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chapters 1 -5 notes

by: flipturn9

chapters 1 -5 notes SCHM 1010

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7 pages, all the notes we have taken in class so far, chapters 1-5
Concepts of Science
richard sorrentio
Study Guide
concepts, Of, Science
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by flipturn9 on Monday September 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SCHM 1010 at Auburn University taught by richard sorrentio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
Concepts of science SCHM 1010 Richard Sorrentino Test 1 Chapter 1: 1. Critical thinking: thinking correctly for oneself that successfully leads to the most reliable answers to questions and solutions and problems 2. Science: a method of investigation nature- a way of knowing about nature that discovers reliable knowledge about it 3. Reliable knowledge: knowledge that has a high probability of being true because its veracity has been justified by a reliable method 4. Tools of science  Evidence  Logical reasoning  Skepticism 5. Kinds of science  Observational vs experimental  Observational: do not assign subjects  Experimental: investigators assign treatments 6. Why measure anything  Predictions  Judgements  Decisions 7. What is a scientific hypothesis? An informed, testable and predictive solution to a scientific problem that explains a natural phenomenon, process, or event 8. Corroborated hypothesis: one that has passed its tests, one whose predications have been verified 9. Scientific fact: a highly corroborated hypothesis that has been so repeadly tested and for which so much reliable evidence exists, that it would be perverse or irrational to deny 10. Scientific theory: unifying and self consistent explanation of fundamental natural process 11. A theory is not a beginning, a theory is a thoroughly tested final product 12. Scientific method  Observations  Question  Hypothesis  Prediction  Test  Hypothesis-> corroborated hypothesis-> fact-> theory Pentobarbital: sleeping pills, lots of people OD’d on them 1. Thalidomine: cant OD on it, sleeping pills (calming drug) targeted pregnant women for morning sickness 2. Thalidomine never available in the US, but widely available in other countries (FDA) refused to approve it in US. 3. Kathleen Kelsey PHD and MD: the one who wouldn’t approve drug, because it was tested on rats and never sedated them (which is what the drug is supposed to do) 4. Caused growing fetus problems, unproportioned limbs because thalidomide cant interact with DNA and it targets growing tissue…. (fetus) 5. Kelsey was awarded the president’s aware for distinguished federal civilian service  Things we cover in concepts of science 1. Physics: the study of matter and motion 2. Chemistry: the study of the combination of atoms and molecules 3. Astronomy: study of objects in the Heavens 4. Geology: the study of solid earth 5. Biology: the study of living systems  How does the government provide funding for research? 1. Taxpayers, $136 billion in research  How do scientists communicate their results? 1. Scientific journals  Pseudoscience: false science, belief that cannot be proved or disproved by a reproducible test Science vs pseudoscience Willingness to change with new evidence fixed ideas Ruthless peer reviews no peer review Takes account of new discoveries favorable discoveries Invites criticism sees criticism as conspiracy Verifiable results non repeatable Limits claim of usefulness claims widespread usefulness Accurate measurements ballpark measurements Chapter 2 1. Can we detect the sun and moon? Yes 2. Can we characterize the apparent movement of the sun? yes. Moon? Yes. 3. Other celestial bodies? Yes the other plants and the stars 1. Ptolemy AD 90-168 2. Claudius ptolemaeus 3. Credited with understanding of how the earth moves in respect to each other 4. “earth is the center of the universe” 5. Ptolemaic model of the universe -> “7 Heavens” -> 7 moving objects in the sky around the earth 1. Nicholas Copernicus 2. Wrote a book-> de revolutions orbium coelestium 3. The Sun is in the middle, planets revolve around the sun 1. Johannes Kepler 2. Kepler’s laws of planetary motion  The planets travel in ellipses with the sun a focci  The radius vector sweeps out equal areas in equal times  The square of the period of revolution T, is proportional to the cube of the mean distance 1. Mechanics: the branch of science that deals with the motions of material objects and the forces that act on the, 2. Can we measure motion? Yes, Speed= distance/ time 3. Acceleration: a measure of the [rate of change] of velocity  A= change in velocity/ units of time  Measured in m/s^2 1. Velocity= a*t (acceleration times time) 2. Distance traveled= ½ * a*t^2 3. What makes an object accelerate? Force 4. Acceleration: change in speed and or direction 5. What force acted in Galileo’s experiments? Gravity 6. Acceleration due to gravity on earth? 9.8 m/sec^2 7. What are the universal laws of motion? st  1 law of motion: a moving object will continue moving in a straight line at a constant speed and a stationary object will remain at rest unless acted upon by an unbalanced force  what is force: something that produces a change in the state of motion of an object nd  2 law of motion: the acceleration produced on a body by a force is proportional to the magnitude of the force and inversely proportional to the mass of an object  FORCE= mass* acceleration  Forde is measured in Newtons  3 law of motion: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction 1. momentum: the tendency of a body to keep moving 2. momentum = mass* velocity …p= m*v… units = kg* m/s 3. What is the conservation of linear momentum: car wreck= guy goes flying  4. Conservation of angular momentum: ice skating 5. Gravity: an attractive force that acts on every object in the university 6. Big G= gravitational constant 7. Little g = acceleration due to gravity 8. What doesn’t produce gravity? A complete vaccum 9. What does G represent? Gravitational constant 10. What units is momentum measured in? kg*m/s Chapter 3 1. Living system: any system that uses energy for the purposes of growth, maintenance and reproduction 2. If its not living, its not using energy 3. Energy: the ability to do work 4. James Prescott Joule 5. What is work: force applied over distance 6. W=F*d 7. One joule of energy is: one newton of force applied across one meter of space 8. Energy is measured in joules, after James Prescott 9. Power: amount of work per unit time (joules) 10. Watts: power using metric system 11. Horse power: power using English system 12. P= w/t 13. Kinetic energy: the energy of motion 14. Potential energy: the energy of position 15. Thermal energy: the random kinetic energy of atoms 16. Wave energy: kinetic energy associated with different kinds of waves 17. How are mass and energy related? Mass is a form of energy 18. Total mechanical energy: kinetic + potential 19. Energy st  1 trophic level- producers, EX: plants, algae, some protists, cynobacteria  2 ndtrophic level- primary consumers, EX: grasshopper  3 trophic level- secondary consumers, EX: frogs th  4 tropic level- tertiary consumers, EX: humans…eating frog legs  10% energy rule, only 10 % of energy is carried from each trophic level 20. system: a party of the universe under study and separated from its surroundings by a real or imaginary boundary 21. 3 Systems  open system: matter and energy are okay here  closed system: no matter, energy is allowed here  isolated system: no matter, no energy 22. isolated system the total amount of energy including heat is conserved 23. thermal energy= kinetic energy 24. a closed system allows energy to cross its boundary 25. what does no work? A meteor moving through a vaccum at 1,000 km 26. p= w/t  1 law of thermodynamics: In an isolated system the total amount of energy included in heat is conserved 27. what are sources of energy  coal  renewables  hydroelectricity  nuclear energy  natural gas  oil 28. most used in the US?  Petroleum  Natural gas  Coal  Renewable energy  Nuclear electric power 29. Fossil fuels: carbon rich deposits of ancient life that burn with a hot flame. EX: petroleum, coal, natural gas 30. Venezuela- most oil in country 31. USA- most oil production 32. What is a non-renewable energy source: sources of energy that once they’re used are not quickly replaced 33. Fossil fuels are not non-renewable sources of energy 34. Renewable energy: something that can be renewed within a lifetime. 35. EX: wind, solar 36. No solar farms in Alabama 37. Solar farms in:  Germany  Italy  Spain  Japan  China  USA  France 38. Solar farms 39. PROS: renewable and plentiful nearly completely clean no mechanical parts, noiseless 40. CONS: cannot be used at night, low energy transformation efficiency 41. MONEY: residential 15-40k 42. Wind farms 43. MONEY: commercial- 1-2 Million, residential 35-50k 44. PROS: renewable and plentiful nearby completely clean and compadible with other land uses 45. CONS: variable amount of energy generated, danger to wildlife, negative environmental impact Chapter 4 1. Heat: random kinetic energy of atoms and molecules 2. Temperature: a quantity that reflects how vigorously atoms are moving and colliding in a material. 3. Where is the metric system used? The whole world, except: the USA, Liberia, Myanmar 4. Ferenheit  Boiling: 212 f  Freezing: 32 f 5. Celcius  Boiling 100c  Freezing:0c 6. Kelvin- absolute temp does not go under 0 degrees  boiling 373.15 k  freezing 273.15 k 7. specific heat capacity: the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of lg of a material by 1 degrees Celsius 8. Limitations of the use of solar energy? There is a low efficiency of energy transformation 9. How can heat be transferred?  Conduction  Convection  Radiation 10. Conduction: transfer of heat by collisions between vibrating atoms or molecules 11. Convection: the transfer of heat by the physical motion of masses of fluid 12. Radiation: transfer of heat by electromagnetic radiation  2 nd law of thermodynamics: in a closed system, transformation of energy results in a decrease in usable energy and an increase in entropy 13. what does the 2 ndlaw of thermodynamics predict?  Heat will not flow spontaneously from a cold to a hot body  You cannot construct an engine that does nothing but convert heat to useful work  Every isolated system becomes more disordered over time 14. Gravity pulls bodies together 15. Electricity can pull bodies together or repel them apart Chapter 5 1. What are the forces of the universe?  Strong force  Electromagnetic force  Weak force  Gravity 2. What evidence did we have for electricity?  A force, more powerful than gravity that moves objects both toward and away from each other depending on the change.  Static electricity: a phenomenon caused by the transfer of electrical charge between objects 3. Is light a form of energy?  Yes, involvement of electrical charge from the clouds to the ground  Proton: charge= +1  Neutron: charge= 0  Electron= -1 4. Atom: the smallest unit of an element  Atomus: indivisible particle 5. Element: a substance that cannot be converted to a simplier substance by ordinary chemical means 6. Coulmb ( c) of charge: the absolute value of the amount of charge on 6.241* 10^ 18 protons or electrons 7. Coulmb’s law: f=k*q1*q2/ d^2  F: electrical force  K= electrical constant  Q= charge  D=distance between charges 8. Electrical field: the strength of the force that acts on a + 1 charge at that point in space 9. Magnetic field: a collection of lines that map the direction that compass 10. Electrical circuit: an unbroken path of matter that carries electricity 11. Electrical current: a flow of charged particles


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