Biology 101, Study Guide
Biology 101, Study Guide Biology 101G
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Martinez on Monday September 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 101G at New Mexico State University taught by Dr. Avis James in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at New Mexico State University.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
BIOL 101 Study Guide. Chapter 8 If you cut yourself, the damaged cells are A. sloughed off. B. repaired by surrounding cells. C. replaced by surrounding cells. D. repaired by your immune system. E. All the above. An adult has trillions of cells that all work together. Does an adult have cells that still undergo cell division? Why or why not? The process of _____ is used to replace damaged or worn-out cells. A. apoptosis B. meiosis C. cell twinning D. cell division E. cell senescence Which of the following is an example of cells undergoing mitosis and cytokinesis? A. a new embryo growing B. a tree producing new branches C. dead skin cells being replaced D. a wound healing over with a scar E. All of the above. Our skin is our outermost layer, and it is exposed to all the hazards of the external environment. Thus, our skin cells are damaged on a regular basis and die. How does our body handle this frequent cell death? The end result of mitosis and cytokinesis is A. two cells identical in size and genetic material. B. two cells identical in genetic material, but one is smaller than the other. C. three cells, one of which is twice the size of the other two. D. two cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the mother cell. E. two cells, each with twice the number of chromosomes as the mother cell, A biologist measures the amount of DNA in cells growing in a laboratory. She should find that the amount of DNA doubles A. during S phase. B. at the end of G2phase. C. right after cytokinesis. D. during mitosis. E. in the middle of G 1hase. A healthy cell spends most of its lifetime in A. cytokinesis. B. G 2hase. C. interphase. D. mitosis. E. S phase. Which of the following occurs during interphase? A. replication of chromosomes B. sister chromatids line up in the middle of the cell C. sister chromatids migrate to opposite sides of the cell D. division of cytoplasm E. two nuclei are created At the end of interphase each chromosome is made up of A. mother-daughter chromatids. B. brother-sister chromatids. C. sister chromatids. D. paired chromatids. E. duplex chromatids. Organelles duplicate during A. prophase. B. G 1hase. C. G 2hase. D. S phase. E. P phase. Sister chromatids are NOT present during A. interphase. B. DNA replication. C. the cell cycle. D. G 1tage of cell cycle. E. S phase of cell cycle. Chromosomes are duplicated during A. the G 1hase. B. mitosis. C. cytokinesis. D. the G 2hase. E. the S phase. At the end of the S phase, cells have ____ set(s) of genetic material, compared to a cell at the beginning of S phase. A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 E. 5 Which of the following cell types goes through the cell cycle most frequently? A. heart muscle cell B. bicep muscle cell C. brain nerve cell D. skin cell E. spinal nerve cell When chromosomes duplicate, they form A. daughter chromatids. B. sister chromatids. C. mother-daughter chromosomes. D. bifurcated chromosomes. E. chromateres. Sister chromatids are A. duplicated chromosomes. B. identical copies. C. separated during mitosis. D. made during the S phase. E. All of the above. In drawings of chromosomes, the “X” shape indicates that A. the DNA has been replicated. B. two sister chromatids exist. C. cell division hasn’t yet occurred. D. the cell is probably ready for mitosis. E. All of the above. The correct order of phases in mitosis is A. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. B. metaphase, anaphase, prophase, telophase, and cytokinesis. C. G ,1S, G 2 M, and cytokinesis. D. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and cytokinesis. E. cytokinesis, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Cytokinesis occurs in animal cells when A. the cell migrates from one location to another. B. cell contents double in preparation for cell division. C. the cell membrane pinches to form two separate cells. D. when the DNA is degraded into small pieces and the cell dies. E. a cancer-treatment therapy is designed to interrupt mitosis. Chromosomes line up in the middle of the nucleus during A. interphase. B. prophase. C. metaphase. D. anaphase. E. telophase. DNA duplicates during A. interphase. B. prophase. C. metaphase. D. anaphase. E. telophase. At what stage of mitosis do the spindle fibers shorten thereby pulling apart sister chromatids? A. prophase B. metaphase C. interphase D. anaphase E. telophase Cell cycle checkpoints detect and control A. DNA content. B. signals that promote cell division. C. DNA damage. D. proper chromosome alignment. E. All of the above. What might be the result of a mutation in one of the proteins responsible for the1G checkpoint? A. The cell would continue to S phase without signals to divide being present. B. The cell would divide uncontrollably. C. The cell would move through the cell cycle more rapidly than normal. D. Nothing; one of the other checkpoints would make up for its absence. E. All of the above. Cancer consists of too much A. cell division. B. translation. C. apoptosis. D. toxin production. E. DNA replication. The medical condition of cells growing out of control is called A. cytokinesis. B. cancer. C. metastasis. D. apoptosis. E. tumorization. BIOL 101 Study Guide. Chapter 10 How many alleles for a single trait are present in each human cell? A. 1 B. 2 C. 23 D. 46 E. 4 What is an example of a mutation in an allele? A. a base change in the gene coding sequence B. a base change in the gene’s regulatory regions C. a deletion of a base within the gene D. an insertion of a base within the gene TRUE or FALSE: Different versions of a gene are called alleles; a mutation in a gene can create an allele. An allele is A. any section of DNA. B. a gene. C. a specific section of a chromosome. D. an alternate version of a gene. E. a pair of genes. A mutation is best described as an error in A. DNA. B. mRNA. C. protein. D. enzymes. E. cell division. Bob and Linda are a newly married couple. They hope to have a child but are having trouble getting pregnant. They visit a fertility clinic, where they receive a variety of tests. One test shows that Bob is healthy but carries a single disease-causing allele for CFTR (the gene that can cause cystic fibrosis), but Linda does not. This means that A. Bob’s DNA sequence for CFTR is different from Linda’s. B. Bob has two different versions of the CFTR gene. C. Linda does not have any copies of the CFTR gene. D. Bob is unable to ever have children. E. Both A and B A mutation would most likely be inherited if it is located in a ____ cell. A. skin B. body C. sperm D. liver E. All of the above. Which sequence is the complementary DNA sequence of ATG GGC CTG? A. ATG GGC CTG B. TAC CCG GAG C. TUC CCG GUC D. TAC CCG GAC E. TAC CCC GAC Which sequence is a result of a single mismatch in DNA replication of the sequence ATG GGC CTG? A. ATG GGC CTC B. AAG GGC CTC C. TAC CCG GTC D. TGC CCG GAG E. TUC CCG GUC Which of the following cannot lead to a mutation? A. replacing thymine with uracil when making RNA B. deleting a portion of a gene C. replacing thymine with guanine when copying DNA D. inserting three base pairs into a gene E. inserting one base pair into a gene Why should pregnant women never be given X-rays? Amino acid sequences result from the process of A. transcription. B. translation. C. replication. D. regulation. E. complementary base pairing. TRUE or FALSE: If you avoid dangerous chemicals and radiation for your entire life, you prevent all mutations in your DNA. What is the difference between a somatic cell mutation and a germ-line mutation? A. Only mutations in germ-line cells can be passed on to offspring. B. Only mutations in somatic cells can be passed on to offspring. C. Somatic cell mutations cannot lead to cancer, but germ-line mutations can. D. Germ-line mutations do not involve DNA, but somatic cell mutations do. E. Somatic cell mutations do not involve DNA, but germ-line mutations do. Which of the following is a mutagen? A. UV light B. smoking C. blackened meats D. excessive drinking E. All of the above. How can a person acquire mutations in their DNA? A. inheritance B. carcinogens C. replication errors D. mutagens E. All of the above. Which of the following are mutagens? A. sunlight B. cigarette smoke C. alcohol D. blackened meat E. All of the above. What is a mutagen? What are the three main ways a person can acquire a mutation in their DNA? TRUE or FALSE: To get cancer, all you need is a mutation in one essential gene. The most common cancer among women is A. prostate cancer. B. breast cancer. C. ovarian cancer. D. nonmelanoma skin cancer. E. lung cancer. Somatic cells are A. cancer cells. B. cells that become tumors. C. cells that become eggs. D. cells that become sperm. E. cells that do not become reproductive cells. List at least five carcinogens. Skin cancer is the result of changes in DNA, but it is not usually passed on to the next generation. Explain why it is not passed on. Answer: Skin cancer occurs in somatic cells, which are cells that are not part of the process of producing reproductive cells. In normal cells, lack of functional tumor suppressors would cause A. an accumulation of mutations in the DNA. B. division of damaged cells. C. cancer, possibly. D. uncontrolled cell division. E. All of the above. There are two classes of genes that, when mutated, frequently lead to cancer. Which class of these two types of genes promotes cell division and differentiation, and which class of genes inhibits the cell cycle in order to make repairs? BIOL 101 Study Guide. Chapter 8 Most tasks in a cell are carried out by A. proteins. B. carbohydrates. C. DNA. D. lipids. E. membranes. Proteins are linear chains made out of A. lipids. B. carbohydrates. C. amino acids. D. nucleotides. E. deoxyribonucleotides. True or False: The sequence of its amino acids determines the shape of a protein. What is a gene? A. a segment of RNA that encodes several proteins B. a segment of DNA that encodes at least one protein C. a type of protein found within DNA D. all the nucleotide sequences contained in one chromosome E. a molecule that turns on DNA and starts the process of translation A gene is A. a section of DNA. B. a set of instructions for building a protein. C. the way you inherit a physical feature. D. located on a chromosome. E. All of the above. ______ contain(s) many ______, and ______ are instructions for producing ______. A. Chromosomes; genes; genes; proteins B. DNA; chromosomes; chromosomes; genes C. DNA; genes; genes; chromosomes D. Genes; proteins; chromosomes; genes E. Proteins; genes; chromosomes; proteins Chromosomes contain genes; genes have the information for making _______. What is gene expression? Explain how some people can make normal antithrombin AND abnormal antithrombin in the same cell. Alleles are alternate versions of _____ gene(s) that have ____ nucleotide sequences. A. different; the same B. different; completely different C. different; small differences in their D. the same; completely different E. the same; small differences in their If someone inherits a protein deficiency, it means that the protein A. might be absent. B. might be defective. C. might be a mutant. D. may be present in insufficient amounts. E. All of the above. ___________ are alternate versions of a gene, which differ slightly in their nucleotide sequence. You create a hybrid transgene containing DNA from a human and a mouse. Which of the following factors would most strongly affect when, where, and how much protein is expressed from that gene? A. the gene’s regulatory region B. the gene’s coding sequence C. the age of the host animal D. on which chromosome the gene resides E. the number of alleles The regulatory region of a gene is required for A. gene expression. B. protein secretion. C. gene activation. D. turning off a gene. E. All of the above. Transcription occurs in a eukaryotic cell’s ____, and it uses ____ to produce _____. A. cytoplasm; mRNA; proteins B. nucleus; mRNA; proteins C. nucleus; genes; mRNA D. nucleus; ribosomes; proteins E. cytoplasm; ribosomes; proteins Translation is a process that occurs in the ____ and uses ___ to produce ____. A. cytoplasm; mRNA; proteins B. nucleus; mRNA; proteins C. cytoplasm; the coding sequence of a gene; mRNA D. nucleus; the coding sequence of a gene; mRNA E. nucleus; ribosomes and a gene; tRNA If a DNA coding region has 12 nucleotides, how many amino acids could it encode? A. 12 B. 36 C. 3 D. 4 E. 120 Put the following terms in the order they would be needed when a gene is expressed: amino acid, DNA, mRNA, protein, ribosome, transcription, tRNA Transcribe the sequence TAC GTC ATC. Then, rewrite YOUR transcribed sequence with a mutation of a G to a C in the third codon. What RNA molecule would be made from the DNA template CGTTACG? A. CGTTAGC B. GCAAUGC C. CGUUAGC D. GCATTGC E. CGUAACG That is the correct base pairing of RNA nucleotides? A. adenine-thymine; cytosine-guanine B. adenine-guanine; thymine-uracil C. adenine-cytosine; guanine-uracil D. adenine-uracil; cytosine-guanine E. uracil-thymine; cytosine-guanine You can differentiate RNA from DNA by the presence or absence of the nucleotide base in the sequence. Transcription begins when the enzyme ______ binds to the regulatory sequence of a gene. If a protein is 300 amino acids long, then there are A. 300 nucleotide bases in the DNA gene. B. 300 codons in the messenger RNA. C. 600 nucleotides in the anticodon region. D. 100 nucleotide bases in the messenger RNA. E. 600 anticodons. Codons are groups of ______ nucleotide(s) in mRNA. A. 1 B. 3 C. 5 D. 2 E. 4 Why was it necessary to place the human coding sequence for antithrombin next to a goat regulatory sequence in order to get it expressed in goat cells? Why was it necessary to place the human coding sequence for antithrombin next to a goat regulatory sequence in order to get it expressed in goat cells? A. Without the regulatory sequence, the gene would be expressed in the wrong tissues. B. Without the regulatory sequence, the gene would never be expressed. C. Without the regulatory sequence, the wrong gene would be expressed. D. With the regulatory sequence, the gene will be expressed in all tissues. E. With the regulatory sequence, the gene can be permanently turned off. Why was the coding region of the gene for human antithrombin placed near the regulatory region of a gene that is only expressed in the goat’s mammary cells? A. This ensured that the protein would be produced at high levels in all cells. B. This ensured that the protein would appear in the milk. C. This ensured that the two proteins would combine into a larger protein. D. Both genes produce commercially desirable proteins. E. Only mammary cells actually produce protein. What is a transgenic organism? A. an organism that contains genes from a different species B. an organism with one or more genes deleted from its genome C. an organism with one or more of its natural genes mutated by scientists D. an organism that contains genes from another animal of the same species E. an organism with two or more genes that have been rearranged between chromosomes An animal modified by humans to carry genes from another species is called A. complementary. B. cloned. C. antigenic. D. transgenic. E. a hybrid species. In an animal containing a human transgene A. the DNA regulatory region has been isolated from bacteria. B. the coding DNA sequence has been isolated from bacteria. C. the coding DNA sequence generally comes from the host animal. D. the regulatory DNA sequence generally comes from the host animal. E. the proteins are less functional than proteins isolated from humans. The term “pharming” refers to the ability to A. produce medications from GMOs. B. purify pharmaceutical drugs from natural sources. C. make human proteins in bacteria. D. clone animals on a research farm. E. isolate drugs from plant sources.
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