Chapter 1 Vocab and Notes
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Abnormal Behavior Chapter 1 Notes The field of abnormal psychology Psychopathy o Study of symptoms and causes of mental disorders o Goals (scientific method): Describe Explain Predict Modify o Mental health professionals try to alleviate distress and life disruption of people with mental disorders Goals Describe behavior (diagnosis): o Describe, assess, and understand the situation o Dictates the treatment plan (course of therapy); focus first on most distressing symptoms Explain behavior: o Determine etiology (possible causes); high priority because it affects treatment approaches o Human behavior is complex; has multiple contributing factors - causes can be harder to identify Predicting behavior o Violence is extremely difficult to predict, psychologists are often asked to predict who will be violent o Being able to predict behavior gives a sense of control for the patient, they can avoid their "stressors" (depression) Modifying behavior o Engaging in appropriate treatment (psychotherapy, medication) to improve a person's behavioral, emotional, or cognitive state o There may be many types of therapies The mental health professionals Clinical psychologist Counseling psychologist Mental health counselor; marriage/family therapist Neuropsychologist Psychiatrist Psychiatric nurse Psychiatric social worker School psychologist Substance abuse counselor How common are mental disorders? Prevalence rate o Percentage of people in a population who have the disorder during a given interval of time (e.g. 1% for schizophrenia) o Department of health and human services study 24.8% of US adults have experienced a mental disorder in the past 12 months, excluding drug and alcohol disorders Implications to society $135 billion a year is spent on mental health and substance abuse services in the US 25% of adults have a diagnosable mental health condition, with many more experiencing problems at a subclinical level 57% of adults with severe mental health conditions are not receiving treatment Social stigma/stereotype Mentally ill people are frequently stereotypes are stigmatized Efforts to reduce stigma include: o Public disclosures by well-known people o Open acknowledgment and discussion of issues What you can do o Be respectful when describing others in mental distress, choose words carefully o Encourage family and friends to seek help early Historical views of abnormal behavior Supernaturalism o The belief that gods, demons, spirits, and magic influence behavior o Attempts to cure abnormal behavior based on supernaturalism Exorcism - techniques for casting out evil spirits (magic, prayer, noise-making, incantations, starving and flogging) Trephination - drilling a hole or skull so that the evil spirit can escape Ancient western world In ancient Greece, abnormal behavior was thought to be caused by punishment for offenses against the gods The belief declined; disorders came to be viewed as natural phenomena Naturalism - explains disorders of the body and mind in terms of natural, physical processes Hippocrates Said that the brain is the body's most important organ Three categories of mental disorders: o Mania o Melancholia o Phrenitis (brain fever) He recommended rest, a calm life, soothing bath, light exercise and a vegetable diet as treatments for mental disorders Galen A roman physician who extended the Greek theories; assumed that brain disruptions caused mental illnesses Humoral theory: o Explained disease as an imbalance of four body fluids (humors) - blood (sanguis), phlegm, yellow bile (choler), and black bile (melancholic) o Galen belied that humoral theory could explain a person's temperament by identifying which humor was dominant The middle ages The Greek views spread toward Middle East, but between 1000 and 1500 AD, the supernatural viewpoint became prominent again in Europe Political and socioeconomic disorder threatened the power of the Roman Catholic Church, which had been dominant in Europe This view change was fueled by natural disasters like plagues and famines that were thought to be the work of the devil Scientific thinking declined dramatically, and humane treatment decreased rapidly Treatment methods for mental illness reverted back to exorcism, prayer, confession, and atoning for sins Witch hunts About 1200 AD, many mentally ill people (especially women) were accused for being witches possessed by demons; punished and often killed The Protestant Reformation disrupted the views put forth by the Roman Catholic Church, triggering wars and persecution Although suspected witches were most often women with mental illness or were victims of societal circumstances (e.g. poverty), witch-hunting continued into the 1700's, after more than 100,000 people were killed Humanism Following the Middle Ages, physicians like Johan Weyer began to critique the supernatural perspective and theologians such as St. Vincent de Paul declared that mental illness is no different than physical illness Weyer described a range of abnormal behavior (paranoia, epilepsy, psychosis, depression) and said that treatment should meet the needs of disturbed people These advocates helped bring back a humane approach to care and treatment Hospitals and asylums were established to remove people from society who could not care for themselves, but they became places to confine the poor, homeless, unemployed, or criminal Asylums St. Mart of Bethlehem in London ("Bedlam") was established in 1547; it was known for its horrible conditions Patients lived in filth, were chained to the walls or roamed around the building There were inadequate food and access to water, and several patients suffered from starvation In 1598 the hospital began exhibiting patients to the public in order to raise money, patients were exhibited for the entertainment of patrons, who were charged one penny Conditions were no better in other countries where hospitals were established, patients were restrained, subjected to electric shocks and ice baths, and underwent "bleeding" to drain them of harmful body fluids Reforms By the 18th century, protests about these conditions were occurring in Europe and America A French physician, Phillipe Pinel was put in charge of the care of patients at a hospital in Paris Pineal made several changes to the hospitals: a fixed schedule, a daily visit from the hospital administrator, a proper diet, and organized physical and mental activities Sunny rooms, good ventilation, and calm surroundings were provided, along with accommodations that separated patients with different levels of functioning The effect was remarkable and influences practices in other hospitals Moral management 1850-1950 Moral management was abandoned in America because: o Hospitals became overcrowded and understaffed o Prejudices about the rising number of immigrants in hospitals led to tension between patients and staff members o Advances in medical science influenced physicals to believe that only biologically based treatments could be effective, but those treatments did no appear for another hundred years Dorothea Dix, a New England school teacher, became the next advocate for the mentally ill o She promoted the mental hygiene movement, raiding millions of dollars to establish over 30 state hospital o These state sun mental hospitals were later criticized, but Dorothea Dix is credited for changing societal attitudes about mental disorders The age of reason and the enlightenment The scientific method came to replace faith as a way of understanding the world Franz Joseph Gall - an English physician who practiced phrenology (bumps on the head reflect underlying parts of the brain) Franz Anton Mesmer - a Viennese physician who treated diseases using magnets; these magnets reinforced his own animal magnetism producing a cure Mesmer practicing animal magnetism Mesmer believed that mental illness was caused by an imbalance in a universal magnetic fluid found in people The term mesmerize comes from his treatment techniques that involved inducing a trance-like state in his patients Psychological approach Mesmer was eventually discredited, but the use of trances (hypnosis) to treat individuals continued to be used and debated o The Nancy School - some forms of mental illness (hysteria) were psychologically, not physically based o Charcot - hysteria is caused by a physical disease affecting the brain At this time, Sigmund Freud was studying neurology in Vienna, and went to Paris to study under Charcot Freud returned to Vienna and began working with Josef Breuer to develop his ideas that mental processes could be hidden from consciousness and still affect behavior Using hypnosis, Freud and Breuer encouraged their patients to talk freely about their problems, when their patients were awakened, they felt an emotional release that improved their symptoms - catharsis This led to the concept of the unconscious, eventually, Freud realized that hypnosis was not necessary for catharsis to occur (talking cure) The biogenic (organic) view of abnormal behavior Wilhelm Greisinger - a Germany psychiatrist who emphasized biological causes of abnormal behavior o "Mental diseases are brain diseases" Emill Kraepelin - uses the scientific method to examine and classify abnormal behavior Psychiatrists - medical doctors who specialize in mental disorders Medical model - assumes that abnormal behavior reflects a disease of the body The views converge Integrationism - neither biological factors nor psychological factors alone fully explain the origins of abnormal behavior Need to consider both Chapter 1 Vocabulary Mental disorder - psychological symptoms or behavioral patterns that reflect an underlying psychobiological dysfunction, are associated with distress or disability, and are not merely an expectable response to common stressors or losses Mental illness - a mental health condition that negatively affects a person's emotions, thinking, behavior, relationships, with others, or overall functioning Abnormal psychology - the scientific study whose objectives are to describe, explain, predict, and modify behaviors associated with mental disorders Psychopathy - the study of the symptoms, causes, and treatments of mental disorders Mental health professional - health care practitioners (such as psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers) whose services focus on improving mental health or treating mental illness Psychodiagnosis - an assessment and description of an individual's psychological symptoms, including inferences about what might be causing the psychological distress Treatment plan - a proposed course of therapy, developed collaboratively by a therapist and client, that addresses the client's most distressing mental health symptoms Etiology - the cause or causes for a condition Psychotherapy - a program of systematic intervention with the purpose of improving a client's behavioral emotional, or cognitive symptoms Prevalence - the percentage of individuals in a targeted population who have a particular disorder during a specific period of time Lifetime prevalence - the percentage of people in the people in the population who have had a disorder at some point in their lives Stereotype - an oversimplified, often inaccurate, image or idea about a group of people Social stigma - a negative societal belief about a group, including the view that the group is somehow different from other members of society Prejudice - an unfair, preconceived judgement about a person or group based on supposed characteristics Discrimination - unjust or prejudicial treatment toward a person based on the person's actual or perceived membership in a certain group Self-stigma - acceptance of prejudice and discrimination based on internalized negative societal beliefs or stereotypes Self-efficacy - a belief in one's ability to succeed in a specific situation Trephining - a surgical method from the Stone Age in which part of the skull was chipped away to provide an opening through which an evil spirit can escape Exorcism - a practice used to cast evil spirts out of an afflicted person's body Hysteria - an outdated term referring to excessive or uncontrollable emotion, sometimes resulting in somatic symptoms (such as blindness or paralysis) that have no apparent physical cause Tarantism - a form of mass hysteria prevalent during the Middle Ages, characterized by wild raving, jumping, dancing, and convulsing Humanism - a philosophical movement that emphasizes human welfare and the worth and uniqueness of the individual Moral treatment movement - a crusade to institute more humane treatment of people with mental illness Syndrome - certain symptoms that tend to occur regularly in clusters Intrapsychic - psychological processes occurring within the mind Multicultural psychology - a branch of psychology that focuses on culture, race, ethnicity, gender, age, socioeconomic class, and other similar factors in its effort to understand behavior Positive psychology - the philosophical and scientific study of positive human functioning and the strengths and assets of individuals, families, and communities Spirituality - the belief in an animating life force or energy beyond what we can perceive with our senses Recovery movement - the philosophy that with appropriate treatment and support those with mental illness can improve and live satisfying lives even with any limitations caused by their illness Psychotropic medications - drugs used to treat or manage psychiatric symptoms by influencing brain activity associated with emotions and behavior Managed health care - the industrialization of health care, whereby large organizations in the private sector control the delivery of services
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