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Test 1 Study Guide

by: Elizabeth Loos

Test 1 Study Guide KINS 2531 01H

Elizabeth Loos
GPA 3.0

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This covers the entire test 1. Also review the notes for Week 1 and each assignment from Topics 1-4. Epithelial Tissue WILL be on the test.
Anatomy and Physiology 1
Dr. Diana Sturgess
Study Guide
epithelial tissues, homeostasis, cells, chemical
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Loos on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KINS 2531 01H at Georgia Southern University taught by Dr. Diana Sturgess in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Kinesiology at Georgia Southern University.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Human Anatomy and Physiology I COMPLETED Learning Outcomes Test Module I Topic 1. Introduction and general orientation to human anatomy and physiology I. Basic Terminology 1. Define the terms anatomy and physiology  Anatomy is the study of structure of the body parts and how they relate to one another.  Physiology is the study of body part’s functions and specialized job. Identify which of the following relates to anatomy, physiology or both.  Measuring an organ’s size, shape, weight  Observing a heart in action  Dynamic  Auscultation  Cadaver dissection  Can be studied in dead specimens  Measuring the acid content of stomach  Often studied in living subjects  Observation  Experimentation  Principles of physics  Chemistry principles  Palpation  Directional terms 2. Give specific examples to show the interrelationship between anatomy and physiology.  The Principle of Complementarity states that a body part’s function reflects its structure and what a structure can do depends on its specific form. Skeletal and cardiac muscle example: skeletal gets fatigued easier because it has less/smaller mitochondria. Cardiac muscle is more resistant because it has more/larger mitochondria. II. Levels of Organization. 1. Describe, in order from simplest to most complex, the major levels of organization in the human organism  Chemical Cellular Tissue Organ Organ System Organism 2. Give an example of each level of organism ** each level builds on itself to compose next level  Chemical - atoms (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen) form molecules – H20 (water), CO2 (carbon dioxide), NaCl - (table salt), etc.  Cellular (cytology) – smallest units of life formed of organelles –heart cells, brain cells (neurons), etc.  Tissue (histology) - cells with similar function and structure; there are four primary types- epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscular.  Organ – has several types of tissues and a distinct location- liver, heart, skin, nerve, stomach.  Organ system (11) – nervous, endocrine, circulatory, reproductive, digestive, skeletal, muscular, lymphatic, urinary, integumentary, respiratory.  Organism – complete individual (YOU) III. Organ Systems 1. Identify the organ systems of the human body and their major components (Assignment 1-2 on worksheet 1) 2. Describe the major functions of each organ system (Assignment 3 on worksheet 1) IV. Anatomical Position 1. Describe a person in anatomical position The anatomical position is the standard frame of reference for describing the body for anatomical descriptions and dissection. Characteristics of the anatomical position are:  Person is standing erect  Feet slightly apart and flat on the floor  The arms are at the sides  Palms are supinated (forward)  The face and eyes are facing forward. 2. Describe how to use the terms right and left in anatomical reference.  When describing the right or left side of the body, think of correct anatomical position. If you look at somebody in anatomical position, you see a mirror image, so your left is right on anatomical position and your right is left on the anatomical position. V. Body planes and sections 1. Identify the various planes in which a body might be dissected  Frontal plane – divides the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions, vertical plane  Transverse plane – divides the body into upper and lower portions (as if wearing a belt), horizontal plane  Sagittal plane – divides the body into right and left portions, vertical plane Midsagittal plane – equal right and left portions. There is only one midsagittal plane (through the exact center of the body). Parasagittal plane – right and left portions, not equal. There is an infinite number of parasagittal planes, because it does not have to be down the body’s center. • Practice worksheet 1 assignment 4 VI. Directional terms 1. List and define the major directional terms used in anatomy and use the appropriate directional terminology to describe the location of body structures. Anterior/ventral = front. Posterior/dorsal = back The heart is anterior to the spine and posterior to the sternum. The stomach is dorsal to the small intestine but ventral to the pancreas. Superficial = close to skin’s surface. Deep = deep to the skin’s surface The capillaries are deep to the surface of the skin but superficial to the bone. Proximal = closer to the point of attachment. Distal = farther from the point of attachment. Used mostly in extremities. The elbow is distal to the shoulder but proximal to the fingers. Medial = closer to the midsagittal line. Lateral = farther away from the midsagittal line The lungs are medial to the arms but lateral to the sternum. Superior = above. Inferior = below The nose is inferior to eyebrows, but superior to the mouth. • Practice worksheet 1 assignment 5 VII. Body cavities and regions 1. List and describe the location of the major anatomical regions of the body. The human body is divided into two main regions:  Axial region - the head, neck, trunk, and abdomen Appendicular region - upper and lower extremities (limbs) 2. Describe the location of the body cavities, their membranes (pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum) and identify the major organs found in each cavity.  Dorsal cavity – in the axial region, posterior, includes the cranial cavity (brain) and vertebral canal (spinal cord).  Ventral body cavity – in the axial region, anterior, includes the:  Thoracic cavity – houses the heart and lungs. The pleural cavity and pleura (serous membrane) are specific to the lungs and the pericardial cavity and pericardium (serous membrane) are specific to the heart. Visceral layer of these membranes cover the organs (lungs and heart) and parietal layers line the walls of cavities. For ex. The lungs are covered by the visceral pleura; the heart is covered by the visceral pericardium. The walls of the pleural cavity are covered by parietal pleura and the walls of the pericardial cavity are covered by parietal pericardium.  Thoracic cavity is separated from abdominopelvic cavity by a muscular organ crucial for respiration called the diaphragm.  Abdominopelvic cavity – houses many organs (digestive, urinary, reproductive etc.), has the peritoneum aka peritoneal membrane (serous membrane). Visceral layer covers the organs and parietal layer lines the walls. Intraperitoneal organs are completely surrounded by the visceral peritoneum (most of small intestine, stomach, appendix and parts of large intestine) and retroperitoneal organs are only covered on one side (pancreas, duodenum, aorta, inferior vena cava, kidneys). 1. Abdominal cavity – is the superior part of the abdominopelvic cavity. It houses the GI tract, kidneys, ureters, stomach, pancreas, liver, and many other digestive organs. 2. Pelvic cavity – is the inferior part of the abdominopelvic cavity. It houses the rectum, bladder, urethra, and reproductive organs. Practice worksheet 1 assignment 7 3. Describe the location of the four abdominopelvic quadrants and the nine abdominopelvic regions and list the major organs located in each. The four abdominopelvic quadrants and nine abdominopelvic regions are all located in the abdominopelvic cavity. Underlined organs are required for test module I. Two perpendicular lines through the umbilicus (belly button) Right upper quadrant – liver and gallbladder Left upper quadrant – spleen, stomach Right lower quadrant-appendix, right ovary and uterine tube Left lower quadrant-sigmoid colon, left ovary and uterine tube Two vertical mid-clavicular lines (through the middle of the clavicle) and two horizontal lines: upper subcostal (through costal cartilage X) and lower intertubercular (between the tubercles of pelvis) Right hypochondriac region is in the lateral superior right region. Has the following organs:  Digestive - liver, gall bladder, Epigastric region is in the superior middle region. Has the following organs:  Digestive – esophagus, stomach Left hypochondriac region is in the superior left region. Has the following organs:  Digestive – stomach,  Urinary – left kidney (tip)  Lymphatic – spleen Right lumbar region is the right middle region. Has the following organs:  Digestive –ascending colon, small intestine  Urinary – right kidney Umbilical region is the center region. Has the following organs:  Digestive – stomach, pancreas, small intestine, Left lumbar region is the left middle region and contains organs for the following systems  Digestive – small intestine, descending colon  Urinary – left kidney Right iliac (inguinal) region is located in the right lower region and contains organs for the following systems  Digestive – appendix,  Reproductive Females – right ovary, right fallopian tube Hypogastric region is the lower middle region and contains organs for the following systems  Digestive – small intestine  Urinary –urinary bladder  Reproductive Females – uterus Left iliac (inguinal) region is in the left inferior region. Has the following organs:  Digestive –sigmoid colon  Reproductive Females – left ovary, left fallopian tube 4. Use basic regional and systemic terminology to locate and identify structures of the body. See 1, 2 and 3 above.  The human body is divided into two main regions: 1) Axial region - the head, neck, trunk, and abdomen and 2) Appendicular region - upper and lower extremities (limbs). Within these regions are sub regions and cavities. For example, the abdominal cavity is broken down into 4 quadrants, which are further broken down into 9 regions. EXAMPLE: Liver is an organ of the digestive system, located in the abdominal cavity, mostly in the RUQ or right hypochondriac region. Vagina is part of the reproductive system, is anterior to the rectum and posterior to the urethra. VIII. Homeostatic mechanisms 1. Define homeostasis Homeostasis is the body’s ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment “steady state”, despite fluctuations in an ever-changing outside world. Ex: heart rate, blood pressure, glucose levels, etc. It is dynamic and necessary to maintain life. Worksheet 1 assignment 8. 2. List the components of a feedback loop (receptor, afferent pathway, control center, efferent pathway, effector) and explain the function of each  A feedback loop can be either positive or negative and will have the following components: Receptor (sensor) – detects changes in the body and sends signals to the control center through Afferent pathway. Ex: pain receptors, temperature receptors, touch receptors, etc. Afferent pathway – pathway for the signal sent from receptor TO the control center Control Center – usually the brain, receives signals and makes decisions. Sends a command to effectors through Efferent pathway Efferent pathway – pathway for the command AWAY from the control center to the effector Effector – organ/system that receives command and carries out decision of control center (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, sweat glands). 3. Compare and contrast positive and negative feedback in terms of the relationship between stimulus and response Positive feedback loop – has a self-amplifying effect. The response/output proceeds in the same direction as the initial stimulus. Example: birth, clotting, increasing fever Negative feedback loop – has a self-corrective effect and keeps a variable close to its set point. The response/output reduces or stops the original stimulus. Example: human thermoregulation, control of glucose levels and hormone levels. Worksheet 1 assignment 9. 4. Explain why negative feedback is the most commonly used mechanism to maintain homeostasis in the body Negative feedback is a much safer operation of the body, because the organism is trying to CORRECT the variable (bring it to normal). If variable is too high, bring it down. If variable is too low, bring it up. If positive feedback continues without limitation, it can cause life-threatening diseases, as it tends to get out of control. Seen less often in the body. IX. Examples of Homeostatic Mechanisms 1. Provide an example of a negative feedback loop that utilizes the nervous system to relay information. Describe the specific organs, structures, cells or molecules (receptors, neurons, CNS structures, effectors, neurotransmitters) included in the feedback loop. Human thermoregulation: temperature receptors (receptors) detect a change in temperature and send the information to the hypothalamus in the brain, CNS (control center). The hypothalamus analyses the information and makes a decision to either lower or increase the temperature. If temperature is high, signals are sent to sweat glands and blood vessels (effectors) to lower the temperature through sweating and vasodilation. If temperature is low, the hypothalamus sends signals to skeletal muscles and blood vessels (effectors) to raise temperature through shivering and vasoconstriction. Worksheet 1 assignments 10-12. 2. Provide an example of a negative feedback loop that utilizes the endocrine system to relay information. Describe the specific cells or molecules (production cells, hormones, target cells) included in the feedback loop. To obtain energy, a person eats a candy bar/chocolate/vegetables, etc… Carbohydrates are broken down to glucose in the small intestine. Glucose is absorbed from the intestine into the bloodstream and blood glucose levels rise. The elevated glucose levels stimulate endocrine cells (production cells) in the pancreas to release insulin (hormone). Insulin acts on target cells (skeletal muscle, fat) and helps glucose enter the cells to be used for fuel. Blood glucose levels decrease. When the glucose levels in the blood fall below a certain level, these low levels stimulate the endocrine cells (production cells) in pancreas to produce glucagon (hormone). Glucagon acts on target cells (liver) and helps release additional sugar into the blood. Blood glucose levels increase. 3. Provide an example of a positive feedback loop in the body. Describe the specific structures (organs, cells or molecules) included in the feedback loop. A woman going into labor demonstrates a positive feedback loop. As the baby’s head pushes against the cervix, receptors in the cervix send nerve impulses through neurons (nervous cells) to the brain, specifically the pituitary gland that releases a hormone called oxytocin. This hormone acts on the effector (muscle in the uterus) to stimulate/enhance muscle contractions. The stronger the muscle contraction, the more the head of fetus pushes on the cervix continuing the loop, until the fetus is delivered. Review worksheet 1 assignment 13. X. Application of homeostatic mechanisms 1. Provide specific examples to demonstrate how organ systems respond to maintain homeostasis  See ex.1 above on temperature regulation and ex. 2 above on glucose regulation. 2. Explain how different organ systems relate to one another to maintain homeostasis  Health of the skeleton requires Ca ions: Integumentary, digestive and urinary systems work together to maintain a normal range of Ca ions in the bloodstream.  Blood pressure aka BP (normal values of 120/80 mmHg): Circulatory, urinary, endocrine and muscular systems work together to maintain a normal range of BP  Respiratory function: Circulatory, muscular and nervous systems work together to maintain a normal respiratory function 3. Predict the types of problems that would occur in the body if various organ systems could not maintain homeostasis and allowed regulated variables (body conditions) to move away from normal. Without being able to work together, these separate organ systems will not function themselves. For example, the cardiovascular system relies on the lymphatic to collect extra fluid, the respiratory to eliminate CO2 and obtain O2, the muscular system to pump it throughout the body, the urinary system to filter blood, the endocrine system to regulate hormone levels, the nervous system to monitor chemical levels of the blood, etc. If one of these systems fails, it is very likely that the rest will eventually follow suit. Topic 2. Chemistry of Life I. Atoms and Molecules 1. Define matter and provide examples of three states of matter in the human body. Provide the definition of elements and be able to identify elements based on their chemical symbol. Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. Matter has three states important for human body: liquid (blood), solid 9organs) and gas (CO2 and o2). Matter is composed of elements = unique substances that cannot be broken into simpler substances by regular chemical methods. Each element has a letter symbol on the periodic table. Worksheet 2 assignment 1. 2. Describe the charge, mass, and relative location of electrons, protons and neutrons in an atom. Worksheet 2 assignment 2. Elements consists of atoms. An atom is smallest part of an element that still has the properties of that substance. Atoms give the element its unique physical and chemical properties and can be broken down into subatomic particles Name properties symbol charge mass location Electron chemical e Negative (-) v. small/discarded orbiting the nucleus Proton physical p Positive (+) 1 amu in nucleus Neutron physical n No charge (0) 1 amu in nucleus 3. Distinguish among the terms atomic number and mass number. • Atomic number – the number of protons in an atom. • Mass number – the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom (amu). Worksheet 2 assignments 3-4. 4. Relate the number of electrons in an electron shell (include valence shell) to an atom’s chemical stability and its ability to form chemical bonds. An atom needs 8 electrons in its outermost electron shell (called valence shell) to be stable. This is known as the Octet Rule-8 is GREAT! Atoms bond with other atoms by filling their valence shells so that there are 8 electrons total, whether shared or original to the atom. If an atom has <4 electrons, the atom will donate them. If the atom has >4 electrons, it will accept them. Carbon has 4 valence electrons in its outer shell, so it will share them. 5. Compare and contrast the terms atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds. Atoms – smallest part of an element that still has the properties of that substance. Composed of a central nucleus, made up of protons and neutrons, and circled by electrons located in the electron cloud. Elements –unique substances that cannot be broken into simpler substances by regular chemical methods. Marked by symbols in the periodic table. Molecules – a group of two or more atoms (same type) held together by a bond. Compounds – a group of two or more atoms (different type) held together by a bond. Worksheet 2 assignment 5. 6. Explain how ions (cations/anions) and isotopes are produced by the relative number of specific subatomic particles. Atoms are electrically neutral, because the number or protons=the number of electrons. Ions – charged particles with unequal numbers of protons and electrons Cations are created when an atom loses an electron (electrons<protons). Positive charge. Anions are created when an atom gains an electron (electrons>protons). Negative charge. Isotopes are atoms that differ in the number of neutrons in the nucleus and have a different atomic weight than its original atom. Worksheet 2 assignment 6. II. Chemical Bonding 1. Identify the three types of bonds discussed in class. Explain the mechanism of each type of bond. Provide biologically significant examples of each. Worksheet 2 assignment 7. Bonds 1. Ionic 2. Covalent 3. Hydrogen Mechanism of formation Types: single/double polar/non-polar Examples III. Inorganic compounds and solutions 1. Define the term inorganic molecule and provide biologically significant examples of each.  Inorganic molecule – a molecule that is lacking a carbon atom. It can bond with ionic or covalent bonds.  H20, O2, CO2, bicarbonate (the last two are exception to the carbon rule) 2. Define the term acid, base, salt and electrolytes and give examples of physiological significance Salt –A compound that yields ions other than hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions, usually ionic compounds produced by reaction of acid with base. Salts that ionize in water and are capable of conducting electricity are called electrolytes. Salts are essential to life: help regulate water levels in the body (think osmosis), also very important for electrical events in human body (contraction of muscle and signal conduction in nervous system). Ex: (NaCl). • Acid – pH <7. Releases H+ ions into solutions and is considered a proton donor (HCl). aciD/reD • Base – pH >7. Accepts H+ ions (milk of magnesia). Base/Blue • Worksheet 3 assignments 8-9. 3. Define the term pH and discuss the pH scale. State acidic, neutral, and alkaline pH values for ICF and ECF. Explain acidosis and alkalosis. pH – this is the measurement of the “Power of Hydrogen”. It measures the concentration of H+ ions in solutions on a pH scale (0-14). On the pH scale, 7 is considered neutral. The more H in solution (more acidic), the lower we go on pH scale; the less H in solution(more basic/alkaline), the higher we go on pH scale. The blood maintains a fairly neutral pH (7.4), while stomach maintains a fairly acidic pH (2). ICF (intracellular fluid): pH = 7. Acidosis in ICF occurs when the pH falls < 7 and Alkalosis when the pH rises > 7. ECF (extracellular fluid): pH is 7.35 to 7.45. Acidosis in ECF occurs when the pH falls <7.35 and Alkalosis when the pH rises > 7.45. Acidosis (accumulation of H+) is corrected with bases and alkalosis (lack of H+) is corrected with acids. 4. Define the term buffer and give examples of physiological significance Buffer – systems that help convert strong acids or bases to weak ones and maintain pH. Example: physiological buffers = respiratory and urinary systems and chemical buffers=bicarbonate (active in ECF), phosphate (active in ICF and kidney tubules), and protein systems (active in ICF and ECF). 5. Be able to determine the pH in a problem. Step 1. Do we have less or more H ions? If more, go down the pH scale; if less, go up the pH scale. Step 2. How many units? A change in 1 unit=change 10 times in H. (10 is 1 unit; 100 is 2 units; etc..). Going up the pH scale, concentration of H decreases 10 times per each unit. Going down the pH scale, concentration of H ions increases 10 times per each unit. Worksheet 3 assignments 10-11. 6. Discuss the physiologically important properties of water The human body is composed of 50-75% water (more in males and adults, less in females, children and elderly), which is the most abundant inorganic compound. a. Thermal properties – the body absorbs or releases large amounts of heat without changing its temperature (sweating or no sweating). b. Body lubricant – helps lubricate the organs in the body cavities (found between parietal and visceral layers of pleural, pericardial, peritoneal membranes) and reduces friction. c. Chemical reactivity –helps with chemical reactions.  Hydrolysis – a reaction in which H20 is added and molecule is split in smaller components.  Dehydration – a reaction in which H20 is removed and a big molecule is formed. d. Surface tension - is the result of the tendency of water molecules to attract one another (cohesion). Important for functioning of lungs/blood flow. e. Universal Solvent (see below 8) – most substances will dissolve in water. Hydrophilic = loves water and dissolves in water; hydrophobic=afraid of water, does not dissolve well in water. 8. Distinguish among the terms solution, solute, solvent.  Solute – a substance (solid or liquid) to be dissolved in another substance (liquid or gas)  Solvent – a substance in which another substance (solute) is dissolved in  Solution = solutes + solvents - generally transparent because small particles cannot be seen, particles can pass through membranes, solute and solvent remain mixed. Ex: glucose in blood • Worksheet 3 assignment 12. IV. Organic compounds 1. Define the term organic molecule, list the four classes and provide biologically significant examples of each Organic molecules have a covalently bonded carbon atom that always shares its electrons. Examples: Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids. Macromolecules that have a backbone of carbon with functional groups (COOH, NH2, OH, etc.) attached to it giving the compound unique chemical properties. Significant examples: Glucose, hemoglobin, cholesterol, DNA. 2. Explain the relationship between monomers and polymers Monomer – a repeating subunit of polymers. Examples: simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, nucleotides Polymer – large molecules made of monomers. Examples: polysaccharides (carbohydrates), polypeptides (proteins), phospholipids, DNA/RNA. 3. With respect to carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids: identify the monomers and polymers; compare and contrast structural characteristics; identify dietary sources; discuss physiological and structural roles in the human body and provide specific examples. Table 1 below. Table 1. Polymer Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic acids Aka polysaccharides Aka polypeptides Monomer Monosaccharides Amino acids Fatty acids Nucleotides Structure C, H and O C, H and O C, H and O C, H and O characteristics Nitrogenous bases- A, T, U, C and G Dietary sources Grains, legumes, Nuts, meats, dairy, Oil, butter, egg yolk Meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, fruits soy vegetables Function Energy/fuel Structure, Energy storage, chemical Genetic information, communication, messengers, cell membrane protein synthesis catalyst, movement, structure membrane transport Examples Glucose, 20 amino acids, Arachidonic acid, DNA and RNA glycogen hemoglobin, phospholipids, triglycerides, (mRNA, tRNA, cholesterol-steroids rRNA) 4. Describe the four levels of protein structure (including bonds) and discuss the importance of protein shape for protein function. Primary – peptide bonds between amino acids create a chain (polypeptide). Proteins differ in number, type and sequence of amino acids. Secondary – hydrogen bonds between amino acids in chain create an alpha helix (spiral) or beta pleated (sheet) chain. Folding happens just to regions of protein (one polypeptide chain). Tertiary (3D or three dimensional structure) - In addition to hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions and ionic bonds allow the folding of the entire protein (one polypeptide chain). Quaternary – hydrogen bonds of several polypeptide chains come together in a braided chain (collagen) or a 4- polypeptide arrangement (hemoglobin) 5. Demonstrate factors that affect enzyme activity, including denaturation, Denaturation – when a protein unfolds and loses its three-dimensional shape. Can be reversible=can regain the shape (channels in plasma membrane) or irreversible=cannot regain the shape (fried egg), usually when temperature or pH change. V. Compare and contrast the two nucleic acids: DNA and RNA. Worksheet 2 assignment 13. VI. Describe the generalized reversible reaction for release of energy from ATP and explain the role of ATP in the cell.  ATP- adenosine triphosphate (three phosphate groups). The main energy source for cells, the only “currency” a cell recognizes. Anytime a phosphate group breaks off, energy is released which is used to power different activities of the cell. (contraction, Na/K pump, etc) ATP becomes ADP. If another phosphate group breaks off, more energy is released, ADP becomes AMP and so forth. ATP is constantly used and constantly formed. Review worksheet 2 assignment 14. Topics 3. Cytology I. Intracellular organization 1. Identify the three main parts of a cell (plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus) and list the general functions of each.  Plasma membrane – composed of lipids (a phospholipid bilayer (75%), cholesterol (20%) and glycolipids (5%)) and proteins associated with the phospholipid bi-layer. Is not rigid, but fluid and serves as a barrier: separates the components of the cell from the outside environment.  Cytoplasm – everything found inside the plasma membrane, composed of cytosol (viscous fluid inside the cell) + organelles. Has the machinery for metabolism.  Nucleus – an organelle, control center of a cell containing chromosomes (genetic information). Involved in protein synthesis and passage of genetic information to offspring. 2. Explain how cytoplasm and cytosol are different  Cytosol = viscous fluid inside of the cell ONLY  Cytoplasm = cytosol + other organelles. 3. Explain how ECF and ICF are different  ECF is the fluid that bathes the cells, found outside the cells, while ICF (cytosol of all cells) is the fluid found inside the cells. ICF (pH=7) is slightly more acidic than ECF (pH=7.4). II. Membrane structure/function 1. Describe how lipids (phospholipids, cholesterol, glycolipids) are distributed in a plasma membrane and explain their functions.  Phospholipids – form a bi-layer; make up about 75% of the membrane and are found with polar heads (hydrophilic) as outer layers and fatty acids (hydrophobic) as inner layers-Think of a PB&J sandwich! It is fluid.  Glycolipids – line the surface of the membrane. It makes up about 5% of the membrane lipids and acts as a marker.  Cholesterol – 20%- found wedged between the fatty acid tails of phospholipids and helps stiffen the membrane. 2. Describe how carbohydrates are distributed in a plasma membrane, and explain their functions.  Carbohydrate chains – are located on the outside of the plasma membrane and are attached to the glycolipids. Carbohydrates create a glycocalyx which acts as an “identification tag” which helps our body to identify its cells as “self” compared to foreign invaders. 3. Describe how proteins (integral, peripheral) are distributed in plasma membrane, and explain their functions.  Proteins – make up about 2% of the molecules, but constitute about 50% of the membrane weight. The integral proteins (transmembrane proteins) go completely through the bilayer. The peripheral proteins only adhere to one side of the membrane. The membrane proteins have multiple functions:  a) receptors to attach chemicals  b) channels to allow passage of solutes through plasma membrane. Can be constantly open (allow passage of ions all the time) and gated (allow passage only when open). Gated channels are ligand gated (open in response to chemicals) and voltage gated (open in response to voltage/electrical changes)  c) carriers to “carry” solutes across the plasma membrane. Carriers that require ATP are called pumps (ex:Na/K pump). 4. List and describe different cells in terms of cellular differentiation:  Totipotent – A stem cell that can become anything the human body needs.  Pluripotnet – A cell that can become any human tissue cell  Multipotent – A cell that can differentiate into either cell lineage (ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm).  Oligopotent – Can become 1 of a few different cell types.  Unipotent – Can only make more of its own cell type. 5. Distinguish among desmosomes, gap junctions and tight junctions and specify their importance in the human body. Desmosomes – intermediate filaments that keep cells together against mechanical stressors. Also called mechanical junctions (skin and heart cells) Gap junctions – open pores that allow for movement of ions from one cell directly into another. Also called communicating junctions. (heart cells) Tight junctions – look like zippers and make the space between cells tight to prevent passage of solutes between the cells. (stomach lining, skin cells) III. Mechanisms for movement of materials across cell membranes 1. With respect to each of the following membrane transport processes – simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, filtration, osmosis, active transport, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis and pinocytyosis. a. Describe the direction of particle movement b. Discuss the energy requirements and, if applicable, the sources of energy for each process. c. Describe the mechanism by which movement of material occurs. d. Give examples of each process in the human body PASSIVE  Movement of particles through a semipermeable membrane from a HIGH concentration to a LOW concentration* without use of energy/ATP due to:  Simple Diffusion – constant, spontaneous movement (kinetic energy) of particles ex) CO2, O2  Facilitated diffusion –a protein carrier ex) glucose  Filtration – blood pressure in human body, which is the equivalent of hydrostatic pressure ex) movement of fluid into the tissues in capillary exchange  Osmosis (simple diffusion of water) - spontaneous movement of water ex) movement of water from tissues back into capillaries in capillary exchange * Movement from a high concentration to a low concentration is known as down the concentration gradient. Gradient means difference in concentration. ACTIVE  Movement of particles through a semipermeable membrane from a LOW concentration to a HIGH concentration with the use of energy/ATP due to _______________  Primary active transport - a pump ex) the sodium-potassium pump that moves K out of the cell and Na into the cell  Vesicular transport - VESICLES  Exocytosis – a) movement of solute OUT of the cell: vesicles approach the cell surface and expel its contents ex) neurotransmitters, products of exocrine glands like milk or sweat, waste  Endocytosis – a) movement of solute INTO the cell: vesicles approach the cell surface and merge with it ex) phagocytosis or “cell eating” and pinocytosis or “cell drinking” Phagocytosis – macrophages or neutrophils (white blood cells) engulf bacteria with pseudopods to dispose of them Pinocytosis –the process of cell taking small amounts of ECF (FLUID) into the cell in most cells of the body (kidney cells). * Movement from a low concentration to a high concentration is known as against the concentration gradient. Gradient means difference in concentration. Concentration is usually measured in %. For ex: 0.9% saline solution or 10% glucose solution. The higher the %, the more concentrated the solution is (the higher the concentration of solute). 2. Define and describe the effects of hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic conditions on cells.  Isotonic – a solution in which the concentration of solute and solvent is identical to the composition of ICF. Water moves through the semipermeable membrane, but there is no net movement. Cell does not change its volume when placed in this solution.  Hypertonic – is a solution with a higher concentration of solutes (like sodium or proteins) and lower concentration of solvent (water) in comparison to ICF. Net movement of water is OUT of the cell. Cells placed in this solution lose water and shrivel.  Congested nasal passages can be lessened by applying a hypertonic solution. Cells will shrink, decrease congestion (swelling) and improve breathing.  Hypotonic – is a solution with a lower concentration of solutes (like sodium or proteins) and higher concentration of solvent (water) in comparison to ICF. Net movement of water is INTO of the cell. Cells placed in this solution gain water and swell (can burst) IV. Organelles 1. Define the term organelle. Identify and describe the structure and function of the following organelles (nucleus, RER and smooth ER, Golgi complex, lysosome, mitochondrion, ribosome, centriole, basal body) in the human cells.  Organelle- subcellular structure in cytosol that carry out specialized metabolic functions. Nucleus- a) this is the control center of the cell/ holds genetic information/has the code to protein synthesis. b) The nucleus is a membranous organelle with a nuclear envelope with nuclear pores to separate the DNA molecules it houses from the metabolic machinery in the cytoplasm. Because the DNA is centrally located, it is easier to organize and replicate DNA before splitting into daughter cells. Has chromatin (loosely organized DNA) or chromosomes (supercoiled DNA). Cells can be anucleate (have no nucleus) or multinucleate (have many nuclei). Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) – a) the ER is a membranous network of cisternae (interconnected channels) within the cytoplasm. b) There are two types. The Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is covered with granules called ribosomes and is responsible for protein synthesis. The Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) lacks ribosomes, has more tubular cisternae than the rough ER and branches more. It is responsible for synthesis of lipids (like steroids), storing Ca++ in muscle cells and detoxifying alcohol and other drugs. Golgi complex (apparatus) – this organelle is a small membranous system of about six cisternae slightly separated from each other that resemble a stack of plates. b) The Golgi complex finishes (makes final changes to their structure) proteins produced by the RER and packages them into (Golgi) vesicles. From here, proteins are transported to plasma membrane or left inside the cell. Makes lysosomes. Lysosome – a) these organelles are shapeless membranous sacs of proteolytic enzymes formed by the Golgi complex. b) Lysosomes recycle the cell’s organic material and are considered “auto-digesting” – as in white blood cells where the lysosomes digest phagocytized bacteria or digesting and disposing of worn out mitochondria and other organelles within the cell. This function is known as autophagy. They are also involved in autolysis (aka programmed cell death) – as in post-partum uterus when we remove the extra cells. Peroxisome – a) a membranous organelle, usually round or oval in shape formed by ER b)holds a set of enzymes (like catalase and oxidase) that is able to break down substances like very long chain fatty acids or amino acids and is involved in detoxification Mitochondrion –a)a membranous organelle in shape of kidney bean b)powerhouse of the cell, this is where most ATP is produced in presence of oxygen. Has own DNA and reproduces on its own. Ribosome – a) is a non-membranous organelle made up of rRNA and has one small (40S) and one big (60S) subunits. They are found on the RER, nuclear envelope, and nucleoli or free in cytoplasm. b) Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis. They read coded genetic messages from mRNA in order to assemble amino acids in polypeptides (proteins). Centriole – a) is a non-membranous organelle, an assembly of microtubules arranged in nine groups of three microtubules on the periphery b) their function comes from their role in cell division by forming the mitotic spindle and guiding the chromatids to opposite poles of the cell. Basal body- a) is a non-membranous organelle, derived from centrioles, formed of 9 pairs of peripheral microtubules forming a hollow cylinder b) seen in a cilium or flagellum. Worksheet 3 assignment 1. V. Somatic cell division 1. Referring to a generalized cell cycle, including interphase and the stages of mitosis, describe the events that take place in each stage and analyze the functional significance in each stage.  Interphase – 3 phases make up the first 75% of a cell’s replication period. 1. G1- first gap phase where growth and normal metabolic rates are established 2. Synthesis – period of DNA replication 3. G2 – growth and preparation for mitosis  Mitosis is asexual reproduction The division of nucleus includes: Prophase – chromatin supercoils to form chromosomes consisting of 2 sister chromatids (each has one DNA molecule) attached at centromeres. Metaphase – chromosomes line up on the midline of the cell (equator of cell) forming the metaphase plate. Anaphase – centromeres in the center of the chromosomes split in two and each sister chromatid becomes a chromosome. These daughter chromosomes travel down the mitotic spindle to the opposite poles of the cell. Telophase – movement towards poles stops and chromosomes uncoil to form chromatin. A new nuclear envelope forms from the RER and the mitotic spindles begin to break down. As a result of mitosis we create 2 daughter cells that have the same number of chromosomes as mother cell (46=diploid) and same genetic information as mother cell (they are identical), just less cytoplasm. 2. Distinguish between mitosis and cytokinesis  Mitosis represents the division of the nucleus (separation of the cell’s DNA), while cytokinesis is the separation of the cell’s cytoplasm. After splitting, the daughter cells have identical DNA and after cytokinesis the cytoplasm is genetically identical but is in much less amount than the parent cell. 3. Describe DNA replication DNA replication happens in synthesis (S) phase of interphase. It is crucial for mitosis that this phase happens correctly. During DNA replication, the double helix is split into two separate strands and the DNA polymerase helps make a second strand on each of the older strands based on Law of Complementary base pairing (A-T, C-G). For ex: if the old strand in DNA has the sequence ATC CGC TAG, the new strand will have the sequence TAG GCG ATC. Because the older strands are saved in the process, replication is called semiconservative (as if we are conserving part of the “old” DNA). Each new DNA has an old strand and a new strand. This is the time when mutations=mistakes are frequent. Most mistakes are corrected. 4. Analyze the interrelationships among chromatin, chromosomes and chromatids Chromatin is the loosely organized DNA inside the nucleus of the non-dividing cell surrounding histones. Chromosomes are the supercoiled (super-organized) DNA in the cell preparing for mitosis. Chromosomes are formed of two sister halves, called sister chromatids, which are genetically identical and split at the centromere to form separate chromosomes in anaphase. 5. Give examples of cell types in the body that divide by mitosis and examples of circumstances that require mitosis. Most cells in the body go through mitosis. Mitosis is necessary for growth of embryo and fetus, growth of tissues, replacement of damaged tissue, as in healing, replacement of worn out cells. For ex: skin cells are continuously undergoing mitosis and flake off the surface of the cell to be replaced with new cells. Mitosis also happens extensively in the stomach lining. Some cells (most of neurons and cardiac cells) do not undergo mitosis, which means that they cannot be replaced. 6. Compare and contrast meiosis and mitosis Mitosis Meiosis Type of Asexual/somatic Sexual reproduction Location Happens all throughout the body, has one Only happens in the gonads (ovaries and testes), has division two divisions Purpose Growth of embryo, replacement of old, worn Produces offspring, keeps number of chromosomes out cells, healing, growth of organism constant, introduces variability (we are all unique) # of cells produced Produces two daughter cells, identical Produces fours daughter cells, not identical #of chromosomes in Daughter cell has 46 chromosomes (diploid) Daughter cell has 23 chromosomes (haploid) daughter cells VI. Protein synthesis 1. Define the terms genetic code, gene, base triplet, codon and anticodon. Genetic code – a system that enables 4 nucleotides (A, G, C, T or U) to code for the amino acid sequences of all proteins. Gene- a sequence of DNA that codes for one protein. Base triplet – a 3-base sequence on DNA that codes one amino acid. Codon – a 3-base sequence on mRNA that codes one amino acid. There are 64 possible codons. Corresponds to base triplets. Anticodon – a 3-base sequence on tRNA that codes one amino acid. Corresponds to codons. Base triplet on DNA GAA Codon on mRNA CUU Anticodon on tRNA GAA 2. Define the terms transcription and translation.  Transcription- the process of copying genetic instructions from DNA to mRNA. Happens in the nucleus. Final product: mRNA. mRNA is then able to pass through the nuclear envelope by means of pores and provides the code for translation.  Translation – the process of reading the mRNA to form a polypeptide chain (protein). Happens in cytoplasm on ribosomes (free or on RER). “Reading” is done by the subunits of the ribosome. tRNA brings correct amino acids to the ribosomes for protein assembly. Final product: polypeptide (protein).  Transcription and translation are known as gene expression. 3. Explain how, why and where mRNA is synthesized.  mRNA is synthesized during transcription. The process happens in the nucleus as the information from DNA is copied onto mRNA based on the law of complimentary base pairing (A to U and C to G). This RNA is now able to pass through the nuclear envelope and travel to the ribosomes, where a protein can be synthesized. Without mRNA the genetic information cannot be transferred to the ribosomes. 4. Explain how, why and where the polypeptide is assembled.  Polypeptides are chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. The ribosome reads the codons on mRNA as it passes between the two subunits of the ribosomes. tRNA brings the amino acids from cytoplasm, which are assembled in a polypeptide based on the law of complimentary base pairing. A binds to U, C binds to G. For ex. If the codons of mRNA are UGA CCG GAU, then the anticodons of tRNA will be ACU GGC CUA. 5. Explain the roles of tRNA, mRNA and rRNA in protein synthesis Transfer RNA – tRNA delivers the amino acids to the ribosomes so that they can be assembled into a polypeptide chain. Has anticodons. Has no T, as T is replaced with U. Messenger RNA –mRNA is a copy of the DNA that travels from the nucleus into the cytoplasm and carries the genetic information from DNA to the ribosome. Has codons. Has no T, as T is replaced with U. Ribosomal RNA – rRNA makes the ribosomes themselves and helps to “read” the information from mRNA during translation. 6. Explain the role of DNA in protein synthesis DNA carries all the genetic information and is a code for protein synthesis, thus it determines the proteins that are made in the body. During transcription, information from the DNA is copied onto mRNA, which will be used for protein synthesis on the ribosomes. Guides the cell in making newe triplet Code 1 DNA proteins that determine all of) amino/acid our biological traits 1.Transcription, info from DNA toes mRNA, end product is mRNA { mRNA Copies information from DNCodon (AUG) Code 1 carries it to the ribosomes* amino/acid mRNA 2. Translation, in cytoplasm on free Transports amino/acids from RER, assembles tRNA cytoplasm to ribosomes forAnticodon Code 1 the polypeptide synthesis (UAC) amino/acid using mRNA and tRNA, end product is the polypeptide (enzyme, antibodies, hemogamino acids protein { etc.) (Tyrosine) VII. Application of homeostatic mechanisms 1. Provide specific examples to demonstrate how individual cells respond to their environment (e.g. in terms of organelle function, transport processes, protein synthesis, or regulation of cell cycle) in order to maintain homeostasis in the body.  An example is mutations in the DNA structure. These can arise from replication errors caused by environmental factors (chemicals, viruses, or radiation). The sequence is often coded wrong=mistake=mutation. Some mutations may cause cancer, kill the cell or the organism, or create genetic defects in future generations. Sickle cell anemia is a mutation in structure of hemoglobin. Topic 4 part I. Histology – epithelial tissue. I. Overview of histology and tissue types 1. Define the term histology. Histology – the study of tissues. 2. List the four primary tissue types. 3. Contrast the general features of the four major tissue types ● Epithelial – highly cellular/not a lot of matrix, sheet of cells. Function: covering or lining a body surface/cavity or forming glands. ● Nervous – highly cellular, has specialized cells (neurons) that generate and conduct nerve impulses to control the body. Function: communication and control. ● Muscle – highly cellular and vascularized tissue responsible for movement, cells shorten to exert force. Function: movement ● Connective – lots of matrix (extracellular material), the most abundant and widely distributed tissue found throughout the body. Function: support 4. List and describe specific characteristics of epithelial tissue. Include: polarity, specialized contacts, basement membrane, avascular, innervated and regeneration. o Polarity- all epithelia exhibit apical/basal surfaces. This means that the regions of cells near or on the basement membrane are called basal and the ones opposite of the basement membrane are called apical. o Basement membrane -connective tissue, supports and lies beneath all sheet of epithelial tissue, aka basal lamina. o Specialized contacts – with the exception of glandular epithelia, the epithelial cells fit together snugly (by means of tight junctions) in order to form continuous sheets of tissue. o Avascular and innervated – the epithelium is innervated (supplied by nerve fibers), but is avascular and holds no blood vessels. They receive their nutrients by diffusing substances from blood vessels in underlying connective tissues. o Regeneration – due to exposure to friction and “wear and tear” the epithelial cells have a high regeneration capacity. They can rapidly reproduce themselves by cell division, as long as they have adequate nutrition. II. Classification, microscopic anatomy, location, and functional roles of epithelial tissues. Assignment 1 tissue worksheet. Primary Types by # layers Subtype-structural Location (1-3 examples) Function tissue characteristics (goblet cells, cilia, microvilli if any) I. Simple – all Squamous -1 layer of flat cells Kidneys; lungs; Diffusion cells are on serous membranes- basement mesothelium; blood vessels membrane/basal and heart-endothelium lamina Cuboidal – 1 layer of squarish Kidneys Absorption Epithelial cells, can have microvilli Glands – liver, thyroid Secretion Cellularity BM Polarity Contacts Columnar – 1 layer of tall narrow Digestive system: stomach, Absorption Regeneration cells, can have goblet cells and small and large intestines Secretion of microvilli mucus Avascular Innervated Pseudostratified – looks Respiratory system Secretion and multilayered, can have goblet movement of cells, cilia mucus II.Stratified – Squamous – multiple layers of flat Keratinized-ONLY in Resist abrasion scaly cells epidermis and penetration only basal cells are Non-keratinized-vagina, by foreign on BM/basal lamina rectum, esophagus, mouth organism Cuboidal – 2 or more layers of Testes, ovaries, sweat glands Produces sweat, round or square cells sperm/eggs Columnar - rare Pharynx, male urethra Joins different types of epithelia Transitional – 2-3 layers when ONLY in urinary system- Stretches to hold relaxed: 5-7 layers when bladder, ureters, urethra urine distended III. Glands (exocrine vs. endocrine) 1. Distinguish between exocrine and endocrine glands, structurally and functionally. 2. Identify example locations in the body of exocrine and endocrine glands. 3. Classify the different kinds of exocrine glands based on structure and function (merocrine and holocrine) A gland is a cell or a group of cells secreting a product. Exocrine glands – secrete to the outside through a duct. Ex: digestive glands, lacrimal glands, sweat glands. Exocrine glands that secrete through exocytosis are called merocrine or eccrine glands (lacrimal glands, digestive glands). Glands whose cells die off during the process of secretion are called holocrine glands. The only example of a holocrine gland is the sebaceous gland of the skin. Endocrine glands – do not have a duct and secrete their product called hormone into the bloodstream (aka ECF). Ex: thyroid gland, parathyroid, etc.


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