Intro. to Psychology Mid Term Notes
Intro. to Psychology Mid Term Notes PSYC 101 006
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiara Goins on Monday September 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 101 006 at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Freshman Academic Seminar at Southeastern Louisiana University.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Psychology 101 – 8/31/16 Chapter 2 Correlation Research o Identify relationship o Correlation coefficients Determines the strength and weakness of relationship o Positive correlation: variables move in the same direction One variable increases, the other will increase One variable decreases, the other will decrease o Negative correlation: variable moves in opposite direction One variable increases, the other will decrease o Correlation does not equal causation Third variable - Extraneous variable that has not been measure accounts for the relationship between two variables Longitudinal design o Correlational studies allow researchers to study variables that cannot be manipulated Archival Research o When you examine existing data, such as college records, online database, newspaper clippings and consensual papers to make a hypotenuse Experimental Research o The study of the relationship between two variables. the researcher must use experimental methods to determine the causality Experiment – researcher manipulates one of the variables, to see if it influences the behavior in question o Experimental manipulation: The change that an experimenter purposefully produces in a situation o Ind. V – the variable that is manipulated in an experiment o Dep. V – the result of the manipulation from the Independent Variable (must be measured) o Experimental group -the group’s variable is manipulated (changed) o Control group – treated equally but, the group does not receive a change in the variable Independent Variable = only thing that can be changed o Extraneous Variables – variable other than the IV that seems likely to influence the DV Confounding Variables – occurs when 2 variables are linked together in a way that makes difficult to sort out their specific effects Random Assignments -dividing participants randomly into two different groups Given equal chance to be in either group Cautions about E.R o Validity – whether the experiment studied what it is supposed to be study. External V. - determines if the experimental design is representative of real world issues Internal V. – changes in DV that can be manipulated from the variable Bias and Expectations o Experimenter Bias: occurs when the experimenter’s expectations influence the results of the study o Research Participant Bias: when the participant’s behavior during the experiment is influenced by how they believe they are supposed to be behaving o Placebo Effect Placebo – an innocuous, inert, substance that has no effect on the behavior on the participants Occurs when the participant’s expectations produce an experimental outcome, even though they did not receive any manipulation. o Double Blind Experiment – when neither the participant(s) not the experimenter is aware of which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the control group Research Sample Population: entire group about whom conclusion drawn Sample: portion of population actually observe Representative Sample: characteristics similar to population o Opposite of “biased sample” Random Sample: equal chance of being selected Analyze and Interpret Data o Statistics – mathematical methods used to report data o Descriptive Statistics – describe and summarizes data Measures of Central Tendency – a measure of central tendency shows the overall characteristics of the data Mean – average of the data Medium – the scores that fall directly in the center of the data Mode – the score that occurs the most in the data Measures of Dispersion – how much the score vary from each other (also called variability) Range – difference between the highest and the lowest score Standard deviation – measures how much the scores vary, on average, around the mean o Inferential Statistics – Mathematical methods used to determine if the data supports the hypothesis (draw conclusions about data) Statistical significance – when the probability observed findings are not/or very lowly due to chance Significant outcome – meaningful results that researchers have confirmed their outcome Some things to consider Demand characteristics – when the subject does what the experimenter wants them to do Generalizability – do the results apply to the “real world” Social desirability – socially approved answers Research Ethics Research participants have rights Institution Review Board (IRB) – checks if research is psychologically ethical APA (American Psychology Association) Guidelines o Informed consent – needs signature and participants know and willing want to be a part of experiment. o Confidentiality – confirmed that private information will not be revealed to the public or anyone the participant does not want to know (only allowed to be broken during homicidal/Suicidal tendencies, child/domestic abuse, court subpoena) o Debriefing – reaching out to participant to thank them and answer any questions and telling them about the investigation o Deception – lying about the study or things about the study (only allowed if it will help the study) Cautions Exercise caution in applying grounds trends to ind. Trends Psychology Notes – 09/07/16 Chapter 14 – Health Psychology (book definition) Also studies the health care system Stress o Tension, discomfort, or physical symptoms that arise when a stressor our ability to cope fully Pos. = wedding, baby Neg. = family problems, sickness, natal disasters o Traumatic event (book definition) 3 Approaches to Stress o Stressors as stimuli – approaches focus on identifying types of stressful events o Helps identify situation that causes more stress and how to deal with them o Stress as a transaction – examines how people interpret and cope w/ stressful events o Prime & Sec. appraisals – determines if a situation is harmful and then if we cope it Environment, social, knowledge, and tools are ways to cope with stress o Stress as a response – approach assesses psychology Categorizing Stress Cataclysmic Events – strong stressors that occur suddenly and typically affect many people simulations Personal Stressors – major life events, both positive and negative Background Stressors – also known as daily hassles Diversity of Stress o Psychophysicalogical disorders – medical problems influenced by an interaction of psycho., emotional, & physical problems o Long-lasting stress reactions can result in acute stress disorder (severe anxiety developing within a month and lasting no longer than a month after traumatic event) and post dramatic stress disorder (witness stressful event that has long lasting effects that includes vivid flashbacks or dreams) PTSD must have symptoms for over a month must not be from using drugs, alcohol or anything else that could influence it Most likely by a man(person) Repeated, direct and indirectly (from family or friend) exposure to traumatic event Intrusive symptoms – vivid flashbacks/dreams Avoidance Negative emotions develop, might blame themselves for event Alterations effects reality ASD – Less than a month Stress Responses – we react to stress to a pure biological level Mechanics of Stress o Gen. adaption system – pattern of response Alarm reaction – autonomic nervous system is activated stress hormone released, physical symptoms of anxiety (fight of flight) Resistance – you adapt and find a way to cope with the stressor Actively fights the stressor on a biological level (calms down) Exhaustion – Stress & Immune System PNI – Study of the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system and the brain Can over stimulate the immune system Can decrease the immune system response (decrease lymphocyte production) o Lymphocytes- white, disease fighting blood cells Stress and Health Direct physiological result (hurts the body) Engage in harmful behaviors o Bad sleeping, eating habits Indirect health decline Coping w/ Stress Coping – efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress o Emotion based coping – to manage emotions in the face of the issue (positive +) o Problem focused coping – attempts to modify the stressful problem or source o Proactive coping – anticipating potential stress and acting in advance to prevent or reduce their impact o Flexible coping – the ability to adjust coping strategies as the situation demands o Defensive mechanisms – unintentional ways to keep stress from them by putting it on something else o Emotional insulation – stops experiencing emotion at all o Avoidant Coping – Wishful thinking/Using other things (i.e. drugs & alcohol) to avoid stress o Social support – involves interpersonal relations w/ people, groups, and the larger community o Catharsis – disclosing painful feelings (involves problem solving and efforts to make the situation “right”) Individual Differences o Hardiness – set of attitudes where you view changes as a challenges, committed to life & work, believe you can control events Related to low-levels of anxiety and are very “laid back”; very optimistic Optimistic people are more productive, focused, and handle anger better Higher level of spirituality and religion and are healthier o Ruminating – focusing on negatives and endlessly analyzing what caused the problem o Learned Helplessness – occurs when people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled and cease to fix the problem o Resilience – overcome & withstand, profound adversities Personality in Hea. Psy o Type A – a cluster of behaviors involves hostility, competitiveness, time urgency, and feeling driven o Type B – a cluster of behaviors involving patience, cooperativeness, noncompetitive, and nonaggressive behavior Smoking May be limited to genetics Ways to combat smoking o Being illegal in public places o Replacing nicotine w/ alternative products o Behavioral Intervention o Children are more persuaded not to smoke Review for test o Nothing about Floyd except what he did and what kind of Psy. He made o Variables, and the type of variables o General Adapt. Syn. o Exp.and con. Groups o Rest of chp. 1, 2, 14 o Pos and neg. reeniforcers Psy Notes – 9/19/16 Chapter 6 – Learning Through Conditioning Learning – a systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior (occurs through experiment) Habitation – a decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentation of the same stimuli (a.k.a getting use to something) Sensitization – responding more strongly over time (hearing train noises, alarm clock, pen clicking) Types of Learning (L) Behaviorism – a theory of learning that involves observable behavior. (Does not include thinking, wishing, hoping, etc.) Associative L. – When you make an association between two events (Conditioning happens when you have learned about the association) Observational L. – when individual observes and then imitates another individual’s behavior Classical Conditioning Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex o Reflexive/natural behavior Ivan Pavlov – Russian Physiologist (studied workings of the body) discovered classical conditioning Condition = Learned; Unconditioned = Not Learned / Naturally Neutral Stimulus (NS) – a stimulus before conditioning that does not bring on the reflex/response of interest Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – a stimulus that bring on the response without any prior learning Unconditioned response (UCR)– the unlearned/natural response to the unconditioned stimulus Condition stimulus – the Neutral Stimulus is associated with the Unconditioned Stimulus to make a conditioned response Conditioned response (CS) – The learned response of the condition stimulus Acquisition – the learning of the association b/w the stimulus and the response UCR) (1 Step) o NS paired w/ UCS o Then, NS makes CR o NS becomes CS Contiguity- Time b/w CS and UCS o Best time (.5 secs to 1 sec) o Stimulus must be close together Contingency – is CS regularly followed by the UCS Ways to pair to stimuli o Delayed conditioning – CS is ALWAYS presented before the UCS, but they overlap slightly (best for learning) o Trace conditioning – CS presented before UCS, But the CS ends before UCS o Simultaneous conditioning – CS and UCS presented at the same time o Backward conditioning – UCS before the CS (worst for learning) (More trials done, more of the desired results will happened Stimulus generalization – occurs when new stimulus that’s is similar to original stimulus makes a similar CR. Discrimination – CR appear after the CS but not after other CSs. (ex: cats with food; dogs with doorbells) Conditioned Emotional Response (CER) – John B. Watson o Emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli (fear of needles; seeing attractive person) Can lead to phobias – irrational fear (white rat (CS) w/ loud noise or cookies (UCS)) Extinction – when a previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced (CR weakened by presenting CS w/o UCS) Spontaneous Recovery – CR reappears after a time delay & w/o add. Learning Renewal – Class. Cond. Applications Placebo effect Taste aversion – development of nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by nausea (only occurs once) o Difficult to cure o Doesn’t matter how long it occurred o Advertising- repeated pair products w/ stimuli that makes positive emotions Drug habituation – Latent habituation – 9/21/16 B.F Skinner o Expanded on Thorndike’s work Shaping – reward (efforts attempts) of the desired behaviors S-R theory (stimulus-response) – Extinction Burst – increase in conditional behavior when reinforcement is rewarded o Operant Conditioning precedes faster when the award increase (gets better) or more repetitive (happens more often) Aversive Stimulus – unpleasant stimulus o This is taken away during a negative reinforcement o Phobias, escape, and avoidance from negative reinforcement 9/26/16 Punishment – decreases the likelihood the behavior occurring again Positive Punishment – when something bad is given to decrease behavior o Followed by aversive consequence Controversy over Punishment To be effective, the punishment must be in close approximation to the behavior o Must also be consistent o Must demonstrate/explain the correct behavior that is desired Consequences of Punishment o Child will avoid the punisher o Make create lying (to avoid the punishment) o Fear, anxiety can develop (ineffective for learning) o Lower self – esteem o Model of aggression (can carry out through daily life) Benefits of Punishment For safety (child trying to run into the road) Omission training when something good is taken away to decrease behavior Operant Conditioning short term consequences outweigh long term cons. o Voluntary behavior o Better at explaining o Thorndike (cats in boxes) Law of effect Law of exercise Observational Learning When a person observes and imitates behavior o Takes less time that operant conditioning Mirror Neurons Neurons that “fire” when we observe others performing an action Becomes activated when animal observes/ performs an action Plays a role in observational learning and having empathy for others Group of neurons in the prefrontal cortex near the motor cortex Observational Albert Bandura – Social Cognitive Theory Four processes o Attention -must be motivated to pay attention to the person doing the model behavior o Retention – must be able to remember what the model did o Motor reproduction – must have capability to produce the motor skills done in the behavior o Reinforcement – must be reinforced Cognitive Learning Skinner and Radical Behaviorism Skinner believed that thinking played much of a role in learning Also believed Cognitive psychology is a pseudoscience o Can’t be measured Today, psychologist believed in a combination of these ideas Purposive behavior in Humans o Goal – oriented o Goal setting o Self-regulation and self-monitoring Insight learning A form of problem-solving in which the organism develops a sudden insight into or understanding of a problem’s solving. o (Kohler’s chimp experiment) “Aha!” moments o No trial and error o Suggests humans and some other humans may have insight learning Latent Learning A type of unreinforced learning that is not immediately reflected in behavior o May not be noticeable right away, but, later, will come out. o Tolman & Honzik’s maze trials Cultural Learning Analytical – deals with perception and fluidity learning Relational – deals with information, words, crystillized learning Psyc Notes 9/28/16 (oct. 10/ 12– possible test dates) Chapter 12 Human Development (development psychology) Development – a change in human capabilities through a person’s life -the scientific study of age related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death Physical Processes – physical changes in biological natures (height, weight, etc.) o Maturation – unfolding of biological, predetermined patterns of behavior Cognitive Processes – change in individual thoughts, intelligences and language. Socioemotional process – changes in relation w/ others, emotions and personality Genotype – genetic Heritage Phenotype – the expressed gene The developer – individual take actions in their own development Nature vs Nature Nature – organism boil. Inheritance K K DRD Cross Sectional Study – obs. changes that occurs with age Cohort- word that describes age groups (same age peers) Longitudinal Study- assessing the same participants, multiple times, across a time span Genetics & Development Science of inherited traits o DNA – special molecule that conatains the genetic material of the organism o Genes – section of DNA having the same arrangement ofchemical elements DOminannt – the gene that is actively controls the expression of a trait Recessive – only influences the expressionnof a trait Chromosome – tighty wound straned of of gen. material Conception and Twins Monozygotic Twins – (Identical Twins) when once zygote splits into 2 separate masses of cells, each of which develops into a separate twin Dizygotic Twins (Fraternal twins) Prenatal Period Conception to birth o Ovum – the female sex cell, or egg o 3 stages Germinal (conception – 2 weeks) Conception Fertilization o Humans = 46 chromoses o Each person Gets split into two to make new child Zygote – cell created when ovum and sperm unite Blastocyst – cell mass that implants into the uterine wall Placenta – the vascular organ that unites the fetus to the mom’s uterus (baby’s filter) o Protects the baby from toxins (alcohol, drugs, etc) for two weeks o Miscarriages happen around this time Embryonic (3-8 weeks) Major organs are starting to develop Cephalocaudal – develops from head to the feet Prox. – Develops from spine, to heart, to hands o 21 days in – eyes comes o 24 days– heart develops o 28 days – arms/legs come o 5-8 weeks – heart beats and face is forming Criteria stage – embryo is most vulnerable to environmental influences o Miscarriages happen around this time, also Fetal (2 months to birth) Fetus – name for the baby at this point Age of viability – age where fetus can survive (22wks) o 26 – 28 weeks – survival increases 85% Preterm infant – prior to 37 weeks Pregnancy last approx. 266 days (2 sperm + 1 egg = miscarriage) (2 sperm + 2 eggs = fraternal) Prenatal Develop Possible Problems Mom’s Nutrition o Stress o Health Mother’s Age o Under 18 – abnormal birth o 40 and Up – down’s syndrome Teratogens agents that causes birth defects o Nicotine o Alcohol Heroine – grow up addicted w/ withdrawals Cocaine – grow up with growth, retardation, & learning problems o STIs Diseases o HIV ADZ pill helps the baby not get it But can be developed up to 15 months later o Rubella (brain damage, etc) Chromosomal or Genetics Abnormalities o Down syndrome (can come from smoking during pregnancies) o Getting Vaccinations (possibly develops autism) o Tay Sach’s – degenerations of nervous system and cannot break down fats o Systifibrosis – o PKU – body cannot metabolize a specific amino acid Different Ways to Conceive Gammet intrafallopian transfer Zygote intrafallopian transfer Suffogate mother Child Development Neonates – a new born baby 7lbs 20in – average for babies’ height Cephalocaudal continues to develop o Motor skills must not be rust because the brain needs to develop first o The chances of a baby having down syndrome is 40% Physical Development 10/03/16 Reflexes – (Examples) Gag – to clear its throat/ throw up toxic things Breathing – inhale/exhale oxygen (abnormal for first couple of days) Sucking – suck anything you put in their mouths Rooting Grasping – will grab anything you put in their hands Stepping Crying – cry because they cannot speak Babinski – rub the sole of baby’s feet, toes will fan out. Moro – startle response – makes a loud noise, baby will arch their back and throws their hands out. Sensation Baby will be able to tell the differences between taste, sight, and sound o Taste – will want (initially) sweet things first (mom breastmilk) o Vision – poorest to learn Likes circles and faces Depth perception – (developed at 6-7 months) o Hearing – locate sounds, can hear high pitches (likes “baby talk”) Can feel pain, can determine parent’s emotion through facial expression Motor Skills o Cannot be speed up Simple to complex Control torso before hands and legs o When growing (growth spurs), becomes irritable Brain Development o This system (Brain and nervous system) tend to grow the fastest than any other system during the first 2 years of life o Born with almost all the 100 billion neurons we have for our brains o If certain part isn’t used during the first two years, it will be thrown away Myelin – fat conductors that makes you brain grow faster o At 2 yrs. Old, brain is 75% develop to what it will be as an adult Frontal part of the brain is not all the wat developed yet o Plasticity – the idea that the brain can expand and grown Cognitive Development o Refers to how intelligence, thought, and language processes change as it grows o Jean Piaget Developed stage theory – how children develop at the same order at the same time Schema – expressed as behaviors or skills that children can exercise in relation to objects or simulations Adaptions – how to adapt schemas Assimilation- incorporate new information into existing knowledge Accommodation - adjust schemas to new information Four 4 stages of Cog. Development Sensorimotor S. – (birth to 2 years old) children coordinate sensations with movements o object permanence (when infant understands when an object still exists even though they cannot see it) Preoperational S. – (2-7 years old) o Uses language as a means to explore the world o Symbolic thinking o Intuitive reasoning o Egocentrism – when a person cannot separate what they see to what everybody else see Concrete Operational S. – (7- 11 years) – intuitive reasoning is replaced with logical reasoning o Classification skills are present o Conservation (the concept of certain attribute of objects, despite superficial changes) Formal Operational S. – (11 – 15 years but continue through adulthood) o Have more of an abstract and idealistic thought o Hypothetical-deductive reasoning (think to solve problems) o Piaget’s Theory Some thought it came earlier than that Some thought he got it completely wrong o Vygotsky’s Theory Thought that social and cultural aspects also effects growth Scaffolding – where a more skilled learner helps a less skilled learner ZPD (Zone of proximal Development ) o The concept of what a child can do alone and a what a child can do with a teacher o Information Processing Cog. Development is a function of maturation and experience o Able to concentrate, memory expands, increase in playfulness o Awareness in how you think Temperament – the child’s behavioral style and characteristic way of responding o Easy – positive mood; establish daily routine @ infancy; 40% of babies; easy going babies o Difficult – negative mood; cries a lot; irregular routine; no excepting to new experiences (overreacts) ;10% of babies o Slow to warm up – low activity, somewhat negative; low adaptive; needs time to adjust o Goodness to fit – working with child’s temperament and letting the surroundings help the baby Attachment in Infancy – close emotional bond b/w the child and the caregiver Attachments to parents helps later in foundation in adulthood Harlow Study – (infant with monkeys) o Contact comfort is critical to attachment Strange Situation (mother and child and stranger) o Secure attachment – baby uses their parents as a security blanket to explore their surroundings o Insecure attachment – either over dependent or lack of interest in parent Avoidant- barely interact with the parent (does not care whether the parent is there or not) Anxious ambivalent – cling to parents, (sad when leaves; mad when they returned) inconsistent caregivers Disoriented – shows fear, dazed and confused (mainly abused or neglected by caregivers) o With a high quality daycare, babies can develop more cognitive skills and there are no negative attachments
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