PBIO 1210 Ultimate Exam 1 Studyguide (Momany)
PBIO 1210 Ultimate Exam 1 Studyguide (Momany) Pbio 1210
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maddi Huff on Monday September 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Pbio 1210 at University of Georgia taught by Momany in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 274 views. For similar materials see Principles of Plant Biology in Plant Biology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Guide: Vocabulary PBIO 1210- Principles of Plant Biology EXAM 1 STUDYGUIDE What makes a plant a plant? 1. Contain chlorophyll for absorbing light for photosynthesis a. Photosynthesis- Production of organic food from inorganic molecules using the energy of light b. Non-plants can also be photosynthetic, such as algae c. Not all plants are photosynthetic, such as parasites 2. Adapted for life on land a. All land-adapted plants have embryo 3. Composed of many cells 4. Cell walls contain cellulose Plant structure and growth 5. Structure a. Cells (smallest unit of life) i. All cells in plant contain same genetic information (DNA) ii. Specialized according to function in plant b. Tissues (groups of cells) i. Simple tissues- one or two cell types ii. Complex cells- several cell types iii. Xylem- supports plant and conducts water iv. Pholem- transports sugars and other organic compounds in watery solution c. Organs (groups of tissues) i. Roots, stems, leaves d. Organ systems (groups of organs_ i. Buds- contains tiny stem and several tiny leaves ii. Flowers- complex shoots with several organs iii. Seeds- contain stored food and a dormant embryo with tiny root and shoot 6. Plant growth a. From new cells and tissues and cell enlargement b. Primary meristems generate new primary tissues at tips of roots and shoots (apical) and at site of new branches (auxillary bud) i. Increase length ii. Axil- angle between stem and leaf stalks c. Secondary Meristems increase girth of stems and roots i. Woody plants (trees, shrubs, vines) have two additional secondary meristems that produce wood, cork, and bark ii. Increase width 7. Plant cell expansion a. Increase amount of cytoplasm and number of organelles b. Plant cells can take up a lot of water into central vacuole and expand cell walls Guide: Vocabulary c. Expansion proteins unlock linkages between cell wall components along wall to stretch What is a chemical bond? 8. A way of binding two atoms together by sharing or giving up electrons 9. Types of bonds: a. Covalent- Form between atoms that share electrons; stronger than ionic bonds. b. Some atoms may share more than one pair of electrons c. Double and triple bonds are even stronger d. EX: Carbon had 4 electrons to share, allowing it to form many different compounds e. Ionic- One atom gives up one or more electrons and becomes positively-charged while the other atom takes electrons and becomes negatively-charged i. EX: Na(-) + Cl(+) = NaCl f. Hydrogen- When the electrons between two atoms that differ significantly in size electrons spend more time traveling around the larger atom, so that part of the molecule has a partial negative charge i. Partial charge is attracted to partial charge ii. Bond is polar iii. Used to bond water molecules iv. Hydrogen bonds make water an extremely effective solvent 1. Cohesion- Water molecules can be drawn up through roots and tree trunks 2. Hydrophilic- water loving, easily bonds (charged/polar 3. Hydrophobic- water hating, does not easily bond (uncharged/nonpolar) g. Bond strength is influenced by: i. The amount of energy used to create the bond, the stronger it is ii. Hydrogen (partial charge) < ionic (full charge) < covalent (shared electrons) Primary compounds 10.Lipids- composed of carbon and hydrogen with small amounts of oxygen and phosphorus (in phospholipids) a. Found in cooking fats, oils, waxes 11.Proteins 12.Nucleic acids 13.Carbohydrates- composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in ratio of 1C:2H:1O. Includes: a. Sugars like glucose (monosaccharides) b. Double sugars like sucrose (disaccharides) c. Polymers like cellulose and starch (polysaccharides). Guide: Vocabulary Polysaccharides 14.Made by dehydration 15.Not water-soluble but good for storage and building structures 16.Starch- abundant in roots and vegetables 17.Cellulose- structural, found in plant cell walls 18.Also a polymer of glucose but with alternate sugars flipped Nucleic acids 19.Large molecules composed of many nucleotide subunits a. Nucleotides composed of: i. phosphate group ii. Sugar - ribose (RNA) or deoxyribose (DNA) iii. Base – uracil (only RNA), thymine (only DNA), adenine, guanine, cytosine (both RNA and DNA) b. Function in transmitting cellular information i. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) – composed of ugar (ribose), Base (adenine), 3 Phosphates ii. Functions as an energy carrier iii. when its phosphate groups are broken, energy is released Lipids 20.composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen with small amounts of oxygen and phosphorus a. EX: cooking fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, steroids 21.Bends in chain -> kinks -> don’t packs as tight -> liquid a. Saturated fatty acid: all single bonds between carbons b. Monounsaturated: one double bond between carbons c. Polyunsaturated: two or more double bonds between carbons 22.Fats contain primary saturated fatty acids a. Monounsaturated fats are the healthiest for the human cardiovascular system b. They must balance saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in structures like cell membranes so that they have the right fluidity for proper function 23.Room temperature: fats are solid and oils are liquid a. Double bonds cause kinks b. Kinked chains form liquids because they can’t coil as tightly 24.Fats and cholesterol a. Fats and cholesterol are hydrophobic i. Don’t mix with blood or water ii. Need carriers Guide: Vocabulary b. Body packages fat and cholesterol into tiny, protein-covered particles called lipoproteins c. LDL (low density lipoprotein) d. Carry cholesterol from the liver to the rest of the body; too much can form deposits in walls of arteries (BAD) e. HDL (high density lipoprotein) f. Scavenge cholesterol from the bloodstream, from LDL, and from artery walls and carry it back to the liver for disposal (GOOD) g. Unsaturated fats (mono and poly) improve cholesterol levels (raise HDL and lower LDL) h. Saturated fats- our bodies make all that we need (raise LDL) 25.Trans-fat a. Not found in nature b. Stabilizes and changes properties of oil c. Linked to heart disease, diabetes, obesity, infertility, etc. d. Lowers HDL and raises LDL (BAD) e. Natural fats (cis) are bent, while unnatural -fats are straightened (trans) f. High temperatures convert cis into trans 26.Phospholipids- similar to fats but one fatty acid is replaced by a group with an additional polar group a. Fatty acids are non-polar and hydrophobic, while phosphate groups are polar and hydrophilic b. In water, phospholipids assemble a double layer with the hydrophobic ends facing each other- the basic structure of cell membranes Proteins - 27.Provides storage and are the machines of the cell a. Amino acids composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen b. Central carbon group bonded to a carboxylic acid group (COOH), an amino group (NH ),2and a side chain (R) c. Side chains (R) determine nature of amino acid d. Hydrophobic, acidic (+), basic (-), polar e. Kinked f. Proteins tend to fold up to expose hydrophilic groups and enclose hydrophobic groups in the interior 28.Amino acids a. Plants can make amino acids or themselves but animas can’t b. Joined by peptide bonds 29.Four levels of organization a. Primary – sequence of amino acids b. Secondary – helical or pleated sheet structures maintained by hydrogen bonds c. Tertiary – folding of protein with shape maintained by covalent bonds between sulfur atoms d. Quaternary – two or more polypeptide chains held together by hydrogen bonds Guide: Vocabulary 30.Proteins are the machines of the cell a. 3D shape of enzyme determines substrate specificity b. Substrate: what the enzyme acts o c. Active site: groove or pocket where substrate(s) fit d. Enzymes- catalysts that speed up reactions i. Interact with substrates and lower activation energy needed to break and reform covalent bond Cell structure 31.Cell theory- Cells form the basic unit of life and all cells come from pre- existing parental cells a. Features in all cells: i. Cytoplasm- watery solution that includes other cell structures (the matrix) ii. Ribosomes- composed of protein and RNA and help synthesize proteins iii. Membranes- enclose cell contents and composed primarily of phospholipids and proteins 32.Membrane functions: a. Communication 1. Receptor proteins in membranes bind to chemical messengers 2. Transmits signals to cytoplasm iv. Transport of dissolved substances 1. Gases and some small molecules pass easily through membranes 2. larger, charged molecules can’t, unless they are transported by proteins. v. Transport of larger or charged molecules 1. specific for certain kinds of molecules bind with these molecules to move them through the membrane 2. membranes of plant root cells transport phosphate and nitrate from the soil and into the cells vi. Transport of water by osmosis 1. Osmosis- diffusion of water across cell membranes 2. Water moves into or out of the cell depending on the concentration of dissolved substances (solutes) on both sides of the membrane 33.Osmosis a. Isotonic solutions -same solute concentration as inside the cell 1. (Some water will pass through the membrane in each direction) 2. BALANCED 34.Hypotonic solutions- higher concentration of solute inside cell than outside of cell i. (Water diffuses into cell) ii. Water diffuses into the cell until the cell membrane is pushed up tightly against the cell wall iii. Turgor pressure- pressure within cell from uptake of water iv. Hypertonic solutions- lower concentration of solute inside cell than outside of cell Guide: Vocabulary v. (Water diffuses out of the cell) 35.Endomembrane system a. Golgi apparatus- stacked array of membrane sacs b. Each sac has enzymes for producing and modifying cell materials c. chemicals are synthesized, part of the Golgi membrane pinches off to form a vesicle, which can transport the molecules to where they are needed d. Cytoskeleton– structural support for cell structures e. Acts as tracks for motor proteins to move along f. Microtubules- long, thin hollow tubes made of the protein tubulin g. Microfilaments- long, thinner filaments made of actin h. Intermediate filaments- intermediate-sized filaments 36.Motor proteins a. Travel in microtubules or actin b. Transport cargo (vesicle)\ c. Move forward as ATP is converted to ADP 37.Chloroplasts a. Double membraned b. Chlorophyll- pigment needed for photosynthesis found in chloroplasts c. Thylakoids- Internal membranes are in stacks and contain important material for photosynthesis d. Watery stroma contains other enzymes for photosynthesis. i. Believed to be descended from ancient cyanobacteria ii. Ribosomes and small amounts of DNA similar to those in prokaryotes 38.Mitochondria “powerhouse of the cell” a. Cristae- folds of inner membrane b. Contain enzymes and other molecules important for metabolism c. Watery matrix contains important enzymes as well d. Believed to be descended from ancient bacteria engulfed by another cell i. Reproduce by binary fission like bacteria ii. Ribosomes and small amounts of DNA similar to those in prokaryotes Energy Flow 39.Primary source of energy for life is sunlight a. In Photosynthesis, sunlight energy is stored in chemical bonds in carbohydrates and other biological molecules i. Oxygen is also produced b. In Respiration, organisms use oxygen to break chemical bonds in carbohydrates, releasing energy for their own growth and activity c. Exergonic reactions release energy d. Endergonic reactions require energy e. Exergonic and endergonic often coupled via ATP i. ATP transfers (exchanges) energy between coupled reactions 40.Red/Ox i. Oxidation- loss of electrons (often Hydrogen ion, H +, transferred along with electron) Guide: Vocabulary ii. Reduction- gain of electrons (often Hydrogen ion, H +, transferred along with electron) iii. Oxidation/reduction reactions always occur together (red/ox) 41.Electron transport chain i. As electrons move down chain energy is lowered ii. Electron acceptors go through redox reaction iii. Energy is given off as heat stored in ATP Photosynthesis 42.6CO + 2 H2O → C H O66 612 2 43.Occurs primarily in the chloroplasts in leaves 44.Oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and leave the leaf through the stomata and water is brought in by the veins 45.Thylakoid pigments absorb energy from light and store it in ATP molecules and the electron acceptor molecule, NADPH 46.In stroma of chloroplasts, carbon dioxide is broken down to form carbohydrates 47.Absorption of light a. Plants use visible light for photosynthesis b. Right amount of energy to excite electrons in organic molecules c. Chlorophyll absorbs light in the red and blue-violet region and reflects green light d. Accessory pigments (carotenoids and chlorophyll b) absorb light at different wavelengths and pass the energy on to a chlorophyll i. Chlorophyll A- light energy excites electrons in the ring structures ii. Electrons jump to a higher energy level iii. Some electrons may leave the chlorophyll molecule and transfer to an electron acceptor molecule iv. Light energy DIRECTLY excited electrons 48.Light reactions a. Solar energy used to split water molecules to release electrons and protons and oxygen; electrons and protons are used to make ATP and NADPH (energy carriers) b. Two groups of pigments, photosystem I and photosystem II, absorb light and excite electrons c. Photosystem II: light is absorbed by chlorophyll in the P680 reaction center d. Excited electrons are passed to an electron acceptor molecule e. Water molecules are split into protons and oxygen f. Electron from water replaces the chlorophyll electron that went to the electron acceptor g. Electrons are passed down an electron transport chain until they reach the P700 reaction complex of photosystem I h. ATP is produced during electron transport. i. Light excites the electrons in P700 reaction center of photosystem I j. Electrons are accepted by electron acceptor Guide: Vocabulary k. Electrons are passed down another electron transport chain, producing NADPH, ATP, and NADPH l. They are then used in the carbon fixation reactions. 49.Photophosphorylation- how ATP is synthesized a. Photosystems and electron transport molecules are in the thylakoid membrane b. As electrons pass down the electron transport chain, part of the energy is used to pump protons (H+) from stroma of chloroplast into the space inside the thylakoid membranes c. Electrochemical gradient- buildup of positive charges and acidity inside the thylakoid d. The ATP synthase complex provides a channel for protons to flow back to the stroma and as they do, ATP molecules are made by adding phosphate to ADP 50.Calvin cycle- carbon fixation a. Enzymes and reactions occur in the stroma of chloroplast b. A molecule of CO2 is attached to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP, a 5 carbon sugar) by the enzyme Rubisco c. 6 carbon compound is split into two 3 carbon compounds (PGA) d. Several more reactions requiring ATP and NADPH, 3 carbon compound PGAL (phosphoglyceraldehyde) is produced e. Some PGAL is used to make glucose f. Other PGAL is used to regenerate RuBP 6 turns of Calvin cycle needed to produce 1 glucose 51.Photosynthesis overview a. Light reactions i. Photosystems I and II capture solar energy ii. Use solar energy to split water and release electrons, protons, and oxygen iii. Electrons and protons are used to make ATP and NADPH iv. Calvin cycle- Energy stored in ATP and NADPH during light reactions used to break down CO in2o a simple sugar
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