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UA / Psychology / PSYCH 101 / What are the the 3 essential elements of psychology?

What are the the 3 essential elements of psychology?

What are the the 3 essential elements of psychology?


School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Tba
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: PY 101 Test 1 Study Guide
Description: Psychology Neurons Brain Structure Drugs and Alcohol Stress and Sleep
Uploaded: 09/06/2016
6 Pages 14 Views 10 Unlocks

Psychology Test 1 Study Guide

What are the the 3 essential elements of psychology?


∙ Psychology is the study of mental activity and behavior. ∙ The first psychology lab was in 1879

∙ Structuralism: belief that conscious experience can be  broken down into components

∙ Functionalism: belief that the mind helps humans adapt to  environmental demands

∙ Scientific inquiry is when psychologists study the what, why,  and when of behavior and mental processes

∙ Scientific inquiry utilizes the scientific method.

∙ The 3 essential elements are theory, hypothesis, and  research.

-Theory: interconnected ideas and concepts that explain what is observed and makes predictions about the  future

What are three types of neurons?

-Hypothesis: specific prediction of what should be  observed in the world if a theory is correct

-Research: conduct, analyze

∙ Good theories

-It is falsifiable

There are many hypotheses that are testable


∙ Research

-Conduct the study If you want to learn more check out sensodian

-Analyze the data We also discuss several other topics like jennifer gordon unlv

-Report the results

 ∙    Incorrect solutions are the result of noncritical thinking -ignoring evidence

-misunderstanding or not using statistics

-seeing relationships that do not exist

-using relative comparisons

-accepting after-the-class explanations

What is a standard consolidation theory?

-taking mental shortcuts

-failing to see our own inadequacies (self-serving bias) -failing to accurately judge source credibility


∙ Basic units of the nervous system

∙ Three basic phases




∙ Three types of neurons

-Sensory: detect info from the physical world and pass  along that info to the brain Don't forget about the age old question of gpol 6196 class notes

-somatosensory nerves: provide info from the skin and  muscle

-Motor: directs muscles to contract or relax, movement -Interneurons: communicate within a local or short distance circuits

∙ Dendrite: branchlike extensions; gets the information and  passes to cell body

∙ Cell Body: information is collected and passed to axon ∙ Axon: information is transmitted to other neurons ∙ Glial: non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis ∙ Myelin Sheath: insulates some axons to allow for faster  movement along the axis

∙ Node of Ranvier: small gaps of exposed axon; charging  station

∙ Terminal Buttons: at the end of axons; small nodules that  release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse ∙ Synapse: gap between the terminal button and the next  neuron

∙ Neurotransmitters: chemicals that transmits from one  neuron to another

∙ Resting membrane potential: electrical charge of a neuron  when inactive

-Ready for action: negative of inside and positive on  outside We also discuss several other topics like a telescope that suffers from chromatic aberration and has a low light gathering power is most likely

∙ Action potential (neural firing): electrical signal that passes  along the axon and causes release of chemicals from  terminal buttons

∙ Neurotransmitters receive chemical signals from nearby  neurons at the dendrites

-Excitatory signals depolarize (i.e. increases chance of  neural firing)

-Inhibitory signals hyperpolarize (i.e. decreases chance  of neural firing)

-Has to have more excitatory signals to go to the cell  body

Brain Structure

∙ Cerebral Cortex: outer layer of brain tissue; forms convoluted surface of brain

-where all thoughts, perceptions, and complex  

behaviors happen

∙ 4 lobes





∙ Occipital: regions of the cerebral cortex at the back of the  brain which are important for vision  

-Primary visual cortex

∙ Parietal: important for the sense of touch and for attention to the environment

-Primary somatosensory cortex

-Somatosensory homunculus

∙ Temporal: regions of cerebral cortex, below the parietal lobes and in front of occipital lobes Don't forget about the age old question of alexis thompson ub

-Auditory perception

-Fusiform face area (facial recognition)

-Memory (object recognition)

-Understanding emotional reactions

-Understanding language


∙ Frontal: important for movement and higher-level  psychological processes associated with prefrontal cortex -Primary motor cortex



-Voluntary movement

-Decision making


-Broca’s area

∙ Cerebellum: responsible for motor learning and motor  memory

∙ Subcortical Structures

-Thalamus: retrieves most of the incoming sensory  information before it reaches the cortex We also discuss several other topics like mizzou music

-Basal Ganglia: crucial for planning and producing  movement

-Hypothalamus: influences our basic motivated  

behavior and regulation of bodily functions

-Hippocampus: memory part of brain

 Clive Wearing: had an infection in early 20’s. He  remembers old memories, but there is no room for new memories

 H.M.: had severe seizures, epilepsy. He had brain  surgery where they took out parts of his  

hippocampus, and he lost 11 years of memories.  

He could pick up new motor skills, but he couldn’t  recall information or events.

∙ Standard Consolidation Theory: memories are temporarily  stored in the hippocampus until they can be transferred to a  more stable cortical storage system.

∙ Multiple-trace Theory: memories are stored permanently in  the hippocampus

∙ Amygdala:  

-almond shaped

-located at front of hippocampus

-most important for emotional learning

-linked to both pleasure and fear response

-S.M.: She had lesions in her amygdala, and she didn’t have  any fear.

Drugs and Alcohol

∙ They imitate, stimulate, or block neurotransmitters. ∙ They produce more or less neurotransmitters.

∙ They change up communication and chemicals of the body. ∙ Alcohol

∙ Increases dopamine, decreases everything else (balance,  speech, brain activity, etc.)

∙ Inhibits the effects of glutamate (means excitatory) in the  cerebellum (part of the brain for balancing), cutting off  communication. (Aka throws off coordination)

∙ Prevents dopamine (happiness and reward) from breaking  down in the nucleus accumbens

-Dopamine isn’t being broken down; you feel  


∙ Increases levels of norepinephrine (arousal)

-You do stuff you wouldn’t usually do sexually

∙ Alcohol binds to GABA receptors causing the cell to  hyperpolarize (less firing)

-Body is calming down; slurred words; when GABA kicks in, the cells don’t communicate

∙ Decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex and  


-You won’t remember the night/things; judgement is  impaired


∙ THC increases dopamine

∙ THC encourages cannabinoid receptors to mimic other  neurotransmitters in the limbic system, cerebellum, and  basal ganglia

-Decreases acetylcholine in the hippocampus (memory) -Decreasing action of other neurotransmitters in those  areas

-More likely to affect hippocampus short term when  using drugs  


∙ Slows body down

∙ Trade name for flunitrazepam (aka date rape drug, roofies) ∙ Depresses the central nervous system by binding to GABA receptors

-Increases chance GABA binds to the receptor

-GABA is an inhibitory signal

∙ Potentially lethal when mixed with alcohol or other  “depressants” because when 2 depressants are added  together it slows the body down more quickly  

Sleep and Stress

∙ Stress: a type of response that typically involves an  unpleasant state, such as anxiety or tension

-Low stress = Low performance

-Medium stress = High performance

-High stress = Low Performance

-Basically some stress is a good thing, but not enough  or too much stress is not good.

∙ Fight-or-Flight response: marked by the outpouring of  epinephrine and norepinephrine from the inner adrenal  glands (medulla)

-This means energy and arousal pour into the  


Impact of Stress

∙ Persistent stressors and negative emotions leads to release  of stress hormones, which can lead to:

-Heart disease  

-Immune suppression  

-Autonomic nervous system effects (headaches,  hypertension)

-It also leads to unhealthy behaviors (drinking, smoking, poor nutrition, and sleep)



∙ Lazarus’ two-part cognitive appraisal process

1. Primary appraisals

2. Secondary appraisals

-There will be a stressful event such as a test and you can  approach it 2 different ways.

1. It’s a threatstressed to distraction, therefore, doing  poorly on the test

2. It’s a challengearoused, focused, therefore, you give everything you have to do your best

∙ Sleep is restoration for your body.

∙ The circadian rhythm theory: idea that we are inactive at  times that are dangerous for us, sleep is survival

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