Exam #1 Study Guide
Exam #1 Study Guide CRJ 270-1001
Popular in Introduction to Criminology
Popular in Criminal Justice
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vee on Monday September 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CRJ 270-1001 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Terance Miethe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminology in Criminal Justice at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Course: CRJ 270-1001 Exam #1 Study Guide (Highlight= key term) • Chapter #1 • criminology-the scientiﬁc approach to the study of criminology behavior What are the three general areas covered within criminology? • • law making • Example • Why are particular types of harmful behavior considered criminal acts, but other types of harms are not illegal? • Differences in deﬁnitions of crime across jurisdictions • law enforcement Example • • The responses to crime by police, prosecutors, judges, and other ofﬁcials within the criminal justice system law breaking • • Example • The extent, causes, consequences, characteristics, motivations, justiﬁcations for criminal behavior and its social and spatial distribution • What is the difference between the etiology and epidemiology of crime? • Etiology of crime refers to the “causes” of crime (which can be biological, psychological, or • sociological) • Epidemiology of crime refers to the social, spatial, and temporal distribution of crime • • Why is it important to study crime? • Personal Relevance • about 50% of Americans will fall victim to violent crime • 90% property crime • Employment Opportunties • at least 20 million are arrested for crime Naive Fascination (Who Done it?) • • What are the components of the scientiﬁc method according to criminal justice? • Step 1: Data Collection Agency reports (i.e. police reports) • • Surveys of Victims and Offenders • Step 2: Data Analysis • Comparative/Historical Analysis • Model/Descriptive Arrest Histories • Chapter #2 • What is the difference between the 3 primary ways of deﬁning crime? Normative/Moral Deﬁnitions • • Norms-shared views of what someone ought or ought not to do as members of a society • Suggests that everyone in a society: • murder is wrong and the punishment for it should be death or life imprisonment • simply insulting someone is not serious enough to be punished by law • often the basis in small, agrarian and/or tribal societies • high level of agreement toward the seriousness and punishment of crime • severely punish violations to customs and taboos • Legal/Legalistic Deﬁnitions • crime is a violation of legal rules. • crime is law-violating behavior that involves a physical act (acts reus), a mental state (mens rea), and concurrence (the union of the physical and mental elements) • The act must involve conscious, voluntary, public harm. • the offender must have criminal intent, which can be: • purposeful knowingly • • recklessly • negligently • law must specify a punishment for any criminal act and the act must be illegal at the time it was committed • Labeling/Interactionist Deﬁnitions • no behavior is inherently criminal • deﬁnitions of crime are socially constructed by those in power • derives from conﬂict theory, assumes that the criminal law is an instrument used by the ruling class and powerful groups to protect their interests and privileges • What model deﬁnes crimes as both behavior and as a label? • Becker’s model • two questions: • (1) Is the person involved in law violating behavior? • (2) What is the societal/reaction to that person (are they perceived as a criminal)? • 4 distinct types of crime/criminals • Non-criminal • Secret Criminal • Falsely Accused Criminals • • Chapter #3 • What are the major purposes or functions of criminal law? • (1) reinforcing public standards of morality by strictly enforcing particular laws and punishments • (2) protecting society as a whole by incapacitating criminals in jails and prisons, and using the threat of swift, certain, and severe punishment to deter future criminal behavior • (3) creating laws that legitimize the behavior of a few and criminalizing/ penalizing behavior that threatens the elite’s interests (4) maintain and regulate social order and social relations • • (5) provide a forum for state punishment that discourages acts of revenge by individuals/groups • (6) provide a basis for social engineering • What is social engineering? • social engineering- using the criminal law to eliminate undesirable social problems and to promote constructive social changes. • Chapter #4 • What is the correlation between social complexity and crime? • Step 1: Industrialization/ Urbanization/ Modernization/ Population Growth Step 2: Breakdown of Bonds/ Density & Competition/ Wealth and Inequality/ • Diversity & Heterogeneity • Step 3: Alienation and Anomie • Step 4: Higher levels of Crime • What is the difference between “Pre-industrial” and “Industrial” society? • Pre-industrial society • relatively small in size • relatively simple way of dividing labor • homogeneous population • social norms are maintained by imposing informal social control • informal social control- when behavior is regulated by non-state authority (i.e. family, friends, and neighbors). • Any way trying to commit crimes will face retribution retribution- e.g. the eye-for-eye doctrine • • Some display collective responsibility • collective responsibility- a crime is a private wrong against a person but all members of the offending party’s family are responsible for the deviant act • crime is relatively uncommon because: • (1) shared views among all members of the community about what is appropriate behavior (2) the collective responsibility for crime • • (3) the effectiveness of informal social controls that regulate one’s behavior • Industrial society • population heterogeneity/diversity • a complex division of labor • unequal distribution of wealth • deﬁnitions of crime are based on the idea of legal norm violations • crime is considered a public harm against the state and an individual responsibility • social order is maintained by imposing formal social control • although informal social control is still used it is not very effective • Does an increase of crime occur as society changes? Not necessarily •
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