×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to UA - BSC 385 - Study Guide - Midterm
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to UA - BSC 385 - Study Guide - Midterm

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

UA / Biology / BSC 385 / Why is it important to study Evolution with Ecology?

Why is it important to study Evolution with Ecology?

Why is it important to study Evolution with Ecology?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Biology
Course: Ecology and Evolution
Professor: Benstead
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: BSC 385 | Exam 1 Study Guide | Outline
Description: These notes cover what will be on our next exam (Friday, September 9, 2016). This is an outline. I just recently added the notes from lecture 8 on September 7, 2016 as the lecture was not given yet when I posted the study guide.
Uploaded: 09/05/2016
7 Pages 9 Views 5 Unlocks
Reviews

catherinainajar (Rating: )



Exam 1 Study Guide


Why is it important to study Evolution with Ecology?



BSC 385

∙ What is Ecology?

o Abiotic Environment

o Biotic Environment

∙ Ecology is divided into different hierarchies

o Organismal ecology

o Population ecology

o Community ecology

o Ecosystem ecology

o Ecosphere or biosphere

∙ Why is it important to study Evolution with Ecology?

o Natural resource management

o Environmental Problems

o Human Health

∙ Teleology

∙ How did Darwin develop the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection? o Observations

o Logical Arguments

o Conclusions

o Mechanism

o Darwin’s ideas

 Descent with modification

 Common ancestry

∙ Natural Selection in a nutshell

o More individuals are born than can make it

 Therefore, there is a struggle for existence

o Individuals vary in traits that affect survival and reproduction  The individuals with higher fitness end up being the ones  that reproduce


How did Darwin develop the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection?



o Successful traits are passed from parent to offspring  

 Attributes of a species can change over time.  

∙ Drawbacks to Darwin’s Ideas

o Inheritance wasn’t fully understood

o The concept of the gene wasn’t discovered

o Blended inheritance wasn’t discovered: the sharing of phenotypic characters between both parents in the offspring

 It was thought that the genetic material of offspring was  held to be a uniform blend of that of the parents. Don't forget about the age old question of consensus model vs conflict model

∙ Genotype

o Genetic makeup

∙ Phenotype

o Observable characteristics

∙ Selection

o Only acts on the phenotype since it is observable, BUT there will  only be an evolutionary response if there is a genetic basis to the variation in phenotype

o Selections occurs when a particular genotype does not survive or reproduce in the same proportion as others


How do environmental factors limit growth and survival?



o Selection Coefficient (s)

∙ Types of Selection

o Stabilizing

o Directional

o Disruptive

∙ The Red Queen Hypothesis

∙ What is Evolution?

o Changes in allele frequency

∙ Allele frequencies change over time  

o Selection is only one mechanism that can drive a change in allele frequencies

∙ The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

o Know how to use the equation

o Know how to figure out if the population is in equilibrium o “null model” Don't forget about the age old question of biol3110

o Check out the videos on blackboard in the “Hardy-Weinberg  videos” folder

∙ The five agents or mechanisms of evolutionary change o Mutation Don't forget about the age old question of cob 241 jmu

o Gene Flow  

o Non-Random Mating

o Genetic Drift

o Selection

∙ Persistent selection can produce substantial changes in allele  frequencies over time

∙ Darwinian Fitness

∙ How do adaptations arise?

o Via natural selection

∙ The evolution of resistance in pathogens and pests

o Antibiotic-resistant infections

∙ Other mechanisms driving evolution

o Genetic Drift: the effect of population size If you want to learn more check out keystone ecu

 Strong when populations are small

o Gene Flow via dispersal of individuals

o Mutation Pressure

o Non-Random Mating

∙ Ecological interactions promote evolutionary change in populations

∙ How do environmental factors limit growth and survival?

Physical  

Resources The inorganic  materials or  energy  

organisms  require for  existence

Physical  

(Abiotic)  

Factors

Physical  

conditions that  affect growth  and survival

∙ How do organisms cope with environmental variation? o All organisms must survive and reproduce or they must move to  an environment where they can survive and reproduce

o Two types or responses:

 Avoidance

∙ Migration

∙ Metabolic Avoidance

o Hibernation

 Adaptation

∙ The fitness of phenotypes also depends in the environment. ∙ What is fitness? If you want to learn more check out basic energy concepts

∙ Shelford’s Law of Tolerance

∙ What s homeostasis?

∙ Know about how evolution shapes tolerance curves

∙ Environmental conditions chance over time

o This can be either predicable or unpredictable.

∙ The Principle of Allocation

∙ Evolutionary Trade-Offs

o The benefits and costs of being a cheetah

∙ What works in one environment may not work in another

∙ What types of adaptations have evolved to avoid harsh conditions? ∙ How to physiological adaptations alter the tolerance limits of  organisms?

∙ Interactions between the physical environment and phenotype affect  fitness and subsequent evolutionary adaptation.

∙ There are upper and lower limits to the environmental conditions an  organism can tolerate.

∙ Adaptations necessitate trade-offs in the performance of organisms. ∙ Organisms deal with the changing environments via avoidance and  adaptive responses.

∙ How do physiological adaptations alter and organism’s tolerance  limits?

∙ Two possibilities for physiological adaptations: If you want to learn more check out mat 182

o Tolerance to internal conditions

o Mechanisms that counteract the external challenge- internal  homeostasis is maintained

∙ Why is temperature and water availability universally important? ∙ Temperature affects the rates of all chemical reactions o Magnitude can be measured by Q₁₀ which is the increase in the  reaction rate for each 10°C increase in temperature.

∙ What happens when temperature is to high?

o Denaturation of proteins and DNA

∙ What happens when temperature is to low?

o Freezing of intracellular water

∙ The physical mechanisms of heat transfer determine temperature  adaptations

o Heat can be gain or lost by:

 Conduction

 Radiation

 Convection

 Evaporation of water

 Metabolism

o Htotal = Hm ± Hc ± Hcv ± Hr ± He

∙ Thermoregulation of Homeotherms

o Ways to thermoregulate:

 Shivering thermogenesis

 Non-Shivering thermogenesis

 Sweating

 Panting

 Fur

 Blubber

 Feathers

o Countercurrent heat exchange

∙ Thermal adaptations in plants

∙ Adaptations to Water Stress

o φtotal = φosmosis + φpressure + φmatric  

∙ Plant adaptations to life on land

∙ The photosynthesis dilemma

∙ C3 vs. C4 photosynthesis

∙ What are the benefits and trade-offs of C4 and C3 plants?

∙ What are Osmoconformers?

∙ What are Osmoregulators?

∙ Some desert animals can survive solely on the water produced by  respiration.

o C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O  

∙ Excretion of nitrogenous waste entails water loss

∙ Organisms have a variety of physiological and behavior adaptations to  deal with in the environments.

∙ Physiological adaptations are especially important for organisms that  cannot undergo inactivity or migration

∙ Biochemical reactions are limited by temperature

∙ What determines species distributions?

o Physical environment

o Biotic interactions

∙ What is Ecological Filtering?

o Abiotic filters

o Biotic filters

o Disturbance

∙ Abiotic factors determining the geographic range

o Climate

 Temperature

 Precipitation

o Soils

∙ What determines a species distribution?

∙ What are the fundamental types of terrestrial communities? ∙ Altitudinal variation in temperature

∙ Mean annual temperature is driven by the angle of the sun’s rays  o 90° at equator so the radiation is more intense

o shallower angles at higher latitudes

∙ The tilt of the Earth’s axis relative to the sun creates the seasons. ∙ Everywhere on the planet receives the same total amount of daylight ∙ The further from the equator, the more seasonal the environment ∙ Latitudinal variation on precipitation

o Driven by the global air circulation

o Circulation cells:

 Hadley Cell

 Ferrel Cell

 Polar Cell

∙ Local variation in precipitation is driven by major landscape features o Like rain shadows on the leeward side of mountains

∙ Climate is the main determinant of plant community type ∙ Biome

o A fundamental type of terrestrial community

o Linked to climate patterns ∙ Specific Biomes

o Tropical Rainforest

o Tropical Savanna

o Desert

o Mediterranean Shrubland o Temperate Grassland

o Temperate Deciduous Forest o Conifer Forest

o Tundra

∙ The distribution of species depends on evolutionary history o Geological history

o Historical shifts in climate

o Phylogenetic history

∙ The tolerance level of species can expand

∙ Biogeographical Realm: a fundamental type of terrestrial community ∙ Biomes vs. Flora/Fauna

∙ 7 major water reservoirs:

o atmosphere

o ice

o oceans

o lakes

o rivers

o groundwater

o soil

∙ What are some important physical factors in aquatic systems? o Oxygen concentration

o Salinity

o Limited nitrogen and phosphorus availability

o Thermal buffering

o Light availability

o Changes in wavelength with depth

∙ Freshwater ecosystems

o Lentic Systems: not moving

 Lakes and ponds

o Lotic Systems: moving

 Streams and Rivers

∙ Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems are connected

o Autochthonus sources

o Allochthonus sources

∙ River continuum concept

∙ Lentic Ecosystems  

o Shallow lake and pond zones

o Deep lake zones

∙ Biological carbon pump and ocean acidification

Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here