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AU / Psychology / PSYC 2010 / Is psychology more than common sense?

Is psychology more than common sense?

Is psychology more than common sense?


School: Auburn University
Department: Psychology
Professor: Jennifer daniels
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Psychology, Biology, Of, The, mind, Sigmund Freud, daniels, calkins, Contemporary, Modern, post, approach, Theory, behaivor, bioligical, and auburn
Cost: 50
Name: Study guide for Unit 1
Description: This study guide is a tool to help you on this test. This is NOT an answer key and doesn’t guarantee that things will or won’t be on the test on this study guide, but it will include everything I beli
Uploaded: 09/06/2016
28 Pages 246 Views 6 Unlocks

Study Guide Unit 1 Test 

Is psychology more than common sense?

This study guide is a tool to help you on this test. This is NOT an answer key and doesn’t guarantee that things will or won’t be on the test on this study guide, but it will include everything I believe will be on the test. I have taken extensive class notes and notes from the book. According to the syllabus the test will be to 40 multiple choice questions (worth two points each) and two essay questions (worth 10 points each). The notes in green are my notes from the book and the everything else is lecture orientated. This is what I will be studying for the test and I hope it helps you out! Email me at cky0002@auburn.edu if you have any questions. If you want vocabulary from this unit check out my studysoup page for Vocabulary Test #1! 

Chapter 1; Introduction; The story of Psychology

How did psychology continue to develop from the 1920s through today?

Don't forget about the age old question of What are background and history?

­Psychology;​ Learning/Practicing the approach to human actions and interactions.

­How do we define psychology?

­Study of the mind, behaviors and emotions

­Scientific study of behaviors and mental processes

­The science of psychology is the use of systematic methods to observe, describe, predict and explain behavior

­The behavior of psychology is everything we do that can be observed

­The mental processes of psychology is the thoughts, feelings and motives that each of us experience privately, but cannot be observed directly.

­Is psychology more than common sense?

­e.x. People that live together before marriage have longer, happier marriages True or False

How is blood chemistry linked with moods and emotions?

If you want to learn more check out What are the historical moments?

False, data shows divorce rates are higher for those who live together before marriage

*^To follow up with the previous question, psychology isn’t always common sense. When asking a class opinion on many topics the opinions will be split down the middle. This is why adequate research, not just common sense, is required to make a factual conclusion to a statement.

Let’s talk about...

Roots of Psychology 

Psychological Science is Born

­Aristotle theorized about learning and memory, motivation and emotion, perception and personality

­Wundt seeked to measure “atoms of the mind” ­ the fastest and simplest mental processes>> Began first psychological laboratory

­New science of psychology became organized into different schools of thought; functionalism (Wundt) and structuralism (Titchener> Used introspection to search for the mind’s structural elements) Don't forget about the age old question of What is token identity theory?

Where did psychology come from?

What event defined the start of scientific psychology

­Scientific psychology began in Germany in 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt opened in the first psychology laboratory

Why did introspection fail as a method for understanding how the mind works? Don't forget about the age old question of What is the focus of psychology as a field of study?

Structuralism used introspection to define the mind’s makeup; Functionalism focused on how mental processes enable us to adapt, survive and flourish Don't forget about the age old question of What is electronegativity?

­Philosophy, biology and physiology­

­Greek philosopher­ Socrates, Plato and Aristotle Don't forget about the age old question of What are the skills of public relations professional?

­French philosopher­ Descartes

­Direct Observation, reasoning, theory of motivation, drives, sensing,

remembering, desiring, reacting, thinking, memory and sleep

Modern Psychology 

­1879 University of Leipzig­ Wilhelm Wundt; First psychology lab

<As the first individual to refer to themselves as a psychologist, Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory that was used exclusively for psychology research in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany.> 

­Two schools of thought and structuralism ​and functionalism​ (Wundt and Titchener);

­Structuralism­​ Attempt to identify structures of the human mind with

introspection (looking inward)

­Functionalism­​ Concerned with the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in the way we adapt to the environment (looking outward *environment*)

­William James (functionalist) thought it would be more fun to consider the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings

­Encourages exploration of down to earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, and moment to moment stream of consciousness

­Mentored Mary Calkins

­Charles Darwin assumed that thinking developed because is was adaptive and was contributed to our ancestor’s survival

­Consciousness serves a function to enable us to consider our past, adjust to our present and plan our future

­Important Females­

<Women in the 19th/20th century were not allowed to hold any power in the psychological profession.  They were allowed to sit in classes, but were not allowed to graduate with a psychology degree.   Both of the women listed below were very high, if not the highest, in their class.>

­Mary Calkins; first female president of APA, Wasn’t allowed to graduate Harvard psychology

­When Calkins joined the Harvard Psychology program all the other students (males) dropped out

­Washburn; first female to receive a phD (second president of APA)

Contemporary Approaches 

<While humans have evolved over time so has our education in psychology. With so many new theories and approaches, there is no right or wrong approach, each one just bring a different understanding to human behavior. So when studying these approaches understand that each one is unique and is a different way to view our behavior in different environments.>

How did psychology continue to develop from the 1920s through today?

­”The science of mental life”

­1920’s Two major “larger than life” American psychologists; Flamboyant and Watson ­Equality provocative Skinner who dismissed introspection and redefined psychology as the science of observable behavior

­Freudian Psychology was also a major force (unconscious behaviors/desires from childhood experiences)

­1960’s Humanistic Psychology; Studying the current environmental influences can nurture or limit our growth potential, and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied (Rogers and Maslow)

­1960’s cognitive revolution; led the field back to its early interest in mental processes such as the importance of how our mind processes and retains information

­Biological Approach­​ Examines behavior and mental processes through a focus on the body, especially the brain and nervous system

­e.x. Talking in front of others < one of the number one fears

­*Behavior­ The things that can be observed and mental processes

­Neuroscience Approach­​ Studies the structure, function, development, genetics and biochemistry of the nervous system

­Thoughts and emotions have a physical basis in the brain

­How is blood chemistry linked with moods and emotions?

­Behavioral Approach­​ Emphasizes the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants.

­In simple terms; Have you had this experience before? And if so, how did it go? ­e.x. Having a bad experience reading in front of others creates a

response of fear to present in front of others.

­How do we learn to fear certain objects? Stop smoking?

­How does the environment affect our behavior and vice versa?

­Well­controlled, lab experiments initially, now some natural settings.

­Rewards and Punishments determine our behavior.

­We can make others do certain things by using this method of reward vs punishment.

­Not all behaviorists reject cognitions as important.

­John Watson (1878­1958); The first individual who said we have to be able to measure behaviors.  Very systematic method in studying behaviors.

­B.F. Skinner (1904­1990); “Operant Conditioning” Studied a lot about reinforcement and punishment.

­Freud (1856­1939); Unconscious thoughts, childhood experiences, conflicts between biological instincts and societal demands<< Very hard method to prove experimentally ­Freud main themes in his research was sex and anger; and his studies were done on mostly women, who are living in a period of women's

oppression before an age of feminism.

­Humanistic Approach­​ People choose to live by higher human values emphasizes positive qualities and growth.  Having self understanding and awareness.

­Carl Rogers; He would use Humanistic Approach through unconditional positive regard.

­Unconditional positive regard; Practicing unconditional positive regard

means accepting and respecting others as they are without judgment or evaluation. Using empathy and genuine characteristics in communicating with others.

­Abraham Maslow; Achieving self actualization using the “hierarchy of needs”

­Cognitive Approach­​ Emphasizes the mental processes. Responding to the way we see our environment.

­Cognitions control behaviors

­How we encode, process, store and retrieve information

­Evolutionary Approach­​ Nature vs Nurture

Nature; Our hereditary

Nurture; Our life experiences

­Debate of experience and biology

­Greek Philosopher Plato assumed that we inherit character and intelligence and that certain ideas are inborn

­Descartes disagreed that some ideas are innate

­Charles Darwin; Adaptation, Reproduction, “Survival of the fittest”

­This method does not account for cultural diversity and experiences we have had

­In 1859’s On the Origin of Species Darwin explained that the diversity by proposing the evolutionary process of natural selection (nature selects traits that best enabled an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment)

What is natural selection?

­This is the process by which nature selects from chance variations the traits that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment

What is contemporary psychology’s position on the nature­nurture debate? ­Psychological events often stem from the interaction of nature and nurture, rather than from either of them acting alone

­Sociocultural Approach­​ Focuses on how social and cultural environments influence behavior ­e.x. South vs North

­e.x. African­American, Asian American, European American

*​Psychology’s Current Perspectives 

Neuroscience; ​Focusing on how the body and brain enable emotions, memories and sensory experiences

(e.x. Someone who studies brain circuits that cause us to be “red in the face”) ­Perspectives: Biological, cognitive, clinical

Evolutionary; ​How the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes (e.x. Someone who analyzes how anger facilitated the survival of our ancestor’s genes) ­Perspectives: Biological, developmental, social

Behavior genetics; ​How our genes and our environment influence our individual differences (e.x. Someone who studies how heredity and experience influence our individual differences in temperament)

­Perspectives: Personality, developmental

Psychodynamic; ​How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts (e.x. Someone who might view an outburst as an outlet for unconscious hostility) ­Perspectives: Clinical, counseling, personality

Behavioral; ​How we learn observable responses

(e.x. Someone who might attempt to determine which external stimuli trigger angry responses or aggressive acts)

­Perspectives: Clinical, counseling, industrial­organizes

Cognitive; ​How we encode, process, store and retrieve information

(e.x. Someone who might study how our interpretation of a situation affects our anger and how our anger affects our thinking)

­Perspectives: Cognitive, clinical, counseling, industrial­organizes

Social­Cognitive; ​How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures (e.x. Someone who might explore how expressions of anger vary across cultural contexts) ­Perspectives: Developmental, social, clinical, counseling

Biopsychological Approach 

*What advantage do we gain by using the biopsychosocial approach in studying psychological events?

By incorporating different levels of analysis, the biopsychosocial approach can provide a more complete view than any one perspective could offer

Careers in Psychology 

­Psychiatry;​ A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders ,practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy

­Psychology; ​A science and a profession; Psychologists experiment with, observe, test, and treat behavior

­Psycholinguistics;​ The study of language and thinking

­Psychohistory; ​The psychological analysis of historical characters

­Psychoceramics;​ The study of crackpots

Areas of Specialization: The Highlights 

­Clinical and Counseling Psychology­​ Diagnose and treat people with mental disorders.

­Cognitive Psychology­​ Attention, consciousness, information processing, memory, perceiving and thinking.

­Developmental Psychology­​ Biological and environmental factors that influences how we become who we are.  Our changing abilities throughout our lifetime.

­Forensic Psychology­ ​Dealing with legal issues and people who harm others.

­Health Psychology­​ Psychological factors, lifestyle, healthcare system, stress, coping ­e.x. Women with breast cancer who had an optimistic outlook had a higher survival than those who did not

­I/O Psychology­​ Workplace.

­Physiological Psychology­​ Physical processes that underlie psychological processes, especially the brain.

­School/Educational Psychology­​ Give I.Q. tests, counseling, dealing with the psychology of the kids in the school.

­Sports Psychology­​ Improving sports performance.

­Personality Psychology­ St ​ udying persistent traits.

­Positive Psychology­ ​The scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.

­Community Psychology­ A  ​ branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups.

Thinking Critically with Psychology Science 

Why do we study Psychology?

­How can we differentiate between uninformed opinions and examined conclusions? ­The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think and act as they do!

What about Intuition and Common Sense?

­Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature.

­Intuition and common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error (What is common sense to us may not be common sense to everybody else)

­Hindsight Bias ​(“I knew it all along”)

­After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome.

­e.x. Hurricane Katrina, Stocks, housing market

>>Because of hindsight we develop a Overconfidence​ where sometimes we think we know more than we actually know.

**point to remember;​ Hindsight bias, overconfidence and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events often lead us to overestimate our intuition. But scientific inquiry can help us sift reality from illusion

­The Scientific Attitude

“Often times we tend to see patterns in random events. We try in some way to make sense of those things.”

­The scientific attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning; this includes critical thinking abilities) and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong).

­Critical thinking

­Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly.

­It examines assumptions, discerns, hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions.

­Critical thinking, will consider the credibility of sources

How do psychologists ask and answer questions?

­Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific methods to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations.

­Theory​; is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behaviors or events

­e.x. Low self­esteem contributes to depression

**Our theories can bias our observations

­Hypothesis​; a testable prediction, often promoted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory

­e.x. People with low self­esteem are apt to feel more depressed

­Research Observations;​ would require us to administer tests of self­esteem and depression

­e.x. Low score­Self Esteem

      High score­Depression

=Hypothesis is confirmed

­Types of Research


­Control; participants know they are being studied,

unnatural, not representative

­Natural Settings

­Observe true behaviors; no control over variables

Descriptive Research 

Case studies, surveys and naturalistic observation describe behaviors.

­Case Study

­A technique in which one person or small group is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles.

Why don’t case studies allow us to learn about general principles that apply to all of us? Case studies involve only one individual, so we can’t know for sure whether the principles observed would apply to a larger population


­Naturalistic observation;​ Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. **Naturalistic observations do not explain behavior, it describes it.

­Survey and interviews

­A technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people. ­Wording Effects; ​Wording can change the results of a survey

­Should cigarette ads and pornography be allowed on TV?

­Should cigarette ads and pornography by fordiden on TV?

­Random Sampling;​ if each member of a population has an equal

chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample

(unbiased). If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid.

How do Psychologists ask and answer questions?

­The Scientific Method


­Correlation; W​ hen one trait or behavior accompanies another we say the two correlate. (0.00 to 1.00 indicates strength of the relationship/ positive or negative) ­Correlation Coefficient;​ Describes the direction and strength of 

the relationship between two sets of variables

­Scatterplot; A  ​ graph comprised of points that are 

generated by values of two variable. The slope of the point 

depicts the direction, while the amount of scatter depicts 

the strength of the relationship. 

Describing behavior is a first step toward predicting it. Naturalistic observation and surveys often show us that one trait or behavior is related to another. In such cases, we say the two correlate 

(e.x. How much aptitude test scores correlate with school success tells us how well the scores predict school success) 

What is sampling bias, and how do researchers avoid it?

Random sampling helps researchers avoid sampling bias, which occurs when a survey group is not representative of the population being studied

*Even if the relationship isn’t perfectly positive or negative, if there is movement up or down the graph that indicates a fairly consistent correlation than there should be at least a .5 relationship in the scatter plot.

<<Pop Quiz Analysis***A “Strong Correlation” does not just mean a high positive correlation number, it means the most extreme value. So between .5 and ­.77 ­.77 ​would be the stronger correlation because it is the most extreme value between the two, even though it is a negative value.>>

A nearly irresistible thinking error is assuming that an association, sometimes presented as a correlation coefficient, proves causation. But no matter how strong the relationship, it does not.

***Correlation and Causation; Correlation does not mean causation

­Association does not prove causation. Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause­effect relationship but does not prove such

Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life

­Experimental research

­Ethical Considerations

Experimentation​; Exploring cause and effect

­Like other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychological research. Experiments isolate causes and their effects

­Exploring cause and effect; Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments 1)​ manipulate factors that interests us, while other factors are kept under 2) control

­Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships

Evaluating Therapies;

 ­Double­Blind Procedure; I​ n evaluating drug therapies, patients and

experimenter’s assistants should remain unaware of which patients had the real treatment and which patients had the placebo treatment.

­<e.x. Telling college students in an experiment they will all be given

alcohol and not telling the participants that half of them will only receive

non alcoholic beverages. The placebo effect comes into place when the researchers see that the participants that were given the non alcoholic

beverages, but think they are still drinking alcohol, act as if they are


­Random Assignment;​ Assigning participants to experiments (writing and trauma) and control (writing about what did previous day) conditions by random assignment minimizing preexisting differences between the two groups

­Independent Variable;​ The factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study.

<e.x. When examining the effects of writing about trauma upon stress, what is being written about it the independent variable>

­Dependent Variable; T​ he factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process <e.x. In our study on the effect of writing about trauma upon stress, stress is the dependent variable>

­Confounding Variables;​ A situation in which the independent variable is intertwined or mixed up with another, controlled variable.

*We cannot tell which variable is responsible for changes in the behavior of interest.

­Operational Definition; A  ​ statement of the procedures used to define research variables

<e.x. Love, Intelligence, Health, Trust>

­Experimentation;​ A summary of steps during experimentation *­Condition > Independent Variable > Dependent Variable

­Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life;​ Doubt big, round, undocumented numbers as they can be misleading and before long, become public misinformation

­Statistical Significance;​ The results are not due to chance alone ­Clinical Significance; G​ enuine effect on daily life

­Describing Data; A  ​ meaningful description of data is important in research. Misrepresentation may lead to incorrect conclusions

­Experiments aim to manipulate an independent variable, measure the dependent variable, and allow random assignment to control all other variables

Biology of the Mind 

“The brain is wider than the sky” ­Emily Dickinson

Researchers for the past century have been seeking to understand the biology of the mind, they have discovered that;

­The body is composed of cells

­Among these are nerve cells that conduct electricity and “talk” to one another by sending chemical messages across a tiny gap that separates them

­Specific brain systems serve specific functions

­We integrate information processed in these different brain systems to construct our experience of sights and sounds, meanings and memories, pain and passion ­Our adaptive brain is wired by our experiences

Neural Communication​; The body’s information system is built from billions of interconnected cells called neurons

­Neurobiologists and other investigators understand that humans and animals operate similarly when processing information

Neuron;​ A nerve cell, or a neuron, consists of many different parts

*Each neuron itself a miniature decision­making device performing complex calculations as it receives signals from hundreds, even thousands, of other neurons ­Cell body;​ Life support center of the neuron. Contains the nucleus

metabolic and reproductive functions for the cell. DNA stored here.

­Dendrites;​ receive messages from other neurons

­Terminal Branches of Axon;​ ​Releases neurotransmitters

­Axon;​ Long single extension of a neuron, covered with the myelin

sheath ​to insulate and speed up messages through neurons

*Process between neurons is a chemical process

Process is; Dendrite ­> axon ­> axon terminal branches

­A neural impulse;​ A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon and is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane

Threshold;​ Each neuron receives excitatory and inhibitory signals from many neurons. When the excitatory signal minus the inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensity (threshold) the neuron fires an action potential

­All or None Response;​ Once it reaches the threshold, the action

potential will fire. A strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and

to fire more often, but it does not affect the action potential strength of


­Intensity of an action potential ​remains the same throughout the length of an axon

­Synapse;​ A junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the

synaptic gap or cleft

­Neurotransmitters;​ (chemical) Released from the sending neuron travel across the synapse and bind to the receptor sites on the receiving

neuron, thereby influencing it to generate an action potential

­Reuptake;​ Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the

sending neurons through the process of reuptake. This process applies

the brakes on neurotransmitter action

How Neurotransmitters Influence Us?

­Serotonin pathways are involved with mood regulation

­Dopamine pathways are involved with diseases such as schizophrenia

­Endorphins helps explain a “good feeling”

­Norepinephrine helps control alertness and arousal

Glila Cells ​(“Glue cells”)

­Cells that provide support and nutritional benefits in the nervous system ­Keeps neurons in their proper places

­Destroy and eliminate dead neurons and then often replace those neurons ­Help make sure neurons signals are not mixing

Kinds of Neurons

­Sensory Neuron​ carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS.  Motor Neurons carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands. Interneurons connect the two neurons.

Nervous System;​ (Central and Peripheral nervous systems) Consists of all the nerve cells. It is the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system.

­Central Nervous System; ​Brain and the Spinal cord> network formed in the brain ­Peripheral Nervous System;​ Sensory and and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body>> Somatic and Autonomic systems

­Somatic Nervous Systems;​ ​The division of PNS that controls the

body’s skeletal muscles (voluntary muscle movement)

­​Autonomic Nervous System;​ Part of the PNS that controls the glands

and other muscles

­Sympathetic Nervous System;​ Division of the ANS that arouses

the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations (fight or flight)

Fight or Flight is instinct to flee a situation or to fight in a

stressful situation. It’s a natural instinct that mostly isn’t


­Parasympathetic Nervous System;​ Division of the ANS that

calms the body, conserving its energy (rest and digest)

­The Nerves;​ Nerves consist of neural cables containing many axons. They are party of the peripheral nervous system and connect muscles, glands and sense organs to the central nervous system.

­Medulla Oblongata;

­The point where the spinal cord enters the skull and joins with the brain. ­Entirely controls heart rate.

­Largely controls breathing, swallowing and digestion, also sneezing, coughing and vomiting

­Neurons cross over to the other side of the brain here as well

­Even the slightest damage in a critical region of the medulla can cause death

­The Brain; Older Brain Structures

­The brainstem is the oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord wells and enters the skull, it is responsible for automatic survival functions

­Pons; ​Relay station, containing neurons that pass signals from one part of the brain to another.

­Fine tunes motor messages.

­Processes some sensory information, especially visual info.

­Helps control respiration

­Causes facial expression


­The brain’s sensory switchboard. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.

­Pair of egg shaped structure that receives information from all the senses except smell and routes it to the higher brain regions that deal with seeing, hearing, tasting and touching

­Located just beneath the cerebral cortex at about eye level in the center of the brain

­Reticular Activating System (RAS);

­Essential to the regulation of sleep, wakefulness, arousal and even attention ­Vital functions as heart rate and breathing

­Also linked to sleep cycles


­Controls bodily coordination, balance, and muscle tone

­Two wrinkled hemispheres covered by an outer cortex

­The primary function is to coordinate and regulate motor movements ­Damage results in awkward, jerky, uncoordinated movements and may affect speech

­Limbic System;

­The Limbic System is a doughnut­shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, pituitary gland and hypothalamus

Why is the pituitary gland called the master gland?

­Responding to signals from the hypothalamus, the pituitary

releases hormones that trigger other endocrine glands to secrete

hormones that in turn influence brain and behavior

­Amygdala;​ ​Consists of two limabean sized neural clusters linked to the emotions of fear and anger

­Hypothalamus;​ ​Lies below (hypo) the thalamus. It directs several

maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature and control of emotions. It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland

­Hippocampus;​ Memory formation. Problems result in deficits in the memory for facts but not memory for courses of action. May also be involved in the regulation of some reproductive characteristics like the female sexual behavior, the onset of puberty and the release of the

pituitary hormone.

Structure of the Cortex;​ Each brain hemisphere is divided into four lobes that are separated by prominent fissures.  These lobes are the frontal lobe (forehead), parietal lobe (top to rear head), occipital lobe (back head) and temporal lobe (side of the head)

­Occipital Lobe;​ ​Back of the head, response to visual stimuli

­Temporal Lobe; Ab​ ove the ears, involves in hearing, language processing, and memory, ability to process information about the face.

­Frontal Lobe;​ Behind the forehead, controls of voluntary muscles, intelligence and personality

­Phineas Gage

­Emotionally shallow, distractible, unaware of social mores

­Prefrontal cortex; higher cognitive functions such as planning, reasoning, self control monitors and organizes thinking

­Parietal Lobe; T​ op and rear or head, registers spatial location, attention and motor control

Functions of the Cortex;​ The Motor Cortex is the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements. The Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives information from skin surface and sense organs. In the sensory cortex there are the association areas that are neurons that are busy with higher mental functions, many of these tasks that make us human.

­Motor Functions;​ An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

­Parietal Lobe (body sensation)

­Frontal Lobe (cognition, planning, recent memory)

­Temporal Lobe (hearing and advanced visual processing; Facial expression)

­Occipital Lobe (vision)


­Aphasia is an impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage heither to Broca’s area (understand speech, but impaired speaking) or Wernicke’s Area (impaired understanding written and spoken speech)

­Brain Plasticity;

­The brain is sculpted by our genes but also by our experiences

­Plasticity refers to the brain’s ability to modify itself after some types of injury or illness, especially in childhood

­Our Divided Brain;

­Two hemisphere

­Left; Processes reading, writing, speaking, mathematics, and

comprehension skills

­Right; Spatial abilities

­Splitting the Brain; A procedure in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them

­Split Brain Patients; With the corpus callosum severed, object

presented in the right visual field can be named. Object in the left visual field cannot.

Studying the  Brain;

­Selective Lesions; Destroy tiny clusters of brain cells

­Electrical, Chemical and Magnetic Stimulation

­Can even detect electrical pulse in a single neuron

Electroencephalogram (EEG);

­Amplified readout of electrical activity in brain’s billions of neurons

sweeping in regular waves across it’s surface

Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET Scan);

­Shows each brain area’s consumption of it’s chemical fuel,

glucose (temporarily radioactive)

­PET Scan tracks gamma rays released and shows which areas

are most active during a task

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

­Aligns spinning atoms of brain molecules

­Radio waves disorients atoms

­Atoms return to normal spin, emit signals

­Detailed picture of soft tissue

­Show lesions or damage to brain

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or 

functional MRI (FMRI)

­Shows brain’s functioning and structure

­sees immediate response in the brain

      Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT/CT)

­Locates abnormalities in structure or shape of brain

­X­Ray providing cross section of the body


Who are famous Psychologists from this unit?

Socrates, Plato, Aristotle;​ Believed mind separable from body (dualism), further believing that the mind continues after death. Also viewed knowledge as built from within. Would say things were part of your genetics. Prescientific. 

Descartes;​ Thought mind was separable from body. Believed in a "spirit liquid" that flowed through your nerves from the brain. Prescientific. 

Wundt; ​Conducted first psychology experiments in first psych laboratory Titchner; ​Founder of Structuralism 

Calkins;​ ​First female president of the APA (1905); a student of William James; denied the PhD she earned from Harvard because of her sex (later, posthumously, it was granted to her) 

Washburn; ​First female to be awarded a PhD in psychology; 2nd president of the APA (1921) Watson;​ Early behaviorist; famous for the "Little Albert" experiments on fear conditioning Skinner; ​Described process of operant conditioning. 

Freud; ​Developed psychoanalysis; considered to be "father of modern psychiatry". Unconscious desires; Dreams. 

Rogers; ​Developed client centered psychology. (e.x. Sit on the long couch and talk about your feelings).

Maslow;​ Humanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self­actualization" 

Darwin; ​His idea, that the genetic composition of a species can be altered through natural selection, has had a lasting impact on psychology through the evolutionary perspective

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