstream o Simple sugarsarenamedbasedonthenumber ofcarbonsthey contain:  Pentose:Have5 carbons  Hexose:Have6carbons o Monosaccharideswill always haveaC:H:O ratio of1:2:1  Ex: C6H 12 6Glucose  Disaccharides: o 1monosaccharide+1monosaccharide viaadehydrationsynthesis reaction  Polymerization to produceadisaccharide o Ex: Sucroseis1glucose+1 glucose=table sugar o Ex: Lactoseis1 galactose+1glucose= milk sugar  Manyindividuals suffer fromlactoseintolerancebecauseas newbornswe producelactasethat is theenzyme that breaksdownlactosebut asoneagesandespecially once oneis weaned,the enzymeis usually no longer produced  Issueswhenconsuming dairyproductscontaining lactose o Must bedigestedand brokendowninto monosaccharidesbefore they canbeabsorbedacrossthewallofthedigestive tractvia hydrolysisreaction  Polysaccharides: o Additions ofmonosaccharidesanddisaccharidesto produce polysaccharidesviadehydrationsynthesis reactions o Must bedigestedand broken downinto ultimately monosaccharidesbeforetheycanbeabsorbedacrossthewallof the digestive tract viahydrolysis reactions o Unique characteristic: Don’ttastesweet like monosaccharides+ NOT water soluble o Longchainpolysaccharidesarestoredas starchinplants andas glycogenin animals o Glycogen:  Createdin animals whenthereis extrasugar notneededfor energyyet  Storedin liver and muscle  Keyto understandthatglycogen consumedfromanimal sourcesmustbebrokendowninto their monosaccharide componentsandberebuilt asglycogenin the humanbody  Lipids: - Canexist in 1of2 statesofmatter  Liquid or solidat roomtemperature - Solid =fat - Liquid= oil - NOT water soluble - Will dissolve in other lipids andorganicsolventssuchasacetoneand benzene - NeutralFats(Triglycerides): o Atriglyceride contains 1glycerol +3fatty acids (FA) o Non-polar so won’tdissolvein water o Functionprimarily as energystoragemolecules  Storageprocess: After the consumptionofameal, glycogenstoresfill upfirst with glucose  Excessglucoseisstoredasfat in adipose tissue  Althoughglucoseis usedthemost for energysinceit is easiest andin simplest form,moreenergycanbeobtained fromlipids than outofsugar (20x morethanoutof glycogen)  Whenenergyisneeded: Glucosefromglycogenisbrokendownandusedup first  Then breakdowntriglycerides instoragefor energy o Lipids functionin insulation:  Ex: Pack kidneys infat that arelocatedonthe backside in order to preventmajor lossofbodytemperature o Lipids also protectorgansviaworking asacushion - Classes of Triglycerides: a) Saturated: o 1glycerol +3FAthat haveall singlebonds(NO doublebonds between2 carbons) o Solid atroomtemperature o Predominantly foundinanimal fat o Saturatedfat consumptiontendsto increasecholesterollevelsin the body o Cantell fromanevolutionaryperspectivethat humansare supposedto havemeatin the diet  Vegetarianshaveanadvantagethoughsincethey won’t consumeasmuch saturatedfat, which meansthat cholesterolwon’tbeasbig ofanissue b) Unsaturated: o Containsa single bondin1 ofthe3FA’sthat areesterifiedto the glycerolbackbone o Oils atroomtemperature o Do notcauseanyincreasein cholesterolbecausetheydon’thave anyeffect oncholesterol c) Polyunsaturated: o Atriglyceride that has 2or morebondsinthe3 FA’sesterifiedto the glycerolbackbone d) Trans-fats: o Comesfromafat this is anoil that is composedofpredominantly polyunsaturatedtriglycerides  This oil formissolidified in a lab bysimply floodingit with hydrogens  Breaksthedoublebonds ofthepolyunsaturatedtriglyceride o This synthetic creationoftransfatwas originally doneinorder to addmoreflavor insnack foodssincelots ofsaturatedfattendsto give moreflavor  Peopledidnot want theincorporationoflard asthe sourceofaddedsaturatedfatso trans-fatwassynthetically createdto addthe sourceofsaturatedfatfor flavor o Trans-fat is aconcernbecauseitgrosslyincreasescholesteroland thereforeincreasesheartdisease o Trans-fat canalso benaturally foundinanimal sourcessuchas groundbeef e) Omega-3 FattyAcids: o PolyunsaturatedFA o Omega:  Meansat thefar endofthe FAchain  Namingcomesfromstarting at the endoftheFAchain and counting thecarbons backwardsuntil youmeet wherethe doublebondislocated  Ex: Omega-3 FAhaveadoublebondatthe 3 carbonfrom the tail  Ex: Omega-6 FAhaveadoublebondatthe 6 carbonfrom the tail o Shownto reducecholesterol(Samewith omega-6FA—Shown later in research) o Predominantly foundinfish oils: (Extra)  The stomachis acts asastoragetank so theproblemwith pills is that it will sit in the stomachfor awhile beforethere is asignal for thestomachto empty into thesmall intestine so theoil will sit ontopofthestomach  Nowother omega-3FAsourcesinpill formarecoming fromkrill - Phospholipids: o Structure:Take 1 FAawayfromthe glycerolbackboneona triglyceride andsubstitute it with a phosphateresultsina phospholipid  In summary:2 FA+ phosphateonaglyceryl backbone o Havea non-polar componentthroughthe2FAthatdoesn’tlike water o Havea polar componentthroughthephosphatethatlikes water o Whenphospholipidsareinsolution  Geta doublelayer of phospholipidsbecausethepolar/water lovingcomponentofthe phosphatefacestheoutsidetowardsthe water and thenon- polar/water opposingFAcomponentsfacetheinside awayfrom the water  Phospholipidbilayer makes upcellular membranes  Amphipathic molecule  Meaningmoleculehaspolar and non-polar parts - Steroids: o Madefrom4interlocking hydrocarbonrings o Fatbased  Fat soluble o Ex: Testosteroneandprogesterone  Differenebetweenthetwo hormonesis1doublebondand1hydrogen o Steroidsareaformofsignaling molecule(1 class ofhormones) o Nervoussystemandendocrinesystem areinvolvedin regulation  Steroidsarepartofthe endocrinesystem o Long-distancesignaling molecules that areproducedinonepart andaffectanother partsomewhereelse - Eicosanoids: o Localsignaling molecules Producedinonepartofthebodyand affectthat same place o Fatbased o Triglyceride structureis what getsmodified to produce eicosanoids  Proteins: See question6and7  Nucleic acids:Seequestion8 6. Describe how proteins obtain their 3-D structure, and discuss the roles proteins play within living systems.  Proteins: - 10-30% ofthemassofa cell is madeupofprotein  Therefore,cellsare predominantly water andprotein - Proteinsarecomposedofamino acids(AA) - WhenAAarelinked together  Results in apolypeptide - AA+ AAarebondedtogether viapeptide bonds—Functionthrougha nitrogen - Proteinsin the humanbodyaremadeupof20AA - SomeofthoseAAareonly availablefromanimal sources - Someproteinscan’tbe madein thebodyif aperson isa strict vegetarian - Protein Structure: a) Primary Structure: o Linear sequenceofallthe AAthat make upa protein  Review: Linear AAchains make upapolypeptide b) Secondary Structure: o BecausetheseAAhavedifferentchargesassociatedwith them (Positive or negative), all oftheseprimary structureswill twist as aresult o 2possiblesecondarystructures: 1. Beta pleated sheet: For example-Foundinstraight hair 2. Alpha helix: For example-Foundincurlyhair c) Tertiary Structure: o Secondarystructurecoilsenough so thatthe AAget closeenough to eachother andthey twist evenmoreto give a 3D shape o Possessactive sites wherespecificsubstratescan fit  Makes upa functional protein,for example(One typeofprotein) d) Quaternary Structure: o If thereismorethan 1peptide chainlinked together  Complex protein  >1 polypeptidechain= Quaternarystructure o Ex: Hemoglobin  Consistsof4 peptidechains =complex protein with 4subunits that all wraparound=quaternarystructure - Types ofProteins: o Structural/Fibrous:  Give formto bodyparts  Mostabundantproteinin the bodyis collagenthat gives form o Regulatory:  Regulateprocessesgenerallyasahormone(Inaddition to the steroid-basedhormonesaswell) o Contractile:  Ex: Myosinandactin in muscle o Immunological:  Antibodies that fight infectionor disease o Transport:  Carrier moleculesknown astransportproteins  Ex: Hemoglobincarriesoxygen o Catalytic:  Enzymes that areproteinsthat functionasbiological catalysts andspeedupchemical reactions  3D shapecausesthe enzyme to havean active site that will bind to andonly certainsubstrates  Whenasubstratebinds to the active site  Inducesthe activation energyto allowthat reaction to occur  Enzymes do notget consumedin thereaction(Still havethe reactionwhen thereactionis complete)  Overall Process:Enzyme bindswith specific substrate  Formsenzymes-substratecomplex  Substrateto form product+enzyme available to beusedagain  Ex: Pictureshows adecompositionreaction 7. Explain the function of enzymes and how this function is lost through denaturation. Denaturation:  Lossofaprotein’s3D shape  ChangepHor temperaturetoo muchoutside oftheoptimal range  Denaturation  Lossoffunctionoftheprotein/enzyme  Structuralproteinsarerelatively stable anddon’tdenatureveryoften while functional proteinstend to denaturemoreeasily 8. Differentiate DNA from RNA  Nucleic Acids: - Largestmoleculesin thebody - Comprisedofnucleotides(ATCG that areeither a purineor pyrimidine) that areboundto apentose sugar viaphosphatebonds - Summary: Nucleic acidis made upofaphosphategroup,5carbonsugar, andnucleotides (Nitrogenousbases) - DNA: o Genetic material locatedin the nucleusofthecell o Nuclear material contains codesegmentscalled genesthat indirectly codefor theproductionofproteins o Sugar =Deoxyribose o Double-strandedmolecule o AT andGCcomplementary nucleotidepairing that areheld together byhydrogenbonds - RNA: o Ribonucleic acid o Sugar =Ribose o Single-strandedmolecule o T (Thiamine) is replacedbyU (Uracil)  MeansRNA will havea differentnucleotide configuration  AU andGCcomplementary nucleotidepairing o DNAcodesfor theproductionofproteinsindirectly via codingfor RNA o Process:  DNAstays inthe nucleusbut sendsamessenger to ribosomesthtmake RND  Adenosine Triphosphate(ATP): - Adenineis boundto aphosphatein which 2additional phosphatesare attached - Important becauseATPis the currencyofenergyinour bodies - Energyis releasewhenabondis broken: o Whenaphosphateiscleaved offATP  Produceenergy(Typically 1phosphateis brokenoffandthenaphosphateisaddedback on to useATP moleculeover again) Cell Structure 1. Summarize the cell theory.  Cella is Latin for “storeroom”or “chamber”  Definition of a Cell - Basic living, structural, andfunctional units ofall organisms - Cells contain all ofthechemicals that work together - Thereareabout200differenttypes ofcellsin the bodyand1x 10 12 cells total - Smallest cell is 2 microns - Largestcell is thenervecell andis morethana meter in size  Part of the spinalcordwherethe nervecellextendsall the way downinto the leg - Therearedifferentcell structures  Functiondetermines the structureofthecell andstructuredeterminesthe functionofthe cell  Cell Theory: Cell is the structuralandfunctional unit oflife - In order for somethingto beconsideredliving,it hasto bemade upof acells - Activity ofan organismisthe combinedresultsofindividual and aggregatedcells o Organisms arethecombinedresults oftheindividual cells performingthetasks - Activity ofcells dependsonsubcellular composition  Principle of Complementarity o Differentcells performdifferenttastsbecausetheactivity of the cell is basedonthecompositionofthe cell o Ex: Somecells arerichin mitochondria,which meanstheywill producealotofenergy o Ex: Somecells possesscilia that will make thecells work as filters - Cells areresponsiblefor thecontinuity oflife o Cells make newcells o Cells divide andreplacethemselves o Specialized cells called gametesarerequiredfor sexual reproductionto occur - Again: Cells aremadeupofchemicals 2. Identify the major structural components of a cell.  Plasma membrane: - Limiting boundary - Important becausetheplasmamembraneallows the inside ofacell to haveadifferent compositionthanoutside thecell  AKAcells havean internal environment - Regulateswhat can moveinto or outofthecell becauseit canlimit suchmovement, which means it canthereforesomewhatlimit the activity ofthe cell  Organelles: - Generalizedanimal cell shownonslide 6 doesnotactually exist becausecellshave differentsubcellular conditions(This cells shows all the possibleorganelles) - Organellesarestructureswithin acell  Eachhasa specific function that contributesto thecell - Notall cells possessall theorganelles  The organellesthatthe cell doespossessdeterminestheactivity ofthe cell  Cytoplasm: - In order for thingsto bebiologically active theyhaveto bein solution - Therefore,theinside ofthecell hasa fluidcomponentcalled the cytoplasm wheretheorganellesaresuspendedinthis fluid 3. Describe the composition of the plasma membrane by summarizing the fluid mosaic model.  Phospholipid bilayer: - Fluid mosaicmodel isshownin the picture - Phospholipids(Review): o Havenon-polar FAtails that endup ontheinside  Hydrophobic (Water disliking) o Havea polar phosphategroupsontheoutside  Hydrophilic (Water loving) - Whenphospholipidsareputinto solution, theywill spontaneously align to protect thenon-polar FAtails andpreventtheir exposureto the fluid  Phospholipidsonlymake uphalf ofthemass oftheplasma membrane - Other halfofthemass oftheplasma membraneis dueto proteins that areinside or aroundthephospholipidbilayer  Integralproteins: - Go throughbothsideofthephospholipidbilayer - Make uppartofthe plasmamembraneso it can besaidthat these are fibrousproteinsandgivethe membranesomestructure - But integralproteinsaremostly transportproteinsandarenotjust thereto give the membranesomeintegrity  Containachannel in theme that will allow things to moveback andforthvia agate - Createalimiting boundaryasaresulttom akethe inside ofthecell differentfromthe outsideofthecell  Peripheral proteins: - Foundononlyonesideofthephospholipidbilayer (Usually onthe inside) - Make uppartofthe plasmamembraneso it can besaidthat these are fibrousproteinsandgivethe membranesomestructure - In general:Seenasmostly mechanical (Structural) comparedto the integral proteinsbutsomeperipheralproteinsact asenzymes  Fluid mosaicmodel isnamed asit is becauseit’sa lipid bilayer where proteinsmoveandshift as themembranebendsandtwists  Somecells areaonly amillionth ofameter  The thickness ofthe plasma membraneis7-10 nm, which is verything - Plasma membranehasto bethick enoughto holdits structurebut also thin enoughto allow things in andout 4. List the functions of the plasma membrane, and identify the factors that can affect its functioning.  Separatescellsfromexternalenvironment  Facilitates contact/connectionwith other cells or foreignsubstances - Allows cells to come incontact with other cellsor foreignsubstances  Providesreceptor sites - Functionto allow certainsubstancesonthe outsideofthecell to be transportedinto the cell - Receptor site itself: Havea proteinthat hasacarbohydrateextension that functionsas areceptor whereit will holdsomethingin place and the cell will decideif it wants to take it in or not  Controlflowinto andout ofthecell - Becausetheplasma membranecomesin contactandholdsthings, it will controlthe flowinto andoutofthe cell  Plasma membraneis selectively permeablewheresomethingscan passandotherscan’t  Determining factors for whatpassesthrough theplasma membrane - Molecularsize: o It is difficult for bigger thingsto passthrough - Solubility: o Becausethemembraneis composedofphospholipids,things that arefat-solublecan passthroughthemembrane o Water-soluble(Polar molecules)cannotpassthroughthe membrane - Io


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