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KIN212 exam 3

by: Sarah espiedra

KIN212 exam 3 KIN 212

Sarah espiedra
GPA 3.9

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Elements of Sports Psychology
Brian Arwari
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah espiedra on Monday September 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 212 at University of Miami taught by Brian Arwari in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.

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Date Created: 09/05/16
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 5 Definitions of competition and cooperation: Competition: a social process that occurs when rewards are given to people for how their performance compares with the performance of others during the same task or when participating in the event o Limits the amount of rewards given/ distributes them based on performance o Darwin’s theory of survival of the fittest relates to this Cooperation: a social process through which performance is evaluated and rewarded in terms of the collective achievement of a group of people working together to reach a particular goal o No person gets left behind or you all pay Studies on competition and cooperation Triplett’s cyclists: cyclists were faster in competition than alone racing against a clock when racing each other they are faster and better Deutsch’s puzzles: o Competition: group students were self- centered, directed efforts at beating each other, had closed communication and exhibited group conflict/ distrust  Fix each engine individually and each person gets $300 o Cooperation: group students communicated openly, shared information, developed friendships, and solved more puzzles  30 people get assigned one engine and each person get $10 o Conclusion: Cooperation is better; usually when task is more complex o Competition is neutral; whether it leads to aggression or cooperation depends on the social environment and the way performers view competition.  Can be positive source of motivation to improve and refine skills Prisoner’s Dilemma: (competition/cooperation paradigm) if you mix people who want to cooperate with people who want to compete, everyone ends up competing o Related to Nash Game Theory o Related to class curve and test taking o Example of Split or Steal Summer camp: competition can be reduced through cooperative efforts to achieve superordinate goals Common attributes between competition and cooperation Competition and Cooperation as complementary means: o A sense of mission o Strong work ethic o Use of resources o A strong preparation ethic o A love of challenge and change o Great teamwork Component structure of games Means is teammates, ends is competitors Competitive means- competitive ends: ex. King of the hill, 100 yard dash, track meet Cooperative means- competitive ends: ex. Soccer, basketball Cooperative means- cooperative ends: ex. Keeping a volleyball from hitting ground Cooperative means- individual ends: ex. Helping each other individually improve Individual means- individual ends: ex. Calisthenics, cross country skiing Principles for Cooperative Games - Most skills can be learned better through cooperative games - Maximize participation, opportunities to learn sport and skill - Do not keep score - Maximize opportunity for success - Give positive feedback CHAPTER 6 Two principles of reinforcement (also called feedback or behavioral theory) Reinforcement: is the use of rewards and punishment, which increase or decrease the likelihood of a similar response occurring in the future - If doing something results in a good consequence (ex. Reward), people tend to repeat the behavior to achieve additional positive reinforcement - If doing something results in an unpleasant consequence (ex. Punishment), people tend not to repeat the behavior to avoid more negative consequences Difficulties in applying reinforcement - People react differently to the same reinforcement - People are unable to repeat desirable behavior - People receive different reinforces in different situations Timing/scheduling of reinforcement - Early learning: in the beginning, it is important to reinforce people immediately and continuously; people need to feel like they’re making progress - Learned skill: once the skill is learned, you need intermittent reinforcement o Gambling is intermittent reinforcement Positive / negative reinforcement ratio - 80:20 or 5:1 - Positive punishment should be most predominant Problems with punishment - Punishment can arouse fear of failure - Punishment can act as a reinforcer - Punishment can create an unpleasant learning environment - Make sure to punish the behavior not the person - Be consistent by giving everyone the same type of punishment for breaking similar rules Shaping - Any behavior can be broken down into a sequence of similar actions - All behaviors we know have been shaped - Example: something as complex as heart transplant surgery is in reality a long sequence of simple tasks - Major ideas behind shaping: once the behavior is mastered, there is no difference between people who learned it quickly or had a “natural talent” and the people who had a more difficult time learning it o Example of walking as toddlers now indistinguishable - Book Bounce argues that there is no such thing as natural talent in sports because sports consist of unnatural behaviors o Example of drawing progression o Andre Agassi: hated tennis, felt like no natural talent, but now is #1 Exposure: the more an action is repeated, the better it will be performed - Example: sleeping pills and anti-depressants are given to help you get use to something (i.e. depressed phase) and then help you move on the the next phase of your life so the more you actively engage in social activity, the less depressed you will be, the less you will need the pills Backwards chaining - Begin the performance of a skill with the last step, then add the second-to-last step and so forth until we arrive at the first step of the skill - Overshaping: over preparing for a skill so that when you use it in competition it will seem easier by comparison Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation - Intrinsic motivation: strive inwardly to be competent and self- determining in their quest to master the task; do things for internal rewards o Internal reward: the satisfaction of restoring an old car o Internal punishment: shame - Extrinsic motivation: doing something for the reward not for the task itself; main object is to earn an outside reward or avoid outside punishment o External reward: money, star sticker o External punishment: getting grounded Motivation process: on slides but don’t need to know? Factors that influence motivation - Social factors: o Success and Failure o Focus on Competition o Coaches behavior - Psychological factors: o Need for competence, autonomy, relatedness How intrinsic and extrinsic motivation relate to one another - Research shows that being paid for working on an intrinsically interesting activity can decrease a person’s intrinsic motivation for the activity - Lepper and Greene study: Nursery school kids and drawing; expected and unexpected rewards expected reduces intrinsic motivation Cognitive evaluation theory - How rewards are perceived is critical in determining whether intrinsic motivation increases or decreases - Functional significance of the event: o Controlling aspects: rewards perceived to control a person decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas rewards that contribute to an internal locus of causality increase intrinsic motivation o Informational aspects: rewards that provide information and positive feedback about competence increase intrinsic motivation, whereas rewards that suggest the person is not competent decrease intrinsic motivation Difference between group and team - Team: Two or more people who interact and exert mutual influence on each other and share the following characteristics: o collective sense of identity o distinctive roles o structured modes of communication o group norms o synergy Three theories of team development - Linear perspective: o Forming: familiarization, forming interpersonal relationships, develop team structure o Storming: rebellion, resistance to the leader and interpersonal conflict o Norming: solid group structure and cooperation, conflicts are resolved o Performing: channeling of energies for team success - The Cyclical perspective: o Development of teams is similar to the life cycle- birth, growth and death o Emphasis is on the terminal phase of the team’s existence o As the team develops, it psychologically prepares for its own breakup o Especially for groups and teams that last 10-15 weeks - The Pendular Perspective: o Shifts occur in interpersonal relationships during the growth and development of teams o Teams do not progress through linear phases o Stages of team development  Orientation  Differentiation and conflict  Resolution and cohesion  Differentiation and conflict  Termination Team Structure: - Group roles: involve behaviors required or expected of a person occupying a certain position - Formal roles: are dictated by nature and structure of the organization (i.e. coach, captain, instructor) - Informal roles: evolve from the group’s dynamics or interactions among team members (i.e. enforcer, mediator) - Role clarity and role acceptance are critical for team success Modifying group norms: - The source of the communication is critical in modifying norms— more credible, better liked, similar, attractive, high-status, powerful individuals are more effective persuaders - Positive team norms are important to establish Types of support: - Social support: mutual respect and support enhance team climate; appraisal information, reassurance, cooperation, reduce uncertainty, improves comm. o Listening support o Emotional support o Emotional-challenge support o Reality-confirmation support o Task-appreciation support o Task-challenge support o Personal-assistance support Steiner’s model of productivity: - Actual productivity = potential productivity: Losses are due to faulty group processes - Losses result from motivation and coordination - Implications: role of the coach o Increase relevant resources through training, instruction, and recruiting o Reduce process losses through enhancing cohesion and emphasizing individual contributions to the team - The greater the need for cooperation and interaction in a task, the more the importance of individual ability decreases and team productivity becomes more important Ringlemann effect/social loafing: - Ringlemann: it is the phenomenon by which individual performance decreases as the number of people in the team increases - Social loafing is when individuals within a group or team put forth less than 100% effort due to loss of motivation o An individual’s output cannot be independently evaluated o A comparison against group standards is not possible o The task is perceived to be low in meaningfulness o Individual’s personal involvement is low Conditions that increase social loafing - Other individuals contributing to the collective effort are strangers - Teammates or coworkers are seen as high in ability - Individual team members perceive their efforts as redundant - The individual thinks he is competing against a weaker opponent How to eliminate social loafing: - Emphasize importance of individual pride and unique contributions - Increase indentifiability or individual performance - Determine specific situations in which social loafing occurs - Divide teams into smaller units Task cohesion/social cohesion: - Task cohesion: group commitment to work towards certain goal - Social cohesion: trusting each other CHAPTER 10 Content and relational aspects of communication: - Content: what is said - Relational: how we say it - Text: what you say - Subtext: what you really meant to say The communication process 1. Decision to send a message about something 2. Encoding of the message by sender 3. Channel through which it is transmitted to receiver 4. Decoding of the message by receiver 5. Internal response by the receiver to the message Proxemics: is the study of the use of space; used in educational, architectural, commercial and transportation settings Types of communication: - Verbal: should be clear and concise, right time and place, create trust with receiver - Nonverbal: physical appearance, posture, gestures o 50-70% is nonverbal comm o harder to hide - Interpersonal: at least two people - Intrapersonal: self-talk Active supportive listening: ask questions, paraphrase, attend to main and supporting ideas, acknowledge and respond, give appropriate feedback, pay attention to both verbal and nonverbal comm key: mentally prepare to actively listen Breakdown in the communication process: - when there is breakdown in comm, people usually think fault lies with other person - in reality, a failure at any of the 5 stages of the comm process will result in breakdown Confrontation: - although confrontation (face-to-face discussion among people in conflict) is often seen as negative, when properly used, it is part of effective comm - do not confront when angry, only when in control of emotions/ can express constructively The sandwich approach: if you are correcting someone that is doing something wrong, put correction in between two positive statements


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