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All notes from class before midterm

by: Palina Notetaker

All notes from class before midterm COMM 1

Marketplace > University of California Santa Barbara > Science > COMM 1 > All notes from class before midterm
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these notes are covering midterm
Introduction to Communication
D. Mullin
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Palina Notetaker on Monday September 5, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by D. Mullin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication in Science at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 09/05/16
Chapter 1 Comm is: people (sources, receivers), exchanging meaningful symbols, with feedback, through various cannels (verbal and nonverbal). Contexts: 1. Intrapersonal (alone) 2. Interpersonal (with others) 3. Intergroup/Intercultural (between members of diff groups and cultures) 4. Small group (three or more) 5. Organizational (among members of organization) 6. Public (one or few individuals to an audience) 7. Mass (TV, advertising, media) Functional perspective- examines how our comm helps us accomplish our goals Affiliation is a feeling of connectedness you have with others. Control- the ability to influence others and the way in which their interactions are conducted. Code- a set of symbols that are joined to create a meaningful message. Encoding- constructing a message, decoding- interpreting meaning to a message. Transactional process – it involves people to exchanging messages in both sender and receiver roles. Once a message has been sent and received it cannot be taken back. Ethics is the study of morals, specifically the choices that individuals make in their relationships with others. Linear model- one-way comm (message changing because of the noise) Interaction model- two-directional process, with feedback. Can be verbal, nonverbal and both. Competent comm model- good comm, feedback, channels, listening etc. The relational context (kiss with partner vs with mom) Situational context includes social environment, physical place, specific events and situations. Cultural context Chapter 2 Basic distinction between surveys­ Experiments­ Scientific method­ empirical observation, collect data, make careful  observations Content analysis- systematic quantitate analysis of content messages Reading: DeFleur Assumptions of science: 1. Orderly universe  2. Cause­effect relationship (why events occur) 3. Scientific integrity (confidence in the expert)  Chapter 3 Important features of language: -language is rule governed (grammar) -language allows displacement (of ideas, time etc) -meanings of symbols/words are arbitrary (random) Language and meaning: -the referential function 1. we use language to refer thing and ideas 2. we categorize things and label them (color, shape) Triangle of meaning (ex. American flag) word, referent, reference. Denotation-dictionary (can have a few meanings like “rock”) Connotation- emotional, evaluate connections to a word Effects of language: - can signal our group identities like culture, age, gender, social status Accommodation theory- adjusting our language use with others Can shift towards of away from the other person (usually based on group identity) can be toward or away Powerful/powerless- Reading: Braille Monitor (arguments) Wants to delete word “blind” cuz it shows unrespectness to blind people, using instead “hard seeing, etc) The functions of lang: 1. Using lang as means of control (to influence others by your words) 2. To share information 3. Express feelings 4. Express creativity (imagining) 5. Using lang as ritual (bye bye, please, thank you) Problematic uses of language: 1. Labeling (feminist) 2. Biased language 3. Politically correct (police officer, firefighter) 4. Profanity (cursing) 5. Civility (social norm) Language in context 1. code switching 2. high language (polite, business, classroom) 3. low language (in comfortable environment, friends, usually with slang) Chapter 4 (NONVERB COMM) “truth’” is in nonverbal Nonverbal comm can: 1. complement verbal (listen good) 2. substitude for verbal 3. regulate verbal (raising hand in class) 4. contradict verbal (lie, sarcasm) Importance of nonverbals To demonstrate “immediacy” Gauge others reactions/feedback (crying, looking away) Nonverbal codes: 1. paralanguage (vocalizations, crying, laughing, volume of speech, accent) 2. oculesics (eye contact, gaze) 3. proxemics (space, distance, territory) 4. kinesics (movement, gestures) 5. haptics (touch) 6. chronemics (time) 7. artifacts (accessorizes on you,body decoration) 8. public-private dimension (touch hand of partner while talking to others) 9. informal-formal dimension (birthday party or funeral(dress)) Chapter 6 Interpersonal comm (cont) October 20 Relationship development: Attraction Reducing uncertainty Self-disclosure (deliberately revealing into about oneself) Two different kinds of it: 1.BREADTH of information 2. Depth of information More variety of topics- more breadth Increasing levels of depth: 1. Ritualized info/social roles 2. Facts unique to self 3. Personal opinions/attitudes 4. Deep feelings/core values More personal-more depth Functions of Self- disclosure: 1. Intimacy management 2. Impression management 3. Reciprocity (взаимность) 4. Catharsis (the idea) 5. Self-clarification/validation Relational Stages Knapp’s Staircase Model Differences in communication at each stage Stages of coming together: - Initiating and Experimenting (exploratory) Initial display of self, small talk, audition - Intensifying (SD increases, nicknames, “we” pronouns, personal idioms etc) Integrating Cultivate opinions as couple, others treat you as couple, common property, speak alike, sense of obligation/identity together Stages of coming together: Bonding Public ritual, formal binding, social and institutional support Note: txtbk groups integrating and bonding under the “stable” heading Movement through stages: -Motivated by rewards versus costs (concept borrowed from Social Exchange Theory) -Does not have to be linear Relational Dialectics - RDT argues that relationships do NOT progress in stages - Always have contradictory feelings in rel’s autonomy vs. connection openness vs. closedness predictability vs. novelty (certainty vs. uncertainty) Relational comm is dynamic process of dealing with these tensions Types of relationships: romantic, family, online, friendship Social exchange theory: explains the process of balancing advantages and disadvantages of relationship. Passive strategies- involves observing others in comm situation without actually interacting with them. Uncertainty reduction theory- when two people meet, their main focus is on decreasing the uncertainty about each other Active strategies let you obtain information about a person more directly by seeking info from a third party. Social penetration theory explains how partners move from superficial levels to greater intimacy Communication privacy management theory helps explain how people perceive the info they hold about themselves and weather they will disclose or protect it. Interaction appearance theory helps to explain how people change their perceptions of someone the more they interact Schemas- mental structures that put together related bits of information


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