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Biology 1007 Study Guide for FInal

by: kendra

Biology 1007 Study Guide for FInal BIOL 1107

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These notes should guide you when you are studying for the final.
Intro to Biology
Dr. Jeff Fischer
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by kendra on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1107 at Augusta State University taught by Dr. Jeff Fischer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at Augusta State University.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
2013-2014 Biology Semester controlled/manipulated by the experimenter. The dependent 1 Final Exam Study Guide variable is the factor that is being Answer Key observed/measured. st 7. What are constants and controls? Chapter 1 Biology in the 21 The experimenter makes a special Century effort to keep other factors 1. What is biology the study of? constant (the same) so that they Biology is the study of life. will not affect the outcome. Those 2. What are the 4 characteristics of life? 1. All organisms are made up factors are called control variables. of one or more cells. 2. All organisms need a source of 8. Sugar dissolves in, or mixes energy for their life processes. 3. completely with, water. The solubility All organisms must respond to of a substance in water is determined their environment. 4. Members of a species must have the ability to by measuring the maximum amount of the substance that dissolves in a given reproduce and develop. amount of water at a given 3. How are structure and function temperature. HYPOTHESIS: The related in biology? Structure and solubility of sugar in water increases function are related at the level of as the temperature of the water chemicals in cells. Different types of cells have different functions decreases. Identify the independent and dependent variables. Ind. var – that depend on their specialized temp. of water structures (i.e. brain cells have Dep. var – solubility of sugar branches that receive info from 9 An electromagnet can be made by other cells). Structure and wrapping insulated wire around an iron function are also related on the level of the organism (i.e. ducks nail and connecting the ends of the wire to a 6-volt battery. HYPOTHESIS: have webbed feet to swim and Increasing the number of coils of wire walk). wrapped around the nail increases the 4. What is homeostasis? Give an strength of the electromagnet, as example of how you maintain measured by the number of paper homeostasis. Homeostasis is the maintenance of constant internal clips the magnet can pick up. Identify the independent and dependent conditions. Sweating when you variables. Ind. var – number of coils are hot and shivering when you wrapped around nail; Dep. var – are cold are examples. strength of electromagnet 5. List and explain the general steps of the scientific method. Observation, Hypothesis, Experiment, Collect Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life data, Evaluate results, Draw a 1. What is the difference between a conclusion, and Retest. covalent bond and an ionic bond? A 6. What are independent and covalent bond involves the dependent variables? (Explain) A sharing of electrons while an variable is a factor in the experiment that is being tested. ionic bond requires the transfer of electrons. The independent variable is the factor that is 2. What are the 4 properties of water? etc. Water is a polar molecule. It has hydrogen bonds that are Broken Fats and responsible for water’s high Glycerol down to oils (i.e. specific heat, cohesion, and Lipid provide Meat, adhesion. usable butter, 3. Is water polar or non-polar, and why energy to olive oil, is this important? Water is a polar cells; peanut oil, molecule; this is important some are etc.) because it allows water to have parts of a cell’s charged regions which in turn structure allows hydrogen bonds to form. . 4. What is adhesion? (give an For Your body example) Adhesion is the Amino moveme makes 12 Protein acids nt, of the attraction among molecules of eyesight, amino different substances (i.e. water or acids. molecules sticking to the sides digestion Others of a glass). . come from 5. What is cohesion? (give an meat, example) Cohesion is the beans, attraction among molecules of and nuts. Provide DNA and the same substance (i.e. water Nucleic Nucleotid detailed RNA sticking to water). es instructio 6. Why is the fact that water has a acids ns for how to high specific heat important? This build property is important in cells proteins. because processes that produce usable chemical energy in cells 9. 2HO 2 → H 2 O 2 Explain why this release a lot of heat; water is a chemical reaction; label the absorbs the heat, which helps to regulate cell temperatures reactants and the products of this reaction. 2HO is2the reactant and maintain homeostasis. and H +2O are2the reactants. 7. What is a monomer? A monomer This is a chemical reaction in is each subunit in a complete which a compound is being molecule. What is a polymer? A broken apart. polymer is a large molecule, or 10. What is a catalyst? (give an macromolecule, made of many monomers bonded together. example) A catalyst is a substance that decreases the 8. Fill in the chart below. activation energy needed to Polymer Monome Functio Foods start a chemical reaction. It r n What types What the of foods do also increases the rate of the body uses you eat to chemical reaction. it for? get it? 11. What is an enzyme? (give an Glucose Broken Sugars down to and example) Enzymes are catalysts Carbohydr provide starches for chemical reactions in living ate usable (i.e. things (i.e. amylase is an energy to cereal, enzyme in saliva that breaks cells. pasta, down starch). sugars, 12. Use the diagram above to a cell (i.e. nucleus protects a cell’s DNA). o Describe the functions of the following organelles and be able to pick them out of a diagram:  Nucleus – the storehouse for most of the genetic information (DNA). Serves to protect DNA; the explain how an enzyme works. nucleolus is in the nucleus. Substrates bind to an enzyme at  Mitochondria – bean-shaped organelle that has two certain places called “active membranes; responsible for sites”. The enzyme brings supplying energy to the cell. substrates together (or breaks  Lysosomes – membrane them apart) and weakens their bound organelles that bonds. The catalyzed reaction contain enzymes. They forms two products that are defend a cell from invading released from the enzyme. viruses and bacteria; they also break down dam-aged or worn-out cell parts. Chapter 3 Cells and Organelles  Chloroplast – organelle  Cell Theory – list the 3 parts of found in plant cells that the cell theory carry out the process of photosynthesis by All organisms are made of cells. converting carbon dioxide, All existing cells are produced by other living cells. The cell is water, and solar energy into the most basic unit of life. glucose and oxygen.  Two types of Cells – describe the  Ribosomes – tiny organelles that link amino acids difference between prokaryotic together to form proteins. and eukaryotic cells Ribosomes are either on the Prokaryotic cells do not have a rough ER or in the nucleus or other membrane- cytoplasm. bound organelles. They consist  Vesicles – small membrane of a cell membrane, cytoplasm, bound sacs that divide some and DNA. All single-celled materials from the rest of organisms are prokaryotic (i.e. the cytoplasm and transport bacteria) these materials from place Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus to place within the cell.  Golgi Apparatus – closely and other membrane-bound layered stacks of membrane- organelles. The genetic enclosed spaces that information (DNA) is inside the nucleus. Eukaryotes may be process, sort, and deliver multi-cellular or single-celled proteins.  Endoplasmic Reticulum organisms (i.e. plant & animal (ER) – an interconnected cells). network of thin, folded membranes; the production of lipids and proteins occurs in the ER. There are two  Organelles : o What are they? Structures types: smooth and rough; specialized to perform the rough ER is studded with distinct processes within ribosomes.  Cell membrane – consists  In what direction does the of a double layer of water move in the phospholipids interspersed following solutions: with a variety of other o hypotonic – into molecules. The cell the cell membrane forms a boundary between the cell and the o isotonic –into and outside environment and out of the cell at controls the passage of an equal rate materials into and out of a o hypertonic – out of cell. the cell  Cell wall– a rigid layer that gives protection, support,  Facilitated Diffusion – and shape to plant cells.  What is it?The diffusion of molecules across a membrane through Phospholipid Bilayer transport proteins.  What is it made of (which parts are polar and which are non-  How does it work? Transport proteins make it polar)? A phospho-lipid is easier for molecules to composed of three basic parts: enter or exit a cell. This a charged phosphate group, is still a form of passive glycerol, and two fatty acid chains. The head is polar and transport because the fatty acids chains are molecules move down a concentration gradient. nonpolar.  What is selective permeability? The cell membrane has the property of selective Active Transport – what is it? A permeability which means it process in which a molecule is driven allows some, but not all, across a membrane from a region of lower concentration to a region of materials to cross. higher concentration.  Endocytosis – Passive Transport – what is it? The movement of molecules across a cell o What is it? The membrane without energy input from (entrance) process of taking liquids or fairly the cell. large molecules into a  Diffusion – cell by engulfing them in  What is it? The movement a membrane. of molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of o Phagocytosis – a type of endocytosis in which the higher concentration to a cell membrane engulfs region of lower large particles. concentration.  Exocytosis –  What is a concentration gradient? The difference in o What is it? The release (exit) of substances out the concentration of a of a cell by the fusion of a substance from one vesicle with the location to another. membrane.  Osmosis –  What is it?The diffusion of o How does it work? During this process, a vesicle water. forms around materials to be sent out of the cell. The vesicle then moves toward the cell’s surface where it fuses with the Match the following processes with the membrane and lets go of its contents. statements below: a. Glycolysis b. Kreb’s cycle Chapter 4 Cells and Energy c. Fermentation d. Electron 1. What is ATP?Adenosine Transport chain triphosphate is a molecule that transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to 7. Which process(es) are aerobic? cell processes. Energy is B & D transferred when a chemical 8. Which process(es) are bond is broken by releasing a anaerobic?A & C phosphate group and energy is 9. Which process(es) starts with released. sugar and ends with pyruvate?A 2. What is the difference between the energy stored in food and 10. Which process(es) allows the energy in ATP?Food glycolysis to continue if oxygen molecules store chemical is not readily availabCe? 11. Which process(es) energy in their bonds. Food is broken down into smaller produces the most ATP? D molecules that are broken down 12. Which process(es) has the further to transfer this energy products of: to ATP. 2 ATP, 6 CO2, 8 NADH, and 2 3. What is the purpose of cellular respirationThe purpose of FADH? B cellular respiration is to release 13. Which process produces chemical energy from sugars Lactic AcidC and other carbon-based 14. Which process is the first molecules to make ATP when step of cellular respiratiBn? oxygen is present. This is an aerobic process (requires 15. What are the products of oxygen). glycolysis2 ATP & two 4. Where does cellular respiration pyruvates (three-carbon occur?In the mitochondria because they make most of a molecules) cell’s ATP. 16. How many ATPs can be 5. What is aerobic respiration? produced by the electron transport chain?34 (include the advantages and disadvantages) Aerobic respiration is a process that requires oxygen to take place. Cellular respiration is an aerobic process. 6. What is anaerobic respiration? (include the advantages and disadvantages) Anaerobic respiration is a process that does not require oxygen to take place. Glycolysis and fermentation are anaerobic process. On the line below each picture, classify the organism as either an AUTOTROPH or a HETEROTROPH.                        ____ He terotro ph__ __ ___ ____Autotroph_____       _____Heterotroph_______                   Hint: What color are mushrooms PHOTOSYNTHESIS: An Overview Plants gather the sun’s energy with light­absorbing MOLECULES called __chloroplasts____. A. thylakoids B. pigments C. chloroplasts D. glucose The Calvin cycle is another name for ____D. light­independent reactions____ A. photosynthesis  B. the electron transport chain  C. light­dependent reactions D. light­independent reactions How is the Calvin cycle different from the light­dependent reactions? A. It takes place in chloroplasts. B. It takes place in the stroma. C. It requires light. D. It takes place in the thylakoid membrane Oxygen produced during the light­dependent reaction is ___C. is released into the atmosphere____. A. used in the Calvin cycle to make sugar B. joined with the NADPH to make water C. is released into the atmosphere D. None of these, oxygen is NOT produced by the light­dependent reaction USE THE LETTERS IN THE DIAGRAM AT THE LEFT TO IDENTIFY: __B___  stroma __A___  thylakoid __C___  granum USE WORDS FROM THE WORD BANK TO FILL IN THE CHART COMPARING AND  CONTRASTING THE LIGHT­DEPENDENT REACTIONS AND THE CALVIN CYCLE: (You can use  them more than once!) in stroma O       CO 2 2 in thylakoid membrane ATP             H2O        Requires light      Doesn’t require light SUGARS (glucose) LIGHT­DEPENDENT CALVIN CYCLE REACTIONS LOCATION in thylakoid membrane in stroma REACTANTS H 2 CO 2 PRODUCTS O2 SUGARS (glucose) LIGHT? Requires light   Doesn’t require light CELLULAR RESPIRATION MULTIPLE CHOICE  ____C. Glycolysis______ is the first step in cellular respiration that begins releasing energy stored in glucose. A. Alcoholic fermentation B. Lactic acid fermentation C. Glycolysis D. Electron transport chain If oxygen is NOT present, glycolysis is followed by  __    B. fermentation___. A. Krebs cycle B. fermentation Name the 3 carbon molecule produced when glucose is broken in half during glycolysis. A. pyruvic acid B. lactic acid C. Acetyl­CoA D. citric acid Since fermentation does not require oxygen it is said to be __B. anaerobic____. A. aerobic B. anaerobic Which of the following shows the correct sequence during cellular respiration? A. Electron transport chain  → glycolysis  → Krebs cycle B. Glycolysis → Electron transport chain  → Krebs cycle C. Krebs cycle → Electron transport chain  → glycolysis D. Glycolysis → Krebs cycle → Electron transport chain   Because cellular respiration requires oxygen it is said to be ___A. aerobic_____ A. aerobic B. anaerobic  How many total ATP molecules are produced by 1 molecule of glucose completing cellular respiration? 2 6 24 36 Which stage of cellular respiration produces the most ATP? A. glycolysis B. Krebs cycle C. Electron transport D. Acetyl­CoA charging Write the complete overall chemical equation for cellular respiration using chemical symbols instead of  words: __C 6 O12_ 6 ____6O ____ 2→ ____6H O   ____+2____6CO ____+_____ATP_2___ Tell the kind of fermentation used in each example (alcoholic or lactic acid):  Yeast uses this to make bread dough rise ___alcoholic fermentation_______ Your muscle cells use this during rapid exercise when oxygen is low ___lactic acid fermentation__ Bacteria and yeast use this to make beer and wine ___alcoholic fermentation___ Bacteria use this to make cheese, yogurt, and sour cream __lactic acid fermentation___ Chapter 5 Cell Growth and Division centromere chroma Cell Cycle tid  Name and describe what occurs during each step of the cell cycle. The cell cycle is the regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells. The chromosome four main stages of the cell cycle are: Gap (G1), Synthesis (S), Gap 2  What occurs during Interphase? (G2) and Mitosis (M). (draw and explain) Gap 1 – cells grow, carry out normal functions, and replicate their organelles; checkpoint. See pg. Synthesis – DNA is copied 141 of textboo Gap 2 – additional growth and k checkpoint Mitosis – cell divides its nucleus and its contents (cytokinesis The cell copies its DNA and grows in occurs immediately after); preparation for division. The DNA is resulting in two identical daughter loosely organized during inter-phase.  What occurs during Prophase? cells.  What types of checks occur during (draw and explain) the G1and G 2tages before the cell can move on to the next step? Checks for undamaged DNA and See pg. adequate cell size. 141 of Mitosis textboo  What is the purpose of mitosis? k The purpose of Mitosis is to produce two identical daughter DNA and proteins condense into tightly cells (somatic/body cells) that are coiled chromo-somes. The nuclear diploid (46 chromosomes each). membrane breaks down, centrioles begin  What do you end up with at the end to move to opposite poles and spindle fibers start to form. of mitosis? two identical daughter cells  What occurs during Metaphase?  What is the difference between a chromosome and a chromatin? (draw and explain) (label the parts of the figure below) A chromosome is one long See pg. continuous thread of DNA that has 141 of numerous genes along with textbook regulatory information. A chromatin is the loose combination of DNA and proteins. Spindle fibers attach to each Cytokinesis divides cytoplasm between chromosome. They align the two daughter cells, each with a chromosomes along the equator. genetically identical nucleus.  What occurs during Anaphase? Cancer (draw and explain)  What is cancer?Uncontrolled cell division See pg. 141 of textbook  Why does cancer occur? When regulation of the cell cycle breaks down, when mutation occurs, and due to exposure to carcinogens (i.e. ultraviolet radiation and Chromatids separate to opposite sides of pollutants). the cell.  What is the difference between  What occurs during Telophase? Benign and Malignant tumors? (draw and explain) Benign tumors are characterized by cancer cells that remain clustered (or clumped) together. These tumors are usually harmless. Malignant tumors have See pg. cancer cells that metastasize 141 of (break away) and spread, forming textbook other tumors. Nuclear membranes start to form, chromosomes begin to uncoil, and the  Why are Malignant tumors so spindle fibers fall apart. The cell pinches dangerous? in the middle as it prepares to go through Malignant tumors are dangerous cytokinesis. because they can break away and  What occurs during Cytokinesis? spread. (draw and explain) See pg. 141 of textbook Chapter 6 Meiosis and Mendel Meiosis  How are somatic cells different from gametes? Somatic cells are body cells (such as liver cells, heart cells, skin cells, etc.). These cells are diploid (2n) and have 46 chromosomes; they are produced through the process of mitosis. Gametes are sex cells (eggs and sperm) . Gametes are haploid (n) which means they have 23 chromosomes; they are produced through the process of meiosis.  How do haploid cells differ from diploid cells? Haploid cells have only one copy of each chromosome and are represented as n. Gametes are haploid cells. The haploid number in humans is 23. Diploid cells have two copies of each chromosome: one copy from mom and one copy from dad. They are represented as 2n. Body cells are diploid. The diploid number in humans is 46.  How do autosomes differ from sex chromosomes? Autosomes are chromosome pairs 1-22 and they directly affect body traits (physical traits). Sex chromosomes are chromosome pair 23 and directly affect the sexual characteristics of an organism (male or female).  What genetic material does an organism receive from their mother? 23 chromosomes come from the mother; 22 of these are autosomes and 1 is a sex chromosome (X).  What genetic material does an organism receive from their father? 23 chromosomes come from the father; 22 of these are autosomes and 1 is a sex chromosome (X or Y).  What occurs during fertilization? Fertilization is the actual fusion of an egg and a sperm cell.  Draw homologous chromosomes. DADX X MOM  Illustrate crossing over. Refer to Figure 6.20 on textbook page 190.  Illustrate genetic linkage. Genes A and B are linked. Genes C and D are also linked. These genes are linked due to the fact that they are so close together, so they are most likely to be inherited together.  What is the purpose of meiosis? Meiosis is a form of nuclear division that creates 4 haploid cells (gametes) from one diploid cell. This process involves two rounds of cell division – Meiosis I and Meiosis II. The final product of meiosis is 4 unique gametes (eggs or sperm).  What are the stages of meiosis? (draw and explain) o Process of Meiosis o Cells go through (1 round/ 2 rounds) of division to produce genetically different (haploid/ diploid) cells. o How do homologous chromosomes differ from sex chromosomes? Homologous chromosomes are two separate chromosomes – one inherited from the mother and one from the father – that have the same length and general appearance. Sex chromosomes are chromosomes that directly control the development of sexual characteristics. Humans have two very different sex chromosomes - X and Y.  When do homologous chromosomes separate? Homologous chromosomes are separated during Anaphase I of Meiosis I.  When do sister chromatids separate?Sister chromatids are separated during Anaphase II of Meiosis II. o Gametogenesis  What does the sperm contribute to the embryo?DNA  What does the egg contribute to the embryoDNA, organelles, molecular building blocks, and other materials such as nutrients that an embryo needs to begin life. Chapter 7 Extending Mendelian Genetics Chromosomes and Phenotype  What is a carrier? What would be the genotype for a carrier of Cystic Fibrosis (C- normal, c- Cystic fibrosis)? A carrier is someone who does not have a disorder but carries the recessive allele and can pass on the disease-causing allele to offspring. The genotype for a carrier of Cystic Fibrosis would be Cc.  What are sex-linked genes?Genes that are located on the sex chromosomes (X and Y chromosomes). • What are the sex chromosomes for males? XY for females? XX • Do sex-linked traits occur more frequently in males or in femMales Why? Males have two different sex chromosomes (XY) so they cannot have X-chromosome inactivation to mask alleles on one chromosome like females can due to the fact that they have two of the same sex chromosomes (XX). Complex Patterns of Inheritance  What is incomplete dominance? Provide an example. Incomplete dominance results in a heterozygous phenotype that is a blend of the two homozygous phenotypes; neither allele is completely dominant or recessive (i.e. red flower crossed with a white flower yields pink flowers).  What is codominance? Provide an example. Codominance results in a heterozygous genotype that equally expresses the traits from both alleles; both alleles of a gene are expressed completely and neither is dominant or recessive (i.e. red flower crossed with a white flower yields white flowers with red speckles).  Identify the following as examples of incomplete dominance or codominance: • a red flower is crossed with a white flower and the offspring are all pink incomplete dom. • a black cat and a white cat have kittens that are black and white codominance • a mother with A blood and a father with B blood have a son with AB blood codominance • a green betta fish and a blue betta fish have offspring that are teal incomplete dom.  Could a baby with O blood have parents with A and B blood? Draw a Punnett Square to explain. IA i A B Bes, these parents could have a baby with tyAe O I I IB i Iblood if both parents were heterozygous (I i and I i) for their blood types then they could each igive the baby a recessive allele, which would I i i i result in type O blood (ii).  Define polygenic. Give two examples of polygenic traits. Polygenic traits are traits produced by two or more genes. Examples of polygenic traits are eye color and skin color.  What is represented on the axis (or outside) of a Punnett square? Genotype of parents  What is represented on the inside of a Punnett square? Possible genotypes of offspring Human Genetics and Pedigrees  What is a pedigree? How is it useful? A pedigree is a chart that can trace the phenotypes and genotypes in a family to determine the chance that child might have a certain genetic disorder. It is useful because it allows you to determine the chances of offspring inheriting various traits through generations. • squares on a pedigree represent males • circles represent females • a circle that has been halfway filled in means: the female is a carrier of the trait or disease • a circle that has been completely filled in means: the female has the trait or disease  Can a male be a carrier of an autosomal trait? Yes of a sex-linked trait? No  How does a son inherit colorblindness? Can he inherit colorblindness from his father? A son inherits colorblindness if the X chromosome given to him by his mother has the allele for colorblindness on it. A son cannot inherit colorblindness from his father because he only receives a Y chromosome from his father.  How does a daughter inherit colorblindness? A daughter can inherit colorblindness if her mother is a carrier of the trait and her father is colorblind as they can both give her an X chromosome with the allele for colorblindness on it, which would cause her to be colorblind.  What is a karyotype? How can it be used to study human chromosomes? A karyotype is a picture of all of the chromosomes in a cell. It can be used to study abnormalities in chromosomes. For example, an individual with 3 st chromosomes, instead of just two, on their 21 chromosome pair would have Trisomy 21.


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