Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jeni Erickson on Monday September 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views.
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Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide for Exam 1 1. Be able to identify what Anatomy and Physiology are and how they relate to each other. a. Anatomy: the study of structures in the body and the relationships each structure has to another structure. (Seen, felt, and examined) b. Physiology: the study of all the functions of the body, how each function works, and how they carry out life-sustaining activities). This includes chemical and physical processes. (Focuses on the events that occur at a cellular/molecular level) c. Structure can dictate function; Function can regulate structure. 2. Be able to identify and define all of the subdivisions of anatomy. a. Gross anatomy: the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye. (Example: heart, lungs, kidneys, etc.) b. Regional anatomy: the study of all the structures in a particular region of the body. (Example: the study of everything in the knee). c. Systemic anatomy: Body structure studied system by system. (Example: the nervous system, cardiovascular system, etc.) d. Surface anatomy: The study of an internal structure (inside of the body) as they relate to the overlying skin surface (the way the outside of the skin looks) (Example: you can see a tumor making a hand look abnormal from outside the skin) e. Microscopic anatomy: deals with structures to small to be seen with the naked eye. i. Cytology: study of cells (Example: pap smear in the cervix to see if females have cervical cancer) ii. Histology: the study of tissues (Example: simple squamous epithelium tissue lines the lungs) f. Developmental anatomy: The study of the structural changes that occur throughout the lifespan (Example: white and gray matter in the brain changes as you mature). i. Embryology: The developmental changes that occur before birth (8 weeks after fertilization because after that, the embryo is called a fetus). g. Pathological anatomy: The structural changes that are caused by a disease (when things go wrong). (Example: studies the tissues and organs that are affected by cancer). h. Radiographic anatomy: the study of structures through the looks of an x-ray or other specialized scanning procedures. 3. Know the different types of Physiology and be able to define them. a. Renal physiology: Concerned with kidney function and urine production. b. Neurophysiology: Explains the working of the nervous system. c. Cardiovascular physiology: Examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels. 4. Be able to identify and differentiate between the different types of Medical Imaging. (what type of energy is used?) a. X-ray: we can see bones, but no soft tissues. Light energy. b. CT scan: computerized tomography. Layering x-rays over each other. Light energy. c. Xenon CT: Inhale xenon gas. The gas goes into the bloodstream and accumulates where there is high blood flow/oxygen. Shows possible stroke. Light energy. d. DSR: Takes two different images at different points in time to show change. Light energy. e. DSA: Injects dye into bloodstream. Takes a picture before the dye and after the dye. Cancels out everything except for the changes, which shows no bone or dense tissue. Light energy. f. PET scan: injects isotopes into body. Areas with the most metabolic activity glow brightly. Detects problems at a cellular level. Light energy. g. Ultrasound: Puts sound waves in the body and the echo from them is interpreted into a picture. h. MRI: Magnetic energy using Hydrogen ions. Ions in the body align as the wave goes through the body and you see a detailed picture of soft tissue. There is an absence of bone. i. MRS: Similar to the MRI, but it uses calcium ions instead of Hydrogen. j. M2A: a little pill with a digital camera inside. It is swallowed and a picture is taken every couple of seconds. Battery life is about 18 hours. 5. Be able to identify the Levels of Organization a. Chemical: base line; the chemicals that make up cells b. Cellular: basic unit of life. Cells are interdependent, which creates a division of labor within the body. They are chemical factories essential for functioning. c. Tissue: cells that come from the same embryological origin can perform a specific task. d. Organ: Different types of tissues working together to regulate a function e. Organ System: Collection of two or more organs that work together to perform a certain risk. f. Organismic/Organism: If we put all the organ systems together. 6. Be able to identify the nine Life Processes. a. Limiting boundaries: Where we stop and the rest of the world begins. Our skin is our limiting boundary. b. Excitability: The ability to sense change within and outside of the body be responding to stimuli. c. Conductivity: how we carry stimuli from one body part to another. (Example: electrical impulse through the nervous system). d. Metabolism: All of the chemical reactions that occur within the body. Is regulated by hormones and consists of catabolism and anabolism. i. Catabolism is the break down of reactions ii. Anabolism is the build up of reactions e. Digestion: The breakdown of food. Grinding up/chewing food is mechanical and our stomach breaking it down further is chemical. f. Excretion: The elimination of waste as urine, carbon dioxide (lungs carrying out an excretory function), and poop. g. Movement: The result of muscle activity. When our muscles propel us forward, our skeletal muscles hold us together while our muscles work, and our cardiac muscles keep our hearts beating in order to keep us alive. h. Growth: Increasing in size, either an organ or the entire organism. Cells can either replicate or just grow in size. More constructive activity must occur than destructive activity. i. Reproduction: Cells divide in order to get more cells. The biological basic goal is to produce more individuals. 7. Be able to identify basic Survival Needs and to understand that in order to stay alive you need this in a perfect amount. (Too little or too much is bad) a. Nutrients: chemical substances we use for energy and to produce new cells. b. Oxygen: we have to have this because it is an electron acceptor that produces energy and cells cannot live without oxygen. c. Water: Our bodies are 60-80% water. We obtain it in food we eat and the things we drink. Our bodies are constantly losing water so we have to replenish it. d. Normal Body Temperature: Our body is designed to function best at 30 degrees Celsius. Anything above that temperature and cells denature. Anything below that temperature and cells slow down. e. Atmospheric Pressure: The force that air exerts on the surface of the body. We have to have some type of pressure on our bodies in order to survive. 8. Know what homeostasis is and what is required in order to achieve it. a. Homeostasis is when everything in our body is optimal. It is the condition of a stable internal body environment. i. It is constantly fluctuating. b. Requirements include when internal nutrition, gases, water, temperature, and pressure are at optima. IF we get too far from optimal range, then we either get sick or we die. 9. Know what stress, how it relates to homeostasis, and how it is regulated. a. Stress is any stimulus causing an imbalance in a person’s internal environment. i. It is anything that disrupts/deviates from homeostasis. ii. There is internal and external stress iii. All stimuli causes some type of response, but not all stimuli causes a disruption of homeostasis. b. Stress Regulation (These are the body’s control systems) i. Nervous System: sends electrical messages throughout the body. Begins with a sensory receptor, then an integrator called the brain and spinal cord, and an effector. ii. Endocrine System: Uses chemical signals and those signals are called hormones. 10. Know what Feedback Systems are and understand the types of feedback systems. a. A feedback System is any circular situation where information about the status of something is continually reported to a central control region. i. Negative Feedback: reverses the condition (Having a fever). These control mechanisms shut off the original stimulus so that the intensity reduces and goes back to the ideal state. ii. Positive Feedback: enhances the condition (child birth). These control mechanisms continue to add to the stimulus until the action is completed. When you give birth, chemicals in the body induce labor and continue to increase the amount of chemicals until the cervix is fully dilated and the baby is born. 11. Be able to define matter and differentiate the forms in which it can occur. a. Matter: anything that occupies space and has mass. It is composed of chemical elements just like our bodies and therefore or bodies are made of matter. b. Different State of matter include: i. Solid: Definitive form and volume (Example: Bone). Molecules move slowly. It is the slowest out of the three states. ii. Liquid: No definitive form, but there is a definitive volume. (Example: plasma in blood or urine) When you slightly speed up molecules of a solid, then you get a liquid. iii. Gas: No definitive form or volume. (Example: air in our lungs) Another increase in molecular motion from a liquid makes a gas. 12. Define energy and be able to differentiate between the forms in which it can occur. a. The ability to do work. We in energy in order to put matter into motion. b. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. c. The different forms of energy include: i. Potential Energy: This is stored energy. (Example: roller-coaster car sitting on top of the hill) ii. Kinetic Energy: This is energy in motion. (Example: The rollercoaster going down the hill) iii. Electrical Energy: The movement of charged particles called ions in the body move along and through the cell membranes. These electrical currents called nerve impulses transmit messages from one body part to another. iv. Chemical Energy: The energy stored in bonds of elements. When we release chemical energy, we break bonds (kinetic energy). When we increase chemical energy, we form bonds (potential energy). (Example: ATP) v. Mechanical Energy: Energy directly involved in moving matter. (Example: When riding your bicycle, your legs are the mechanical energy used to pedal. vi. Electromagnetic/Radiant Energy: Energy that travels in waves. Includes all of the waves on the electromagnetic spectrum. 13. Understand how atoms and elements related to one another? a. Elements are substances that cannot be decomposed into smaller substances by ordinary chemical reactions. i. The human body contains 24 elements. (Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Calcium, and Potassium are 96% of body). ii. All elements are composed of atoms! b. Atoms are the smallest unit of matter that can enter a chemical reaction. i. Atoms within elements are what make elements reactive. 14. Know what subatomic particles are; identify their charges, relative size, and location within the atom. a. Nucleus: Has a positive charge. Where most of the mass of an atom is located. Located in the center of the atom. b. Electrons: Has a negative charge. We cannot actually see them because they are so small. They are located around the nucleus in a “cloud”. They move around in orbitals. Each orbital has a maximum number of electrons it can hold. The most outer electrons are called valence electrons. (Noble gases are not reactive because their outmost shell is completely full). c. Protons: Has a positive charge. Located in the nucleus and there is the same number protons as there are electrons. d. Neutrons: Has a neutral charge. Located in the nucleus. The number of neutrons plus the number of protons equals the atomic mass. 15. Know the differences between Elements, Molecules, and Compounds. a. An element is a substance made up entirely from one type of atom. b. A molecule is formed when two or more of the same type of atom is joined together. c. A compound is formed when you have a molecule that contains at least two different elements (two different types of atoms). d. All compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds. (Example: Molecule only=O2; Compound= H2O) 16. Identify the types of bonds that can be formed between molecules and explain why different molecules use different bonding. a. Bonds are attractive forces that hold together the atoms of a molecule. b. Types of bonds include: i. Covalent: they share valence electrons. They are more stable and stronger than any of the other bonds. These bonds can be single bonds, double bonds, or triple bonds. 1. Polar Covalent bond: when a bond forms, but one element has a greater pull on the election than another. This is due to the electronegativity. (Example: water; oxygen has a greater electronegativity that hydrogen, so it uses the electron more than the hydrogen even though they are technically sharing it) ii. Ionic: These are when opposites attract. One element takes an electron from another. Ionic bonds are polar bond and consist of ions. 1. An ion is when an element either gives up or takes an electron from another element and therefore becomes positively (gave up e-) or negatively (took e-) charged. a. Cations donate electrons b. Anions accept electrons iii. Hydrogen: These are technically not bonds, but instead really strong pulls between elements. This occurs when a Hydrogen atom is bonded to one element, but is strongly attracted to another. (Example: Water molecule; the hydrogen is bonded to an oxygen, but is also strongly attracted to the other oxygen molecules around it). c. Different molecules use different bonding because of their chemical properties and attractive forces. 17. Define chemical reaction and list the various types of possible reactions. a. A chemical reaction is when you combine or break apart atoms forming new products with different properties than that of the original. b. This occurs due to the fact that atoms are always trying to fill their outermost shell so they are willing to give up, accept, or share electrons. The interchanging of these electrons is what chemical reactions really are. c. The types of chemical reactions include: i. Synthesis: building things up. Taking multiple elements and making them a compound. ii. Decomposition: breaking things down. Taking compounds and breaking them into smaller compounds or into elements. iii. Exchange: When bonds are both made and broken. Synthesis and Decomposition both occur. 1. Redox reactions: (oxidation-reduction reactions) this is how food fuels are broken down. Electrons are exchanged between the reactants. Those that donate an electron are oxidized and those that accept the electron are reduced. iv. Reversible: The products revert back to the original. This is when we get equilibrium. v. Exergonic: This is a catabolic reaction. These are reactions that release energy and the products have less energy than the initial reactants. vi. Endergonic: This is an anabolic reaction. These are reactions that absorb energy and the products have more potential energy than the initial reactants. 18. Know what factors limit the rate of chemical reactions and explain how these are related to activation energy. a. Factors that limit chemical reactions are: i. Velocity of colliding particles: The higher the temperature, the faster the particles in the body collide. Collisions at high speeds is what we believe causes the breaking and formation of bonds (Collision Theory). 1. Activation Theory says that energy is needed to rearrange electrons of a molecule and that can be done with the energy provided when particles collide. Depending on how fast they go, there is energy to break and form bonds. ii. Energy of colliding particles 1. The smaller the particle, then the faster it moves. Large particles move slower and impart less energy than smaller particles. The smaller then particle, the more activation energy is available. Therefore, the most chemical reactions can occur. iii. Concentration of colliding particles 1. The more particles we have, then the ore collisions we will see. The more collisions we see, then the more activation energy is available for chemical reactions. iv. Catalysts 1. Catalysts are enzymes that aid reactions without actually being a part of the reaction and being consumed by it. They can speed up the reaction rate by providing more energy to produce reactions quicken enough to sustain life. 1. Be able to define Biochemistry a. Biochemistry is the study of chemical composition and reactions of living matter. 2. Be able to differentiate between organic and inorganic compounds and list important compounds from each group. a. Organic: compounds that contain Carbon i. All covalently bonded b. Inorganic Compounds that do not contain carbon and dissociate into water i. Water: 60-80% of body mass and most important compound. ii. Salts: anything that dissolves and produces anions and cations as a result. 1. Ions are also called electrolytes! They aid in muscle contraction, nervous conduction, building bones, and making teeth. iii. Acids and bases- Acids increase hydrogen concentration and are proton donors. Bases reduce it hydrogen concentration and are hydrogen accpetors. 3. Be able to identify the special properties of water. a. High heat capacity: resistant to changes in temperature. This helps us because when we walk out into the snow, we don’t immediately freeze from the inside out. The same goes for walking in 100-degree heat. We do not die because our bodies are resistant to that change. b. High heat of vaporization: Water requires a high degree of heat to change from liquid to gas. This occurs when we sweat. It is the body’s way of cooling us down. c. Universal/polar solvent: Our bodies cannot function without water because water is required to be biologically reactive and transport things through the body. i. Any charged substance can dissolve in water. 1. Solution is the final mixture, solvent is the water, and a solute is whatever is being dissolved into the water. d. Reactivity: Water is a key ingredient in many reactions including hydrolysis and dehydration reactions. i. Hydrolysis is the addition of a water molecule to break a bond. Catabolic reaction ii. Dehydration is the remove a water molecule in order to form a bond. Anabolic reaction. e. Cushioning: water is a part of the cerebral spinal fluid that protects the brain and spinal cord. 4. Explain the concept of pH, and be able to discuss how the body maintains pH biochemically. a. pH is the 0-14 number scale that describes the level of acidity or alkalinity in solutions. i. Based on the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. ii. Different parts of out bodies have different homeostatic optimums for pH. iii. The body maintains pH through neutralization and buffering. 1. Neutralization: if we mix and acid and base together, we will ALWAYS get a product of water and salts. If something in the body is too acidic, then the body signals to add a more basic solution to the area in order to regulate it back to its optimum pH. 2. Buffering: Buffers are proteins and other molecules that resist changes in pH. The release Hydrogen atoms when pH rises and binding hydrogen atoms when pH drops. 5. Describe the building blocks and general structures of the important organic molecules. a. Carbohydrates: consist of sugars and starches. Their main function is to be the main source of energy and create ATP. i. Monosaccharide: consists of one sugar (SIMPLE SUGARS). These simple sugars consist of 3-7 carbon atoms and can dissolve across the wall of the digestive tract. 1. Glucose, Fructose, Deoxyribose, Ribose, and Galactose ii. Disaccharides: When you take two monosaccharaides and bond them together. These cannot move through the digestive tract unless they are broken apart through hydrolysis. 1. Sucrose, Maltose, and Lactose. iii. Polysaccharides: three or more monosaccharaides together. We make these when we do not need the energy right now. These are converted into glycogen and stored until they are needed. b. Lipids: These are our fats and oils. They are insoluble in water, but can pass straight through a plasma membrane. i. Neutral Fats/Triglycerides: three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol. They provide us insulation and protection as well as storing energy. There are 5 types! 1. Saturated: They are solids at room temperature and increase the cholesterol in the body. All of the carbon atoms are bonded to as many hydrogen molecules as possible. Found in animals 2. Unsaturated: The carbons are not all bonded to max number of hydrogen molecules. Instead there is a double bond that puts a “kink” in one of the fatty acids. No effect on cholesterol and found in plants. Oil at room temperature. 3. Polyunsaturated: Two or more double bonds in fatty acids. These lower your cholesterol and are also found in plants. Oils at room temperature. 4. Trans fats: This is when a bond in the polyunsaturated fat breaks and one hydrogen is added. These are the scary fats that you want nothing to do with. They greatly increase cholesterol as well as your risk of heart attack. 5. Omega 3 Fatty acids: There are 3 carbons on the tail end and a double bond. Very good for you and found in fish oils. ii. Phospholipids 1. One glycerol, two fatty acids, and one phosphate group. 2. The phosphate is polar and the fatty acids are non polar so they line up to where the phosphate group is on the outside of cell and fatty acids are on the inside away from water. (Amphipathic) iii. Steroids: Four interlocking hydrocarbon rings. Includes testosterone and progesterone. They are fat-soluble which means that they can immediately pas through the plasma membrane of a cell. Steroids are chemical messengers of the body, which means that they are produced one place and send messages to another place. iv. Eicosanoids: produced in the same part of the body that they affect. They are used in blood clotting, regulation of blood pressure and inflammation. c. Proteins: Made up of twenty different amino acids. Proteins are the basic structural unit of the body. The single most abundant protein in the body is collegan. d. Nucleic Acids: Nucleotides are made up of a phosphate group, nitrogenous base, and a simple sugar (deoxyribose). There are five nitrogenous bases: guanine, adenine, thymine, cytosine, and uracil. 6. Be able to describe how proteins obtain their 3D structure and discuss the roles proteins play within living systems. a. There are four types of protein structures. i. Primary: a certain series of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds. ii. Secondary: The peptide chain begins to spiral or fold because Hydrogen bonds form between the parts of the same chain. These make either an alpha helix or beta sheet. iii. Tertiary: The r-groups of the peptide chain begin move the chain into a compact ball called a globular. The hydrophobic r-groups move to the inside and the hyper phobic r-groups move to the outside. (ONE PROTEIN) iv. Quaternary: when two or more tertiary structures attach together by their r-groups. b. Types of Proteins i. Structural/fibrous: provide the body with shape and support. (Structure of body parts). Resistant to temperature changes. ii. Regulatory: these are long distance signaling molecules that function like hormones. iii. Contractile: are used in muscles to extend and contract muscle fibers for movement, digestion, cardiac movement, and any other muscles in the body. (Actin and myosin are important contractile proteins.) iv. Immunological: These proteins are known as antibodies that fight diseases in the body. v. Transport: These proteins carry things (like oxygen) through the body. 1. An example of this is the protein hemoglobin, which transports oxygen throughout the body so that we can function. vi. Catalytic: These proteins function as enzymes that aid in reactions, moving molecules in and out of cells, etc 7. Be able to explain the function of enzymes and how this function is lost through denaturation. a. Enzymes function as biological catalysts (things that increase the speed of chemical reactions without being consumes by the reaction). Enzymes are metabolic traffic cops because they keep out metabolic pathways flowing. Enzymes have active sites where only certain substrates (like amino acids) can bind. Two amino acids would bind to the enzyme and the enzyme would help dehydration synthesis to occur so that a peptide bond links the two amino acids together. b. Protein denaturation occurs when there is a drop in pH or an increase in temperature. Hydrogen bonds are very sensitive to these things and when pH drops or temp rises, the hydrogen bonds break and the protein uncoils/loses its shape. For a protein, shape determines function so a loss of shape causes the protein to stop functioning correctly. This will destroy the active sites on enzymes and make them unable to bind with substrates. If desired conditions are restored, most of the time the protein bonds will reform and the protein can begin functioning again. 8. Be able to differentiate between DNA and RNA. a. DNA is found in the nucleus of a cell and contains gene- coding segments. DNA is double stranded and is a template for RNA. Genes produce structural and functional proteins. b. RNA is single stranded and made by DNA. RNA carries its’ template of DNA to ribosomes which create the proteins. (Thymine is replaced by Uracil in RNA) 9. Be able to summarize the Cell Theory. a. A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of a living organism. b. The activity of an organism depends on the activities of its cells. c. Cells’ functions are dictated by their structures. d. Cells can only come from other cells (Cell Division) 10. Be able to identify the major structural components of a cell. a. Cytoplasm b. Plasma membrane (semipermeable phospholipid bilayer) c. Organelles (the nucleus is an important component) 11. Describe the composition of the plasma membrane by summarizing the fluid mosaic model. a. The fluid mosaic model says that the plasma membrane consists of a semipermeable double layer/bilayer of phospholipids with proteins dispersed throughout it. The fatty acids are drawn to together, which puts the phosphate group on the outside of the layer. The phosphate is polar so it is drawn to the water and the fatty acids are not water-soluble so they repel from water. The proteins in the bilayer are often just dispersed and floating through it which looks like a mosaic. These proteins are integral proteins that are fibrous/structural and transport proteins. There are other proteins found on the inside of cell near the bilayer and those are called peripheral proteins. They are mostly motor proteins (cell shape, aid in cell division, and muscle cell contractions) and some act as enzymes. 12. List the functions of the plasma membrane and identify the factors that can affect its functioning. a. Functions include: i. Separates cells from the external environment ii. Facilitates contact with other cells iii. Provides receptor sites iv. Controls flow into and out of cell b. Factors include: i. Molecular size- smaller is better ii. Solubility- fat-soluble goes straight through, water soluble does not. iii. Ionic Charge- opposite charge from plasma membrane is more likely to be ;. pulled through. Same charge will be repelled. iv. Carrier Molecules- proteins that transport things across the membrane. v. Membrane transport process- passive and active transport 13. Differentiate between passive and active transport processes. a. Passive Transport: molecules moving across the membrane requiring no energy. Moves from high concentration to low concentration. i. Diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and filtration b. Active Transport: molecules moving across the membrane and requiring energy to do so. It is moving against the concentration gradient. Uses ATP 14. Compare and contrast diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis and filtration. Know what exactly each goes through (what types of things). a. Diffusion: the movement of matter from a high concentration gradient to a low concentration gradient. Molecular size and temperature affect diffusion. b. Facilitated diffusion: the movement of matter that is too big to just pass through the membrane. It uses integral proteins in the membrane and passes through from high to low concentration. Can use carrier proteins or channel proteins. c. Osmosis: the movement of water in and out of cell. Water moves into a high concentration area to dilute it. i. Hypertonic cell: The cell has a higher solute concentration than the solution around it so water moves into the cell in order to dilute it. This makes the cell swell and sometimes pop. 1. Hypertonic solution: the surrounding solution has more concentration so water moves out of the cell to dilute solution. Cell shrivels. ii. Hypotonic cell: the cell has a lower solute concentration than the solution around it so water moves out of the cell to dilute the concentration. This makes the cell shrivel up and denatures it. 1. Hypotonic solution: the surrounding solution has a lower concentration so water moves into cell to dilute cell. The cell swells. iii. Isotonic cell: cell and outside solution concentration are equal and at homeostasis d. Filtration: is dependent on the pressure gradient. Moves from high pressure to low pressure. 15. List the various types of active transport processes, and identify how they function. a. Exocytosis: When a steroid molecule is produced within a cell and needs to exit. This uses vesicular transport. b. Endocytosis: Moving large things into the cell by making a vesicle around it and moving it in. i. Phagocytosis: moving solid molecules into the cell ii. Pinocytosis: moving liquid molecules into the cell iii. Receptor-mediated endocytosis: The membrane has receptors on the exterior of the surface. When the correct molecule binds to that receptor, a vesicle is formed to bring it into the cell. (Receptor is called clathrine) 16. List and describe the plasma membrane specializations. a. Microvilli: little grooves that allow interaction between the cell and the external environment. b. Tight junctions: integral proteins bind membrane together to make impermeable junctions. These would include being in the intestine to make sure that no food gets out unless aloud out. c. Desmosomes: Anchoring proteins that that bind cells together so that they don’t break apart. In the intestine, when food is moving down it, the desmosomes keep cells from breaking off and going down with the food. d. Gap Junctions: are communicators between cells. They allow cells to be on the “same page”. This is helpful in the heart so that all the muscle cells can know when to contract and to contract at the same time. 17. Define resting membrane potential, and describe how it is created and maintained. a. This has to do with the sodium potassium pump. Resting membrane potential is the differences in the electrical charges across the membrane. i. When there is more potassium inside the cell than outside ii. When there is more sodium outside the cell than inside iii. There must be more sodium outside the cell than there is potassium inside the cell. 1. Therefore, the cell is negative compared to the outside of the cell and is polarized. b. If this is off, then energy will be released to start the pump and three sodium will leave as two potassium enter until the membrane potential is stable again. 18. List the various cellular organelles, their functions and any specialized structures. a. Nucleus 1. Nuclear components a. Genetic material b. Nuclear envelope i. Contains a bunch of nuclear pores c. Nucleoplasm d. Nucleoli: small spherical bodies e. Nucleolus i. Ribosomes are assembled here and transported out. ii. Mitochondria: 1. Function: produces ATP. 2. Can replicate independently 3. Possess their own DNA a. This entire DNA comes from mom. (Exactly from mom) 4. Has a phospholipid bilayer around it. iii. Ribosomes: made up of proteins and ribosomal DNA (factory) 1. Put together in nucleolus. Leave through nuclear pores 2. Some are free and some are attached 3. Used for protein synthesis 4. Free ribosomes produce proteins used inside the cell 5. Attached proteins produce export proteins (proteins outside of cell) as well as the ones that are in the plasma membrane. iv. Endoplasmic Reticulum 1. Rough ER: attached ribosomes to it. Makes all of the proteins that are secreted from the cell (export proteins) because the attached ribosomes produce those. Involved in making some phospholipids. Production of integral proteins. 2. Smooth ER: no ribosomes. (Continuation of rough ER without ribosome on it. Not making proteins. Involved in lipid metabolism. Produces steroid hormones. Involved in the breakdown of toxins and glycogen. v. Golgi apparatus: modifies products of cell, concentration the products, and package them up. (post office) Packages them into vesicles that can be shipped out of the cell. vi. Lysosomes: (contains enzymes that break down things like bacteria or anything through phagocytosis). vii. Peroxisomes: vesicle in the cell that contain enzyme to detoxify. Free radicals are toxins accumulated in the cell and causes dysfunction in cell. Peroxisomes have enzymes that get rid of free radicals and then break down things to get water. 19. Identify the components of the cytoplasm a. Cytosol: the solution that all of the organelles are suspended in. b. Cytoskeleton: i. Microtubules: small hollow protein tubes that distribute organelles and give structure. ii. Microfilaments: smaller than the microtubules. These are near the surface of the cell and allow for it to change shape. iii. Intermediate filaments: tough insoluble fibers that provide strength to the cell. iv. Inclusions: Things being stored in the cell’s cytoplasm 1. Adipose cells 2. Melanin: what makes you tan and protects you from the sun 3. Mucus c. Cellular Extensions: i. Flagella: only on sperm in human body ii. Cilia: short extensions on apical surface of tissue. Provides movement like in the trachea. The cilia traps particles that we don’t want going into the lungs and moves them back up which makes us cough them out of our body d. Centrosomes/centrioles
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