PY 101, Study Guide
PY 101, Study Guide PY 101
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Bartolomeo on Monday September 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by TBA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 219 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Psych Study Guide Test 1 Chapter 1 What is Psychology? The study of the mind, brain and behavior Roots of Psychology Structuralism: belief that conscious experience can be broken down into components Functionalism: belief that the mind helps humans adapt to environmental demands The Expansion of Psychology Biological Approach: focus on genetic, hormonal and neurochemical explanations of behavior Psychoanalysis: innate drives of sex and aggression Cognitive psychology: innate mental structures such as perception and memory Humanism: basic physical needs Behaviorism: all behavior is learned from the environment The Scientific Method Theory: interconnected ideas or concepts Hypothesis: scientific prediction Research: conduct research, analyze data, record results Chapter 2 Neurons- the basic units of the nervous system Three basic phases o Reception o Integration o Transmission Reception Dendrite: branchlike extensions of neuron, picks up information from other neurons Integration Cell Body: site where information is collected Axon: transmits information Glial cells: form myelin and provide support Myelin Sheath: made up of glial cells; insulates axons for faster movement Node of ranvier: gaps of exposed axons, recharge signal Transmission Terminal Button: at end of axon; release chemical signals into synapse Synapse: gap between axon and sending neuron and dendrites of receiving neuron Neurotransmitters: chemical substance that transmit from on neuron to another Receptors: protein molecules on post synaptic membrane Action Potentials Resting membrane potential: electrical charge when it isn’t active (polarized) Action potential (neural firing): electrical signal that passes along axon and causes release of chemicals Excitatory signals depolarize (increase chance of firing) Inhibitory signals hyperpolarize (decrease chance of firing) Three things that can happen to a signal in a synapse 1. Message past 2. Reuptake 3. Enzyme deactivation All or nothing principle Chapter 3 The Brain Stem Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata All for breathing, heart beating; survival instincts The Cerebral Cortex Outer layer of brain Site of all thoughts, perception and complex behaviors Has 4 lobes o Occipital o Parietal o Temporal o Frontal Corpus callosum: bridge of millions of axons, connects hemispheres Neuron Structure Gray matter: neuron’s cell bodies White matter: mostly of axons and fatty myelin sheaths Frontal lobe: thoughts, planning, movement Temporal lobe: hearing, memory Occipital lobe: vision Parietal lobe: touch The cerebellum Role is in motor learning and motor memory Subcortical Structures Thalamus o Gateway to brain o Receives incoming sensory information before it reaches the cortex Basal Ganglia o Important for planning and production of movement o Nucleus accumbens Hypothalamus o Involved in bodily functions o Body temperature, rhythms, pressure and glucose levels o The four F’s (food, fighting, flight and sex) Hippocampus o HM: had epilepsy, had surgery to remove parts of hippocampus, lost 11 years of memories and couldn’t make new memories o Clive Wearing: no short term memory, damaged his hippocampus from infection Amygdala o Emotional and social processing o SM: women with no fear; lesions in amygdala Drugs and Alcohol Drugs Affect Neurotransmitters Imitate, stimulate or block neurotransmitters Produce more or less neurotransmitters Alcohol Increases dopamine saying drinking is rewarding which makes you want to do it again Depresses brain activity Decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex (judgment) and hippocampus (memory) Marijuana THC increases dopamine THC encourages cannabinoid receptors to mimic other neurotransmitters in limbic system, basal ganglia and cerebellum Rohypnol (A Benzodiazepine) Depresses central nervous system by binding to GABA receptors Lethal when mixed when alcohol Treatment: SSRI (Prozac) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Treats many disorders such as depression and anxiety Blocks reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron Makes serotonin fire more Stress and Sleep Stress: a type of response that typically involves an unpleasant state, such as anxiety or tension The stress response system o Fight or flight response marked by the outpouring of epinephrine (energy) and norepinephrine (arousal) from medulla Sleep stages o Stage 1 Brief Sensation of falling o Stage 2 20 minutes Bursts of brain activity o Stage 3 Brief o Stage 4 30 minutes Deep sleep o Stage 5 (REM) 10 minutes Vivid dreams Purpose of Sleep o 1. Restoration o 2. Circadian Rhythm o 3. Facilitation of Learning
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