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AU / Chemistry / CHEM 2070 / What are constitutional isomers?

What are constitutional isomers?

What are constitutional isomers?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry I
Professor: Peter livant
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: organic, Organic Chemistry, and Chemistry
Cost: 50
Name: Organic Chemistry Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide includes detailed notes on chapters 1-3 in the textbook (which I have found to be far easier to understand than the lecture) and step-by-step guides on how to draw resonance structures.
Uploaded: 09/06/2016
13 Pages 57 Views 3 Unlocks
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EXAM 1If you want to learn more check out What does the helmholtz’s study say about perceptions?

Study Guide

Vitalism: It is impossible to convert inorganic compounds into organic compounds without the introduction of an outside vital force.

Friedrich Wohler disproved vitalism by converting ammonium cyanate (an organic salt) into urea (an organic compound)We also discuss several other topics like What does mental map mean?

Organic compounds = compounds containing carbon.

Constitutional isomers: compounds with the same molecular formula but differ in the way they are connected.

  • Have different physical properties and names.

        

Tetravalent

Trivalent

divalent

monovalent

C

N

O

H - X = halogens

4 bonds

3 bonds

2 bonds

1 bond

If you want to learn more check out What is subduction and what does it cause?

Covalent bond: two atom sharing a pair of electron

  • When electron are shared to form a bond, there is a decrease of energy (∆H)

Formal charge charges on any atom that does not exhibit the appropriate number of valence electronDon't forget about the age old question of What are the three elements of any project?

Electronegativity difference

  • <0.5 = covalent
  • 0.5 - 1.1 = polar covalent
  • >1.7 = ionic

We also discuss several other topics like What do you call the passive transport of water?

Induction: withdrawal of electron toward oxygen

  • In 1926, Schrodinger, Hersenberg and Dirac propose a mathematical description of electron that incorporates its wave like properties -- wave mechanics/quantum mechanics

Don't forget about the age old question of What do you call an agreement through silence?

Orbital = a region of space that can be occupied by an electron

  • Electron clouds come in a small number of shapes and a sizes defined by orbitals

The electron cloud is a single entity even though it is thicker/thinner in some parts

  • An electron cloud does not have defined edges in a particular region of space

Atomic orbital: region of space defined with respect to the nucleus of a single atom

  • Nodes: locations where wave function is 0 (no electron)
  • The value of the wave function is a mathematical convention that refers to the phase of the wave.

Electron in lowest energy is orbital because it is closest to the nucleus and has no nodes.

Degenerate orbitals: orbitals with the same energy level

Aufbau principle: lowest energy orbital filled first

Pauli Exclusion Principle: 2 electrons per orbital with opp spin

Hund's Rule: one electron per orbital before adding a second electron

Conservative interference: waves are brought closer together and waves reinforce each other producing a wave with larger amplitude.

Destructive interference waves are brought closer together and cancel each other out

Valence bond theory: a bond is simply the sharing of e-density between two atoms as a result of constructive interference of their atomic orbitals.

Sigma bond: located on the bond axis and characterized by symmetry with respect to the bond axis. All single bonds are 0 bonds.

Molecular orbitals: mathematical combination of atomic orbitals

An atomic orbital is a region of space associated with an individual atom while a molecular orbital is associated with an entire molecule.

According to MO theory, when 2 atomic orbitals overlap, they cease to exist and are replaced by two MOs.

Node: higher energy molecule

Bonding MO: lower energy = result of constructive interference

Antibonding MO: higher energy = result of destructive interference

Higher energy molecu;ar orbitals remain unoccupied

SP3 hybridized orbitals -- 4 orbitals produced by overaging one S and three P orbitals

shape:

The four SP3 orbitals are equivalent in energy and will △ position themselves as far apart from each other as possible.

SP2-hybridized orbitals: three orbitals produced by overaging one S and two P orbitals

Pi (𝜋) bond: overlap of P orbitals

        Note: two regions of overlap represent only one interaction (𝜋 bond)

SP-hybridized orbital: two orbitals produced by overaging one S and one P orbital.

  • For hybridization, look at the specific carbon molecules and double/triple/single bonds they can make due to hybridization p.20-33
  • Bond strength
  • triple/double/single

Steric number: total of 0 binds and lone pairs

  • Indicates the number of electrons repelling each other

Electrons arrange in space to achieve maximal distance from each other.

Lone pair electron: repel other bonds more strongly, causing the bond angles to be smaller.

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