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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Kate

Exam 1 Study Guide Psyc 2034

Virginia Tech
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Exam 1 Study Guide for Harrison, Developmental Psychology, Fall 2016 Chapters 1-5
Developmental Pyschology
Patti Harrison
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kate on Monday September 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 2034 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Patti Harrison in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Developmental Pyschology in Psychology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 09/05/16
exam 1 fall 2016 study guide harrison HISTORY ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------- Innate goodness – children born inherently good; society teaches them to be bad; children should be permitted to grow naturally with as little societal interference as possible; Rousseau Tabula rasa – children are born on blank slates which experience writes upon; experience determines all adult characteristics; Locke; children must be raised very carefully Original sin – children born into the world as evil beings and are bad; must beat the sin out of children to save their souls; reformation and the puritans & christians Rousseau – french romanticism emphasis on sentimentality, naturalness, and innocence; children born with knowledge and ideas which unfold with age on a schedule, including justice, fairness, and sense of conscience; innate goodness; cognitive readiness means children cannot learn info until they are biologically ready; discovery process where kids should learn in an unstructured way; permissiveness in parenting style allows children to follow their own inclinations which makes them learn better and be happier Locke – all men equal in the eyes of the law; children born with equal minds tabula rasa; parents should be actively engaged with children; encouraged social rewards and scolding rather than material rewards; all about nurture James Mark Baldwin – genetic epistemology studies how children’s knowledge changes as they develop; basis for Piaget’s work on cognitive development G. Stanley Hall – founder of developmental psychology; first systematic study of children in the U.S. with questionnaires; first APA president; child development journals; invited Freud to the US Lev Vygotsky – sociocultural theory of cognitive development B. F. Skinner – founded the field of operant conditioning Albert Bandura – learning through imitation Urie Brofenbrenner – recognition of ecological influences on development Arnold Gesell – used the photographic dome; development is the unfolding of genetic blueprint Jean Piaget – major stage theorist in cognitive development Sigmund Freud – development is sexually based and focuses on areas of the body Erik Erikson – motivation is largely unconscious and behavior is shaped by unconscious urges and social interactions RESEARCH METHODS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- Perfect correlation – (+1, -1) Random assignment – assigning participants to groups based on chance Correlation coefficient – measures strength of relationship I.V. – what is manipulated D.V. – what is measured for change Cross-sectional research – measures people of many ages on one day Longitudinal research – follows the same group across the years Control group – receives 0 of the IV THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- exam 1 fall 2016 study guide harrison Early vs later experience – early experiences important in development for psychoanalytic theories; controversy that debates whether you stay shy if you are born shy; the child is the father of the man aka personality continues from childhood to adulthood Stability vs change – degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change Continuity vs discontinuity – extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity) Ethology – three types include classical, human, sociobiology; emphasize genetic and biological bases of behavior; innate behaviors occur to increase reproductive capability and gene passing; innate behaviors are universal to all members of species, require no learning or experience, are stereotyped aka occur the same way every time and are minimally effected by the environment; sociobiology said human traits like monogamy and altruism are efforts to maximize gene pool; careful observation; criticized for overemphasis on biology, ignoring cognition and reliance on animal research Lorenz – smiling is a variant of baring teeth because when to show strangers your power; some behaviors are innate and triggered by external stimuli; sociobiology Critical periods – are when the organism is maximally sensitive to a particular stimulus and if it does not occur the animal may never develop the behavior Imprinting – a critical period where geese learn their mother; Tinbergen actually had geese imprint to him so that they followed him everywhere Sensitive periods – when emotional attachment should occur in infancy Lifespan Perspective Contexts Normative age-graded – similar for individuals in the same age group; penicillin, puberty, menopauses Normative history-graded – common for people of in same generation; associated with history; great depression Non-normative life events – unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual's life; wife dies Social age– social roles and expectations related to person’s age Chronological age – number of years elapsed since person’s birth Physical age– age in terms of biological & physical health Psychological age – individual’s adaptive capacities GENETICS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- Principles of genetic expression Polygenic inheritance – most characteristics happen because of many genes, not just one Reaction range – the expressed characteristics (or phenotype) of an organism depend both on genetic characteristics (or genotype) and the environment Dominant-recessive genes – Rr and Rr … R is dominant but child can still be rr Genetic imprinting – genes have different effects depending on whether or not they come from the mother or father Scarr’s heredity -> environment interaction vs epigenetics Scarr ‘s niche-picking theory – influence of child’s genetics on determining its environment; niche-picking a setting that is suited to your genetic ability exam 1 fall 2016 study guide harrison Gene X environment (GxE interaction) - interaction of specific measured variation in the DNA and a specific measured aspect of the environment Epigenetics – influence of genes and the environment is bi-directional Genotype vs. phenotype – For each genotype, a range of phenotypes can be expressed … DNA is transcribed into RNA which is translated into amino acids that become proteins… Environments also interact with genotypes to produce phenotypes Genotype – all of a person's actual genetic material Phenotype – observable and measurable characteristics ex. Intelligence and hair color Down syndrome – trisomy 21; older women conceive more of these, but younger women give birth to more of these; round face, flattened skull, extra fold of skin over eyelids, protruding tongue, short limbs, intellectual and motor disabilities; extra chromosome; 1/700 births; more likely if woman is under 16 or over 34; rare in african americans Sex-Linked Fragile X syndrome – a gene on the X chromosome is damaged; males most likely to have this; abnormality in X chromosome which becomes constricted and breaks often; mental deficiency or intellectual disability, autism, learning disorder, short attention span; more frequent in males than females Klinefelter’s syndrome – males who have an extra X chromosome XXY; undeveloped testes, enlarged breasts, tall; 1/1000 males; typically diagnosed in adulthood XYY syndrome – result of an extra Y chromosome; early belief was that it contributed to aggression/violence, not so anymore Turner Syndrome – caused by having an XO pair rather than XX; short, webbed neck, infertile, difficulty in math, good verbal ability; 1/2500 females Gene linked abnormalities Sickle-cell anemia – malformed red blood cells that don’t transport oxygen well; often in african americans; impairs body's red blood cells so that they can no longer properly carry oxygen and die; causes disk red blood cells to become shaped like a sickle; recessive gene Phenylketonuria (PKU) – prevent by avoiding aspartame; improper metabolizing of phenylalanine, an amino acid; results from recessive gene; 1/10000-20000 births; easily detected and treated by diet; untreated leads to phenylalanine buildup and intellectual disability and hyperactivity; non latino whites primarily Tay-Sachs Disease – linked to Ashkenzi Jews Hemophilia – killed off the Russian Tsars; mostly male because it is sex-linked and gene linked Spina Bifida PREGNANCY ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- In vitro, GIFT, and ZIFT fertilization techniques for infertility treatment In vitro – mature eggs are collected (retrieved) from your ovaries and fertilized by sperm in a lab GIFT – gamete intrafallopian transfer; modified version of in vitro; hoping the sperm and egg will fertilize when you put them together in the tube ZIFT – zygote intrafallopian transfer; modified version of in vitro Most likely to get pregnant on – 14/15/16 day of menstrual cycle exam 1 fall 2016 study guide harrison HCG - hormone produced by the embryo after implantation; hCG is detected in the urine in some pregnancy tests Germinal, embryonic & fetal stages of development and when they occur Germinal stage – do not know you are pregnant and may accidentally expose embryo to teratogens; first 2 weeks of pregnancy; creation of zygote; continued cell division; attachment of zygote to wall of uterus Embryonic stage – 2 to 8 weeks after conception; rate of cell differentiation intensifies; support systems for cells form; organs appear; organogenesis; embryo forms; when structural defects most likely Organogenesis – period of organ formation; in the early period, teratogens will affect formation; in the later period they will affect function; first 2 months Fetal stage – begins 2 months after conception to birth; dramatic growth and development; grasping reflex present Prenatal Tests include: Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) – requires sampling of the placenta; 10-12 weeks into pregnancy; screen for genetic defects and chromosomal abnormalities; sex of fetus Amniocentesis – more accurate than CVS because it occurs later in pregnancy; 15-18 weeks into pregnancy; amniotic fluid withdrawn with syringe; screen for metabolic disorders; brings small risk of miscarriage Ultrasound – 7 weeks into pregnancy; sound waves into abdomen; echo makes visual representation; detects structural abnormalities in fetus; clues to sex AFP maternal blood test – detects neural tube defects; AFP is a substance made in the liver of a fetus; amount in the blood can help see whether the baby may have spina bifida and anencephaly Glucola – detects gestational diabetes; 24-28 weeks Teratogens and when they wreak the most havoc: Lead – Mercury – Toxoplasmosis – disease can result from changing cat litter Stress on the mother – linked to internalizing problems in adolescence; increases emotional and cognitive problems in child, ADHD and cognitive delay; increase in low birth rate risk Measles – prenatal defects Drugs – antibiotics, antidepressants, hormones, accutane, aspirin, diet pills, caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, weed (related to lower intelligence and stillbirths) Severity of damage to fetus – affected by dose, gestational age, time of exposure, genetic susceptibility Effects of maternal age on risks to the infant – 35 and older, mortality rate doubles for adolescent moms, 1/10 risk of down syndrome when older than 50, low birth weight, preterm delivery Effects of paternal age on risks to the infant – exposure to lead, pesticides, and petrochemicals may cause sperm abnormalities that lead to miscarriage or childhood cancer; second hand smoking leads to higher risk of miscarriage; if father is older than 40, higher risk of schizophrenia, autism and miscarriage (spontaneous abortion) Why take folic acid? – a lack of folic acid is related to neural tube defects Age which fetus can survive outside of womb – 26 weeks aka 6.5 months exam 1 fall 2016 study guide harrison Average length of pregnancy – 38 weeks aka 9.5 months 1st month woman can feel movement – 4th Most important thing impacting pregnancy – prenatal care Braxton-Hicks contractions – weak contractions of the uterus during pregnancy; start about 6 weeks into pregnancy but you will not feel them until mid pregnancy; hard to distinguish from labor contractions; increase in strength & frequency Fetal neural tube defects – birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord; happen in the first month of pregnancy Gestational diabetes – develops during pregnancy to the mother when she can’t make enough glucose BIRTHING ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- Mucus plug – indicates your cervix is dilating The three stages of labor and what happens during each Stage 1 Uterine Contractions – contractions 15-20 minutes apart; ends with transition; dilation complete to 10 cm (which means ready to push) and entering birth canal; 6-12 hrs in first birth Transition – Stormy emotions and strong contractions at end of stage 1, mom is 7 cm dilated Stage 2 Baby’s head moves through birth canal – Cervix is thinned and dilated, usually only allowed to last 2 hrs, desire to “bear-down” or push, ends with delivery of fetus; baby’s head pokes out of canal; 45min-1hr Stage 3 Afterbirth – when placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes are detached and expelled; lasts a few minutes Pitocin – uterine stimulant; hormone to strengthen contractions and control bleeding after birth; oxytocin; also used in abortions Analgesics – used to relieve pain; tranquilizers, barbiturates, narcotics Epidurals – blocks pain from the waist down, but increases the chances you will need a Cesarean section Amniotomy – procedure where sac is broken to speed delivery Lamaze birthing method – distraction through breathing, breathing technique; aka prepared childbirth Bradley birthing method – relaxation; birth is a natural process, trust your body Breech childbirth – buttox first instead of head first; can result in respiratory problems; c-section required Premature birth – before 35 weeks of gestation Low birth weight – below 5.5 lbs Cesarean section – ⅓ kids are born this way Episiotomy – Incision made to widen birth canal; perineum is cut Low birth weight and its causes – less than 5.5 lbs; most are also preterm; 8% of all babies; impaired cognitive abilities; ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, learning disabilities, asthma Very low birth weight – less than 3 lbs Preterm birth – born 3 weeks or more ahead of schedule; born 35 weeks after conception; 11% of infants as a result of increasing births in women over 35, increasing rates of multiple births, increased management of maternal and fetal conditions, increased substance abuse, increased stress; kangaroo care exam 1 fall 2016 study guide harrison Small for gestational age (small for date infants)– birth weight below normal relative to length of pregnancy; weigh less than 90% of all babies at that gestational age Gestational age – describe how far along the pregnancy is. It is measured in weeks THE NEONATE ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- How long should you breastfeed? – one year When can you introduce solid food? – 6 months Silent undernutrition – Fetal Alcohol syndrome – birth defects that result from a woman's use of alcohol during her pregnancy; facial deformities, defective limbs, less intelligent, learning problems Spina bifida – neural tube defect; incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around spinal cord; birth defect Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) – major cause of death in children under 1 year old; believed to be result of incomplete neurological development; more common among smoking parents; chain-stokes breathing from too much CO2 and babies do not have the reflex to inhale more oxygen Apgar and how it’s scored – below 5 is a risky score; first test administered immediately after delivery; checks (1) reflexes and evaluates (2) heart rate, (3) respiratory effort, (4) muscle tone, (5) body color; 0/1/2 for each of the 5 things; 7-10 is a good score; 3 means emergency and baby may not survive; a low score also increases likelihood of ADHD; measured 1 min after birth and again 5 min after birth Prechtl neonatal test – includes items similar to those in the Apgar exam; evaluates alertness, spontaneous movements and tremors, facial expressions, reactions to placement in various postures, and around 15 reflexes Brazelton neonatal test – administered 26 to 34 hours after birth; assesses neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people Newborn reflexes Babinski – reverses direction from birth to adulthood; tests for intactness of spinal nerves; looks at toes and see if running knuckle along bottom of foot makes toes splay out; does not remain present Moro – occurs when baby changes positions vertically; arms flash out from startled Stepping – whichever foot you put pressure on, the other will rise; disappears before they learn how to walk Rooting – explains why a baby turns toward the side of the world where cheek was brushed and starts making a sucking face; to find nipples Grasp – why your baby will not let go of your hair; get them to let go by giving them something else to grasp Test because – want to check neurological integrity Reflex strength – difference between preterm and full-term reflexes in babies What are the advantages of breastfeeding? – appropriate Weight gain, lowered risk of childhood obesity, fewer allergies, lower risk of illnesses, denser Bones in childhood, reduced risk of SIDS, advanced neurological cognitive development, better vision What is weaning? – becoming accustomed to food other than breastmilk HEALTH exam 1 fall 2016 study guide harrison ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- Heart disease – major cause of death in the US today Obesity – major cause of health problems in the US today Likelihood of contracting cancer – ½ males, ⅓ females Health across lifespan – through diet and exercise Silent undernutrition – silent killer, undernutrition; especially in poverty stricken areas Marasmus – Wasting away of body tissues in first year, severe protein-calorie deficiency (inadequate protein and calorie); severe malnourishment; very low weight Kwashiorkor – Deficiency in protein; child’s abdomen and feet swollen with water (inadequate protein); malnutrition characterized by edema How much time do babies, children, adolescent, young adults, middle adults, and the elderly spend in REM sleep? – Babies spend 50% of time in REM sleep Children: 2-4 hours/10-12 hours Adolescent: 2 hours/8 hours Young adults: 2 hours/ 8 hours Middle adults: 25% Adults spend 25% of time in REM sleep Elderly: 33%; 2/6 hours Cephalocaudal pattern of development (brain to end of spinal cord): growth sequence that gradually works from top to bottom of body Proximodistal pattern of development (gross before fine motor movements): growth sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves towards the extremities. What age are you during which you are building bone? – 1-9 years (until puberty mainly) When do you stop building bone? – 30-50 years it declines; stop building around 30 yrs What dietary ingredients are necessary for strong bones? – calcium and vitamin D When do women start losing bone? – ⅔ of women at age 60 What age group is most prone to binge drinking? – emerging adults What age group is most affected by poor lifestyle choices? – emerging adults During what age period are the habits underlying lifestyle choices created? – adolescence Accidents – major cause of death in children over 1 years old Cause of death in teens – car accidents, substance abuse, suicide Highest risk of suicide – caucasian males 65+ years old DISEASES OF OLD AGE ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- Sarcopenia – Muscle loss in middle to old age Osteoporosis – bone weakening Cataracts – clouding of the eye lens Glaucoma – blocking of the canals of Schlemm Nerve deafness – loss of ability to hear high pitches Chronic degenerative diseases – major cause of death in the elderly What is the primary form of dementia in the elderly? – alzheimers What percentage of those 85+ are institutionalized because of dementia? – 23% of women and 17% of men exam 1 fall 2016 study guide harrison What are the characteristics of ALZ? – gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language and physical function What is the primary cause of death in old-timers? – cancer (#2) and cardiovascular disease (#1) BRAIN ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- Occipital lobe – vision Parietal lobe – bodily sensations Temporal lobe – hearing and audition Frontal lobe – major motor cortex Prefrontal lobe – last part of brain to hook up Myelination – process responsible for improved motor control MISCELLANEOUS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- Affordances – term used by E.J. and J. J. Gibson to refer to the opportunity to interact with the environment The visual cliff – measures depth perception in babies Presbyopia – for “old-sightedness”; blurred vision reading


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