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Date Created: 09/06/16
Mass Communication Study Guide Test 1 Chapter 1: Living in a Media World What is Communication? • How we socially interact at a number of levels through messages. • The process of human beings sharing messages • Messages: Entertainment, information, persuasion, verbal/visual, intentional/ unintentional Types of Communication • Intrapersonal Communication: Communication you have with yourself • Interpersonal Communication: Communication between two people • Group Communication: Communication where one person is communicating with an audience of two or more people • Mass Communication What is Mass Communication? • When an individual or institution uses technology • To send messages • To a large, mixed audience, most of whose members are not known to the sender • Mediated communication: messages conveyed through an interposed device rather than face to face: TV, magazine Players in the Mass Communication Process • Sender: The organization or individual responsible for the message being sent. • Message: The content being transmitted by the sender to the receiver. • Channel: The medium used to transmit the message. • Receiver: The audience for the mass communication message. Mass Communication Models • Transmission Model (SMCR): A dated model useful for identifying players in the mass communication process. • Ritual Model: Media use is an interactive ritual by audience members. Looks at how and why audiences consumer messages. Mass Communication Models • Publicity Model: How media attention makes a person, concept, or thing important • Reception Model: How audience members derive and create meaning out of media content Converging Communication Media • Mediated Interpersonal Communication: sharing of personal messages through an interposed device. Ex. Phone, E-mail • Convergence: Merge technologies, industries and content, especially within the realm of computer, telephone and mass media • Convergence of technologies: merging of computer, telephone and mass media technologies. Ex. iPhone • Convergence of industries: corporate mergers that allow companies to combine their media technologies: Ex. Cable buy Internet and telephone divisions • Convergence of content: bring together mediated interpersonal content with traditional mass communication and computer content Evolution of the Media World • 1100-1400 AD: Pre-mass media communication networks • 1450s: Development of movable type, printing • 1814: Steam-powered printing press • 1844: First U.S. telegraph line • 1866: First trans-Atlantic telegraph line Evolution of the Media World • 1880s: Invention of the gramophone • Late 1800s: Development of radio • 1890s: Development of motion pictures • 1920s: First radio broadcasts, networks • 1939: First television broadcasts • 1990s: Internet becomes a channel of mass communication • 2000s: Rise of social media The Telegraph: Technological Determinism • Introduced by Samuel Morse in 1844 • Fast, long-distance communication • Inverted Pyramid: 5W, H in first paragraph; then work down to least important • Associated Press: 1848 Six papers agree to share correspondent in Boston • AP became nationwide association of hundreds of papers • Develop objectivity: writing style that separates fact from opinion Media Literacy Audience members’ understanding of: • The media industry’s operation • The messages delivered by the media • The roles media play in society • How audience members respond to these media and their messages Media Literacy • The ability to understand and make productive use of the media • Two different but related perspectives to media literacy – Media Criticism – Career Preparation Media Criticism • Assess effects of media on individuals, societies and cultures • Analysis based on well-reasoned arguments • Examine relationships: history, industry, controversies, laws, ethics Career Preparation • How to use the media • Careers: Reporter, PR, Ad, Editor, Media Executive, Production • Many non-media careers have media component too Basic Dimensions of Media Literacy • Cognitive Dimension: Ability to intellectually process information communicated by the media. • Emotional Dimension: Understanding the feelings created by media messages. Basic Dimensions of Media Literacy • Aesthetic Dimension: Interpreting media content from an artistic or critical point of view. • Moral Dimension: Understanding the values of the medium or the message. The Media Industry • Levels: local, regional, national, global • US: Trade surplus in media content: movies, TV, books • Domination: Freedom of Expression, Diverse Audience, Big Business/ Popular Entertainment American Media Appeal: Freedom of Expression • Freedom of expression: allows wide range of products • Notion of freedom is appealing • Mixed blessings Ex. Violence, pornography American Media Appeal: Diverse Audience • Made for diverse audience, wide range of backgrounds, tastes • Broader appeal overseas American Media Appeal: Big Business, Popular Entertainment • Finance and produce expensive media products • Technological innovation, quality • Issue: Cultural Imperialism: The displacement of a nation’s customs with those of another country Foreign Media in the US • Not just US global influence • Foreign films have strong influence; TV influence such as American Idol from England • 4 of 5 top book publishers are foreign owned • 5 of 6 largest recording companies are foreign owned Reasons for Corporate Media Growth • Economies of scale: savings that accrue with mass production; volume up, price down • Synergy: a combination in which the whole is more than the sum of its parts • Ex. Comcast purchase NBC: Cable and Internet with TV and movie programming • Cross-Merchandizing: promoting a product in one form to sell it in some other form • Global competition favors larger companies Patterns of Ownership • Group or Chain Ownership: The acquisition of the same type of business in more than one market area by one company • Conglomerates: Large companies that own many different types of businesses Types of Conglomerates • Vertical Integration: A business model in which a company owns different parts of the same industry; Ex. Hearst Corp.; NBC purchased Universal Studios (production and Bravo, Telemundo) • Issue: Anti-Trust laws: Laws that prohibit monopolistic practices in restraint of trade • Horizontal Integration: Corporate growth through the acquisition of different types of businesses; GE owned NBC + other types of companies; sold majority of NBC to Comcast • Combined Integration: Combine horizontal and vertical integration Media and Governments • Government Ownership: North Korea • Private Ownership, Government Control: Venezuela • Libertarian: Privately owned, free of government control: Ideal • Mixed Model: Varying degrees of government control and ownership US Model • Regulation: Minimal in US, – Censorship: Any act that prohibits an act of expression from being made public – Prior Restraint: Prevention of publication by government • Adversarial Relationship: Fourth Estate: The press as an unofficial fourth branch of government; watch dog • Elections: Media allow politics to go directly to the people Media and the Audience • Audience is final arbiter of meaning • The audience has economic clout • Audience acceptance establishes new technology • Organized audience members can make a difference Chapter 2: Mass Communication Effects Early Media Effect Concerns • Concerns about the impact of media are as old as the media themselves. • Fifteenth-century church leaders thought printed bibles would corrupt society • Concerns about advertising in late 1800s, early 1900s; wonder cures • Many parents felt the same way about the first novels, movies Direct and Indirect Effects Model • People feared strong, direct effects of WW I and WW II propaganda. • Direct effects presumes media messages are a s3mulus that leads to consistent, predictable attitudes or behavioral effects: Powerful Effects Model, Magic Bullet, Hypodermic Model • Indirect effects recognizes that people have different backgrounds, needs, values and so respond differently. • Systematic research began in 1920s • Awareness, Information, Attitude, Behavior The Payne Fund Study • In 1929, the Payne Fund conducted 13 separate investigations into the influence movies had on the behavior of children. Industry driven • Concern about modeling, imitation of behavior from media: sex, violence • Content analysis: observer’s systematically analyze media subject matter; movies dealt with crime, sex, and love. • Laboratory experiment studies: isolating and observing variables in a controlled environment; romantic and erotic scenes did not have much effect on young children or adults but had a noticeable effect on teenagers. The Payne Fund Study • Survey methods: research methods that rely on questionnaires to collect research data • Included administering questionnaires to young movie viewers, and their parents and teachers, as well as asking teenagers to recall the effects that early movie viewing had on them. • Results suggested that movie viewing was harmful to SOME children’s health, moral standards and negative conduct; low education, weak home • 1930 Motion Picture Production code that limited the amount of sex and violence that could be shown in movies. War of the Worlds • The “Invasion From Mars” study by a team of researchers at Princeton University looked at why the October 30, 1938 broadcast of War of the Worlds had the effect it did. • They found that dramatic techniques such as simulated “on the spot” reporting and interviews with “experts” had fooled SOME listeners who had accepted radio as their primary and most credible source of breaking news. • The economic insecurity of the Great Depression and looming threat of WWII had created an audience that felt on the edge of disaster and believed anything could happen at anytime. • Serious effects were minimal; low education, high religion The People’s Choice Study • The People’s Choice Study (Paul Lazarsfeld: sociologist; social categories) examined how media affected voter behavior in the 1940 presidential election between FDR and Wendell Wilkie. • A random sample of subjects were chosen from Erie County, Ohio, which had deviated very little from national voting patterns in earlier elections. Random Sampling: equal chance of selection • Selective exposure caused Republicans to avoid messages that seemed to support Roosevelt, while Democrats would seek out these messages. Social Category Theory • Selective perception caused Republicans to hear FDR’s “fireside chats” as evidence of incompetence and duplicity while Democrats would hear it as evidence of his great abilities and integrity. The People’s Choice Study • Selective retention caused people with different views to remember the same event differently. • Media strengthened attitudes already held by voters -- the presidential campaigns persuaded only 8 percent to switch from one side to the other. • Voters in all categories received a great deal of information and influence directly from other people. The People’s Choice Study • Opinion leaders: well-informed people who help others interpret media messages • Two-step Flow: Communication process in which media effects travel through opinion leaders • Voters with strong opinions are unlikely to change them. • Voters who pay most attention to campaign are those who start with strongest views. • The most persuadable voters are least likely to pay attention to the campaign. The American Soldier Study • In 1942 film director Frank Capra produced a series of films for the orienta3on of army recruits. Social scien3sts then conducted “The American Soldier” studies. Carl Hovland: psychologist; individual differences • Measured knowledge and opinions before the soldiers saw the films, assessed changes after seeing the films, and determined that film was a powerful teaching aid for acquiring factual knowledge. • Found that films did not have direct, powerful effects • Psychological differences; individual differences • Used control groups: participants who are not exposed to the variable under study Studies Into the Effects of TV • Television in the Lives of Our Children was a study by Wilbur Schramm and colleagues at Stanford University in the late 1950s. • Thousands of school children and their parents were interviewed, surveyed (through questionnaires and diaries) and tested on how children used TV and how that use affected those children. Studies Into the Effects of TV • The study found that some TV is harmful for some children under some conditions. For other children under the same, or other, conditions TV may be beneficial. For most children, under most conditions, most TV is probably neither harmful nor particularly beneficial. All media began using scientific techniques to determine how best to attract an audience and maximize advertising profits. • Advertising and public relations agencies established research department that hired media research Ph.D.s who sought work outside academia. • Joseph Klapper, CBS, Minimal Effects • Focus is on how people use media to construct view of the world; not effect of media on people’s behavior. • Examines creation of meaning and how communication takes place; not survey or experimental results. • Who controls the creation and flow of information? Critical Cultural Model • Message Effects • Medium Effects • Ownership Effects • Active Audience Effects: Types of Media Effects Message Effects How are people affected by the content of messages? • Cognitive Effects: Short-term learning of information. • Attitudinal Effects: Changing people’s attitudes about a person, product, institutional, or idea. Message Effects • Behavioral Effects: Inducing people to adopt new behaviors or change exis9ng ones. Much harder than changing attitudes • Psychological Effects: Inspiring strong feelings or arousal in audience members. People often seek feelings such as fear, joy, revulsion, happiness, or amusement. Medium Effects • How does the medium used change the nature of the message and the receiver’s response to the message? • What are the social effects of each medium? • “The medium is the message” -- Marshall McLuhan Ownership Effects • How does ownership affect the media? • Do we get different messages from different owners? • How important are the six largest media companies? Active Audience Effects • Audience members seek out and respond to media for a variety of reasons. • People can be segmented by geographics, demographics, or psychographics. • Looks at audience members as selective consumers rather than naïve victims of the media. Theories of Media and Society • Functional Analysis • Agenda Setting • Uses and Gratifications • Social Learning • Spiral of Silence • Media Logic • Cultivation Analysis Functional Analysis • Surveillance of the environment • Correlation of different elements of society • Transmission of culture from one generation to the next • Entertainment Agenda Setting • The media don’t tell the public what to think, but rather what to think about. • Media sets the terms of public discourse. • But can media determine what people will care about? Uses and Gratifications • What do audience members attempt to get out of their media use? • And do they receive it? Uses and Gratifications Possible gratifications • To be amused • To experience the beautiful • To have shared experiences with others • To find models to imitate • To believe in romantic love Social Learning • Albert Bandura: We are able to learn by observing others and the consequences they face. • Like “modeling” in Payne Fund Study Social Learning Steps of Social Learning • We extract key information from situations we observe. • We integrate these observations to create rules about how the world operates. • We put these rules into practice to regulate our own behavior and predict the behavior of others. Symbolic Interactionism • The process by which individuals produce meaning through interaction based on socially agreed-upon symbols. • “If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences.” W.I. Thomas Spiral of Silence • People want to see themselves as part of a majority. • They will remain silent if they perceive themselves as being in a minority. • This tends to make minority opinions appear less prevalent than they are. • But some people like having contrary opinions; others speak out because they care. Media Logic • The forms the media use to present the world become the forms we use to perceive the world. • People use media formats to describe the world. • People use media formats to prepare for events so that they will be portrayed better through the media. Cultivation Analysis • Watching significant amounts of television alters the way an individual views the nature of the surrounding world. • Can cultivate a response known as the Mean World Syndrome. Mean World Syndrome: Heavy television viewers are more likely to: • Overestimate chance of experiencing violence • Believe their neighborhood is unsafe • Say fear of crime is a serious personal problem • Assume the crime rate is rising. How Do Campaigns Affect Voters? • Resonance Model: A candidate’s success depends on how well his or her basic message resonates with and reinforces voters’ preexisting political feelings. • Competitive Model: Views the political campaign as a competition for the hearts and minds of voters. A candidate’s response to an attack is as important as the attack itself. Media and Political Bias • News with an explicit point of view is popular on cable television. • Audience members tend to view news as biased if it does not actively match their own point of view. Liberal vs. Conservative Bias • Conservatives: point out reporters tend to more liberal than public at large. “The duty of the press is to comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable.” • Liberals: point out that media are owned by large corporations that tend to be more conservative than the public at large. “Freedom of the press belongs to those who own a press.” Controversies in Media Impact • Powerful effects vs. Minimal effects vs. Mixed effects • Magic Bullet to Two-Step Flow to Multi- Step Flow • Hard to weed out research for general public • Empirical vs. Cultural Controversies in Media Impact • Replication • Issue of time • Correlation vs. Causation: Time order, co-variation, rule out other factors • Correlation only proves that two things occurred at the same 3me, not that one thing caused the other. • About 80 percent of killers who commit sexual crimes have been proven to have a taste for violent pornography but that does not prove that violent pornography caused the violent behavior. One hundred percent of those killers might also drink milk, or use aspirin. Chapter 3: Media Business Transforming the Media World • Steve Jobs: Computer, NeXT, Return to Apple, iPod, Recording iTunes, Pixar from Lucas, Disney Buy, iPhone • Robert Johnson: BET, sell to Viacom • Ted Turner: CNN, WTBS, TNT, Turner Classic Movies, Cartoon Network, sell to Time Warner Private Ownership • 1638: First printing press in North American colonies • 1690: First newspaper published in colonies • 1830s: Penny Press begins • 1840s: Telegraph industry owned privately, not by government • 1890s: William Randolf Hearst, Joseph Pulitzer • 1920s: David Sarnoff NBC, CBS William Paley Growth of National News • Magazines: First national medium Late 1800s • Radio Networks: 1920s David Sarnoff NBC Red and Blue • TV Networks: Early news, half-hour evening news 1963 • CSPAN 1979; CNN 1980 • Concentrated ownership; good selection Big Media • Consumers have more media choices than ever before. • 2011: Cable available to 95% of homes (today about 75% use it); 24% have satellite; 90% have access to Internet at home; 85% in US have mobile phone • The number of companies providing those choices has declined. Big Players • 1983: 50 companies control more than half of media • 1987: Shrink to 29 companies • 2004: 5 control majority of media • Disney, News Corporation, Time Warner, Viacom/ CBS, Bertelsmann • Also: Comcast: Buy 51% of NBC Universal from GE • Google: 96% of revenues from advertising: 3rd largest based on income • Apple: Superior hardware; distribution iTunes Disney • 2010 Sales: $38.1 billion • Major player in broadcast TV, cable, movies, theme parks; synergy and convergence • Home of Mickey Mouse, Pixar, Marvel Entertainment & Lucasfilm; ABC, ESPN • Pioneer in new media distribution; Steve Jobs was largest single stockholder/ member of BOD. News Corporation • Fiscal Year 2010 Sales: $33.4 billion • Major player worldwide in all media • Home of Fox News, Wall Street Journal, Fox Broadcasting, British tabloids; 20th Century Fox • Controlled by Rupert Murdoch and family • News of the World phone hacking scandal killed paper, hurt News Corp. • Vertical integration, synergy, multiplatform • In process of splitting into 2 companies Time Warner • 2010 Sales: $26.9 billion / down $20 billion in 2008 • But went from $13.4 billion loss in 2008 to $2.6 billion profit in 2010 • Improved profitability by selling off AOL and Time Warner cable • Purchase Turner 1996 Time Warner • Major player in film, television, cable, publishing, and online content • Home of Scooby Doo, Harry Potter, Batman • Bigger isn’t always better: Time Warner/ AOL Viacom/CBS • Combined 2010 Sales: $23 billion • Major player in broadcast television, cable, movies • Home of MTV Networks (MTV, VH1, Nickelodeon) • CBS owned Viacom; then Viacom owned CBS; now separate companies for financial reasons Bertelsmann • 2009 Sales: $22 billion • Major player in publishing; also magazines and European broadcasting • 90% RTL Group; Music Group • Home of American Idol and Idol programs globally • Privately held German company The New Players • Comcast/NBC Universal • Google • Apple Comcast / NBC Universal • Comcast had 2010 Sales of $37.9 billion, on par with Disney • Major player in cable services, cable networks, movies, broadcast TV • NBC Universal’s biggest value is for cable channels. Google • 2010 revenue of $29.3 billion. Falls between News Corp. and Time Warner in sales. • Big service is search, major source of revenue is highly targeted online advertising: AdWords; AdSense • Automated aggregator of news Apple • 2010 revenue of $65 billion. – $25 billion from mobile phones (iPhone) – $8.2 billion from iPods – $4.9 billion from music and video sales – $4.9 billion from first year sales of iPad • Redefines how we consume and use media Other Major Players • Gannem Co. Inc.: Largest newspaper publisher • Clear Channel Communications, Inc.: Largest radio station owner Who Controls the Media? • Owners: strong control; Disney, Depp • Advertisers: Influence; tobacco co. • Government: China and Murdoch, BBC • Special Interest Groups: Danish cartoons • News Sources: GQ: Hillary and Bill • Audiences: Audience test, tune in Media Econ: Long Tail Media vs. Big Media (Short Head Media) • Long Tail Portion of a distribution curve: where a limited number of people are interested in buying a lot of different products. • Short Head Portion of a distribution curve: where a large number of people are interested in buying a limited number of products. Long Tail vs. Short Head Characteristics of the Long Tail: 6 Principles • High number of goods; more niche goods than hits • Low cost of reaching markets • Ease of finding niche products Characteristics of the Long Tail • Flattening of the demand curve for mainstream hits; choice lowers demand for hits • Size of collective market; collection of niche products can be as big as hits • Tailoring to personal tastes; consumers want content that fits their own wants and needs Long Tail vs. Short Head • Walmart: 4,500 CDs; 200 make 90% of sales • Rhapsody: 13 million – 25,000-100,000 best seller songs; at least 250 a month; 25% of sales – 100,000-800,000 best seller songs 16% of sales Consequences of the Long Tail • Democratization of the means of production • Democratization of the means of distribution • Greatly reduced cost of connecting suppliers and consumers • Big media vs. hybrids (Amazon) vs. digital • Google/YouTube: viable successor to broadcast and cable? Chapter 4: Books Book Numbers • Books account for 9% of total media industry revenues in US • Comprises trade, mass market paperbacks, K-12 and college texts and e-books A Brief History • 6,000 year history • Clay tablets in Mesopotamia, 3500-4000 BC • 3000 BC Papyrus: Reed paper in Egypt, Greek scrolls • Parchment: Dried animal skins, very durable • Codex: Rome 1st Century AD, Cut and bound parchment A Brief History • Asia: around Time of ancient Greece • Books on long strips of wood • 240-105 BC: Rice paper, woodcutting • Ink carved wooden blocks • Paper come to Europe in mid 11th Century The Printing Revolution • Johannes Gutenberg: Moveable type in 1430-1455ish • Mass production; Bible; major social revolution; Luther and Reformation • Technological determinism: introduction of new technology changes society, sometimes in unexpected ways • Oral to print culture Oral culture: a culture in which information is transmitted more by speech than by writing • 17th and 18th Centuries: Enlightenment, Age of Reason Books in Early America • Spanish: First press in North America in 1530s in Mexico City • Puritans: New England, 1600s Avid readers, education, escape English repression, control of publications • Seek freedom in US • First press in colonial America (US): 1638 Harvard College • First book: Bay Psalm Book (Whole Booke of Psalmes) • Chapbook: inexpensive early form of paperback, stories to read for pleasure Books in Early America • Spanish: First press in North America in 1530s in Mexico City • Puritans: New England, 1600s Avid readers, education, escape English repression, control of publications • Seek freedom in US • First press in colonial America (US): 1638 Harvard College • First book: Bay Psalm Book (Whole Booke of Psalmes) • Chapbook: inexpensive early form of paperback, stories to read for pleasure Books in Early America • Use cotton and linen fibers for paper; rag content • Vertical integration: printers run book stores; meeting places • 1731 Franklin: first public library in Philadelphia • Universal education: free, tax-payer supported • 1642 passed in Massachusetts • US law in 1820s; McGuffey’s Eclectic Readers 120 million at end of 1800s The Industrial Revolution • Wood pulp paper, inexpensive • Rotary press: steam power • Lithography: high quality illustrations at high speed • Linotype: 1880s set type automatically, keyboard • 1914: Postal book rate to cut costs • Marketing: Book-of-Month 1926, Literary Guild 1927 Keys to Publishing • Market: educated • Production: fast, inexpensive • Distribution: rail, reduced rates • Costs: economies of scale Paperback Books • Early paperbacks: Chapbook; Dime Novels/Pulp Novels • Inexpensive fiction, popular in 1860s, sell for a dime • Copyright Act of 1891 • Mass-Market Paperbacks, Pocket Books in 1939, non-fiction; Large sales by periodical distributors • Public domain: category of creative works on which the copyright has expired • WWII usage Paperback Books • 1950s: Mysteries, Westerns, Thrillers • 1960s: Harlequin, Romance novels • 1970s: Trade Paperback: Larger trim size, heavier cover, quality paper, majority of paperbacks today Conglomeration and Globalization • Like other industries: concentrated into conglomerates, went global • Five companies dominate US books, four foreign-owned Newer Forms of Books • Audiobooks: Books recorded on tape or some other medium (CD) • E-books: books that exist as a digital file • Potential to change medium: – Hypertext fiction; change ending – Free, lower costs – Easier to transport – Circumvent censorship issues Types of Books: Publishing Industry Categories • Trade books: fiction and non-fiction sold to public; largest share of books • Educational: El-Hi Texts; College; Cultural importance • Reference: Encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, etc. • Professional: Specialized occupation: Law/West; Medical, Engineering, etc. • Specialty: All others: Yearbooks, anthologies of cartoons, religious (some) The Players in Book Publishing • Authors: Very few full-time; do other jobs, celebrities • Submitting a manuscript: Query letter, sample chapters to carefully selected agent or publishing house • On spec (without a contract) or under contract Contracts and Royalties, Celebrity Authors • Royalties: The author’s share of the amount of a work’s revenues (retail vs. net): 5% to 15% of the retail vs. net book revenues; Some higher Stephen King 25% • Ex. Retail 15%x$20=$3; Net 15%x$4=60 cents • Average is 10% • Agent fee: 10% to 15% of the author’s royalties • 3 Types: Celebrated authors (J.K. Rowling); Famous/Infamous person (Bill Clinton, OJ); Expert in a field The Editors • Acquisition Editors: Obtains books to be published • Developmental Editor: Works directly with the author during the writing of the book, suggestions, changes • Copy Editor: Polishes a manuscript line by line and prepares it for typesetting Publishers • Specialize in types of books: Genre is type of writing such as mystery • Major publishers: Bertelsmann AG • Minority /Independent publishers: Targeted; Us Books, Inc. young black readers • University presses: Ted to university; academic research • Small Presses: Serious books in poetry, avant-garde fiction; small staff, facilities • Vanity Presses: Author pays • On-line: Provides “self-supported publishing” through a website Promotion • Like other products: Sales force, advertising, PR • Cover design • Blurbs: Laudatory comments that are placed on the cover • Reviews • Excerpts • Book tours: Talk shows, etc. The Book Seller • 13,000 book stores in US; up 75% from 1980s • 17,000 other outlets: supermarkets, drug stores… • Chains or Megastores: More than half of sales; Ex. Barnes & Noble and Borders – Megastores: 100,000 Titles and amenities like coffee bars, live readings • Independent Books stores: Not owned by a chain or not part of a larger company – American Book Sellers Association • Online Bookseller: Amazon.com is leader; long tail The Reader • Bibliofiles: book lovers; 50 or more a year • Casual Readers: enjoy, read a few books a year • Required Readers: read for work or studies • Illiterates: never learned how to read • Aliterates: those who can read but do not Controversies: Censorship • First Amendment • Issue of banning: James Joyce’s Ulysses in 1920 • Banning usually helped sales • International censorship Ex. Rushdie’s Satanic Verses • Public schools and libraries; elementary and high school Controversies: Blockbuster Syndrome • Strong impact on economics of industry • Advances leave little money for smaller players • Mid-list authors: write books that have literary merit but are not obvious blockbusters • Mid-list authors: Those who don’t make it to the best-seller lists but still have respectable sales
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