BIO 2107 Exam 2 Study Guide
BIO 2107 Exam 2 Study Guide Bio 2107
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tatiana Raphael on Monday September 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 2107 at University of West Georgia taught by Dr. Pencoe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology 1 in Biology at University of West Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Exam 2 Study Guide (Ch. 5-7) Don’t forget to study chapters 1-4! Chapter 5: Cells What Features Make Cells the Fundamental Units of Life? o Cell Theory: (Schleiden and Schwann 1838) all living things composed of cells and cells come from preexisting cells o Cell maintains surface area to volume ratio by limiting amount of materials that enter and exit Prokaryotic Cell Features (Bacteria & Archaea) o NO NUCLEUS or ORGANELLES o Nucleoid –contains the DNA o Cytoplasm –contains free floating ribosomes o Divided by binary fission o 3 Common shapes: cocci (sphere), bacilli (rod-like) spirilla (spiral) o Cytoskeleton –assists in cell division and maintenance of cell shape o Specialized features: Cell walls Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan o Gram POSITIVE: thick peptidoglycan layer; stains PURPLE o Gram NEGATIVE: thin peptidoglycan layer & additional outer membrane; stains RED Capsule Invaginations of plasma membrane Flagella Pili Eukaryotic Cell Features (protists, plants, animals, fungi) o Ribosomes (inside mitochondria and chloroplast) o Organelles Nucleus Contains nucleolus Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Rough ER (RER) Smooth ER (SER) Golgi Apparatus Mitochondria Plastids –ONLY in plant and algal cells Chloroplasts Chromoplasts Leucoplasts Peroxisomes Glyoxysomes –ONLY in plant cells Vacuoles –ONLY in plant, fungal and Protist cells In plant cells –support via turgor pressure, plant defense and attract pollinators o Endomembrane system –includes plasma membrane, nuclear envelope, ER, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes o Cytoskeleton –provide cell with shape, strength, and movement Microfilaments –thin filaments composed of ACTIN Intermediate filaments –ONLY in multicellular organisms; composed of KERATIN Microtubules –thick, hollow composed of TUBULIN ALL cells essentials: o Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, DNA, ribosomes, use of same genetic code to produce protein, carryout glycolysis What do animal cells have that plant cells don’t? What’s common to all cells? (Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes) Extracellular Structures o Plant Cell Walls –primarily cellulose Plasmodesmata (membrane-lined channels) o Extracellular Matrix of Animal Cells –consists of collagen & proteoglycans How did Eukaryotic Cells Originate? o Origin of Endomembrane System –enfolding and fusion of plasma membrane o Endosymbiosis Theory – Mitochondria acquired by engulfing PROTEOBACTERIA Chloroplast acquired by engulfing CYANOBACTERIA Chapter 6: Cell Membranes Plasma membrane structure o Fluid Mosaic Model –phospholipid bilayer with mobile proteins o Membrane Lipids Phospholipids Cholesterol o Membrane Proteins Integral proteins –AMPHIPATHIC; embedded in phospholipid bilayer Peripheral proteins –HYDROPHILIC; do NOT penetrate bilayer o Membrane Carbohydrates o Factors affecting membrane fluidity: Temperature Cholesterol Fatty acid saturation Cell recognition and adhesion o Recognition –mediated by glycoprotein and glycolipid o Adhesion –mediated by integral membrane proteins o Cell junction –connect adjacent cells 3 Types: Tight Junction, Desmosomes, Gap Junction Passive Membrane Transport o NO CHEMICAL ENERGY NEEDED o Substance moves from HIGHEST to LOWEST o Affected by –solute diameter, temperature, concentration gradient, and membrane permeable o Types of diffusion Simple Diffusion –move THROUGH phospholipid bilayer Facilitated diffusion -move through CHANNEL/CARRIER proteins Gated channels Ion channels Aquaporins o Osmosis –movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane Water ALWAYS moves from higher to lower potential (Less negative More negative) Addition of solute DECREASES potential Pressure Positive pressure INCREASES potential (ex: Blowing into straw) Negative pressure DECREASES potential (ex: Sucking through straw) Comparing solute concentrations Hypotonic –LOW solute concentration Hypertonic –HIGH solute concentration Isotonic –EQUAL solute concentration Active Membrane Transport o REQUIRES CHEMICAL ENERGY o Active transport proteins Uniporters Symporters Antiporters o Primary active transport o Secondary active transport Large Cells Enter and Leave a Cell o Endocytosis Phagocytosis –“EATING” Pinocytosis –“DRINKING” Receptor-mediated endocytosis o Exocytosis Chapter 7: Cell Communication and Multicellularity (I will complete once we have class)
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