PY 101 Test 1 Study Guide
PY 101 Test 1 Study Guide Psychology 101
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Tomlinson on Monday September 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Rachel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 188 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/05/16
Psychology T est 1 Study Guide Psychology Psychology is the study of mental activity and behavior. The first psychology lab was in 1879 Structuralism: belief that conscious experience can be broken down into components Functionalism: belief that the mind helps humans adapt to environmental demands Scientific inquiry is when psychologists study the what, why, and when of behavior and mental processes Scientific inquiry utilizes the scientific method. The 3 essential elements are theory, hypothesis, and research. -Theory: interconnected ideas and concepts that explain what is observed and makes predictions about the future -Hypothesis: specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct -Research: conduct, analyze Good theories -It is falsifiable There are many hypotheses that are testable -Simple Research -Conduct the study -Analyze the data -Report the results Incorrect solutions are the result of noncritical thinking -ignoring evidence -misunderstanding or not using statistics -seeing relationships that do not exist -using relative comparisons -accepting after-the-class explanations -taking mental shortcuts -failing to see our own inadequacies (self-serving bias) -failing to accurately judge source credibility Neurons Basic units of the nervous system Three basic phases -Reception -Integration -Transmission Three types of neurons -Sensory: detect info from the physical world and pass along that info to the brain -somatosensory nerves: provide info from the skin and muscle -Motor: directs muscles to contract or relax, movement -Interneurons: communicate within a local or short- distance circuits Dendrite: branchlike extensions; gets the information and passes to cell body Cell Body: information is collected and passed to axon Axon: information is transmitted to other neurons Glial: non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis Myelin Sheath: insulates some axons to allow for faster movement along the axis Node of Ranvier: small gaps of exposed axon; charging station Terminal Buttons: at the end of axons; small nodules that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse Synapse: gap between the terminal button and the next neuron Neurotransmitters: chemicals that transmits from one neuron to another Resting membrane potential: electrical charge of a neuron when inactive -Ready for action: negative of inside and positive on outside Action potential (neural firing): electrical signal that passes along the axon and causes release of chemicals from terminal buttons Neurotransmitters receive chemical signals from nearby neurons at the dendrites -Excitatory signals depolarize (i.e. increases chance of neural firing) -Inhibitory signals hyperpolarize (i.e. decreases chance of neural firing) -Has to have more excitatory signals to go to the cell body Brain Structure Cerebral Cortex: outer layer of brain tissue; forms convoluted surface of brain -where all thoughts, perceptions, and complex behaviors happen 4 lobes -Occipital -Parietal -Temporal -Frontal Occipital: regions of the cerebral cortex at the back of the brain which are important for vision -Primary visual cortex Parietal: important for the sense of touch and for attention to the environment -Primary somatosensory cortex -Somatosensory homunculus Temporal: regions of cerebral cortex, below the parietal lobes and in front of occipital lobes -Auditory perception -Fusiform face area (facial recognition) -Memory (object recognition) -Understanding emotional reactions -Understanding language -Hearing Frontal: important for movement and higher-level psychological processes associated with prefrontal cortex -Primary motor cortex -Attention -Thought -Voluntary movement -Decision making -Language -Broca’s area Cerebellum: responsible for motor learning and motor memory Subcortical Structures -Thalamus: retrieves most of the incoming sensory information before it reaches the cortex -Basal Ganglia: crucial for planning and producing movement -Hypothalamus: influences our basic motivated behavior and regulation of bodily functions -Hippocampus: memory part of brain Clive Wearing: had an infection in early 20’s. He remembers old memories, but there is no room for new memories H.M.: had severe seizures, epilepsy. He had brain surgery where they took out parts of his hippocampus, and he lost 11 years of memories. He could pick up new motor skills, but he couldn’t recall information or events. Standard Consolidation Theory: memories are temporarily stored in the hippocampus until they can be transferred to a more stable cortical storage system. Multiple-trace Theory: memories are stored permanently in the hippocampus Amygdala: -almond shaped -located at front of hippocampus -most important for emotional learning -linked to both pleasure and fear response -S.M.: She had lesions in her amygdala, and she didn’t have any fear. Drugs and Alcohol They imitate, stimulate, or block neurotransmitters. They produce more or less neurotransmitters. They change up communication and chemicals of the body. Alcohol Increases dopamine, decreases everything else (balance, speech, brain activity, etc.) Inhibits the effects of glutamate (means excitatory) in the cerebellum (part of the brain for balancing), cutting off communication. (Aka throws off coordination) Prevents dopamine (happiness and reward) from breaking down in the nucleus accumbens -Dopamine isn’t being broken down; you feel good/confident Increases levels of norepinephrine (arousal) -You do stuff you wouldn’t usually do sexually Alcohol binds to GABA receptors causing the cell to hyperpolarize (less firing) -Body is calming down; slurred words; when GABA kicks in, the cells don’t communicate Decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus -You won’t remember the night/things; judgement is impaired Marijuana THC increases dopamine THC encourages cannabinoid receptors to mimic other neurotransmitters in the limbic system, cerebellum, and basal ganglia -Decreases acetylcholine in the hippocampus (memory) -Decreasing action of other neurotransmitters in those areas -More likely to affect hippocampus short term when using drugs Rohypnol Slows body down Trade name for flunitrazepam (aka date rape drug, roofies) Depresses the central nervous system by binding to GABA receptors -Increases chance GABA binds to the receptor -GABA is an inhibitory signal Potentially lethal when mixed with alcohol or other “depressants” because when 2 depressants are added together it slows the body down more quickly Sleep and Stress Stress: a type of response that typically involves an unpleasant state, such as anxiety or tension -Low stress = Low performance -Medium stress = High performance -High stress = Low Performance -Basically some stress is a good thing, but not enough or too much stress is not good. Fight-or-Flight response: marked by the outpouring of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the inner adrenal glands (medulla) -This means energy and arousal pour into the body. Impact of Stress Persistent stressors and negative emotions leads to release of stress hormones, which can lead to: -Heart disease -Immune suppression -Autonomic nervous system effects (headaches, hypertension) -It also leads to unhealthy behaviors (drinking, smoking, poor nutrition, and sleep) Coping Lazarus’ two-part cognitive appraisal process 1. Primary appraisals 2. Secondary appraisals -There will be a stressful event such as a test and you can approach it 2 different ways. 1. It’s a threatstressed to distraction, therefore, doing poorly on the test 2. It’s a challengearoused, focused, therefore, you give everything you have to do your best Sleep is restoration for your body. The circadian rhythm theory: idea that we are inactive at times that are dangerous for us, sleep is survival
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