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Exam #1 study guide

by: Gabrielle Herman

Exam #1 study guide Chem 101

Gabrielle Herman

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I have gone through the test study guide for Dr. Emil's first exam and answered every question necessary for the test. The answers on this study guide are in extreme detail and I really hope this i...
General, Organic, and Biochemistry for the Health Sciences
Study Guide
General Chemistry, atoms, atoms and elements, electron, periodic table
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabrielle Herman on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 101 at Ball State University taught by Khisamutdinov in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see General, Organic, and Biochemistry for the Health Sciences in Chemistry at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
1. Memorize the names and symbols of the first 38 elements, and elements with atomic numbers 47, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 78, 79, 80, 82, 86, 88, 92, and 94. 2. Know the names and chemical formulas for the following ions: – – – 2– ─ – + CH 3O 2 PO 4 H2PO 4 HPO 4 NO 3 NO 2 H 3 acetate ion phosphate dihydrogen hydrogen nitrate ion nitrite ion hydronium ion phosphate phosphate ion ion ion 3. Define atoms, elements, and compounds.  Atom: o The smallest most fundamental unit of matter  Element o A substance composed of one type of atom  Compound o Made up of 2 or more elements 4. Name the three subatomic particles in an atom, their charges, and their location.  Proton o Positive charge o In nucleus  Neutron o Neutral charge o In nucleus  Electron o Negative charge o In electron cloud 5. Define atomic number, mass number, and isotope.  Atomic number o Number on the periodic table o How many protons each element has  Mass number o The average mass of all natural occurring isotopes  Isotope o Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons o Some are natural, others artificial 6. Know how to determine the atomic number, and mass number for a given isotope and write the isotope symbol. 7. Explain how the elements are arranged in the periodic table, and be able to classify them based on their location within the table. ***note the color code at the bottom 8. Know where the main group elements, transition elements, inner transition elements (lanthanides, and actinides), metals, nonmetals, metalloids, and noble gases are located in the periodic table. **** note question 7 9. Know the difference between macro- and micronutrients and their importance in biochemistry.  Macronutrients o Humans require > 100 mg/day  Examples  Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S, Cl  Micronutrients o Humans require <100 mg/day  Examples  V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Si, F, Se, I  Role in nuclear medicine o Radioactive isotopes are usefull as tracers in diagnostics or treatment  Building block elements: o H, C, N, O, F, P, S 10. Describe the nature of electrons and their ground state arrangement within atoms.  Outside the nucleus within electron shells 11. Distribute electrons in atoms into shells, and classify electrons as valence or core electrons.  Electrons are in onion-like layers around atom 2 o Max # of electrons in shell= 2n  Valence electrons: o The electrons in the outer most shell 12. Define, cations and anions, and recognize how ions are formed so that they have complete (octets) in their valence shells.  Cation o An ion with a positive charge: fewer electrons than protons  Anion: o An ion with a negative charge: more electrons than protons  Elements will either gain or lose the electrons in their valence shell to complete their outermost valence shell 13. Be able to determine the charges on ions formed from main group elements. 14. Define radioisotope and radioactive decay, and the different types of radioactive decay.  Radioisotope: o Unstable isotopes o Atomic number 83 and greater  Radioactive decay o 15. Know the difference between electromagnetic radiation and high-energy particles.  Electromagnetic radiation o Longer wavelength, lower frequency o Shorter wavelength, higher frequency 16. Know the relationship between wavelength and energy for electromagnetic radiation, and for the electromagnetic spectrum. 17. Write balanced nuclear reactions correctly using appropriate nuclide symbols. 18. Define half-life, and know how to use the concept in calculating the fraction of radioactivity that remains after a time period.  The time that it takes a sample of a radioisotope to decay to ½ of its original mass 19. Know the biological effects of radiation, and the penetrating power associated with radiation.  Biological effect o Ionizing radiation dislodges a valence electron from an atom  Gamma knife o Uses gamma rays to destroy tumors  Penetrating power o α particles  high energy, low speed  penetrates paper o β particles  less energy but light  penetrates aluminum o x-ray  penetrates thin lead o y-ray  penetrates thicker lead 20. Know the ways in which radiation can be measured, and exposure to radiation monitored.  Ways radiation can be measured o Amount of radioactive decay  Becquerel  Bq  Curie  Ci o Absorbed Dose  Gray  Gy  Radiation absorbed dose  Rad o Effective Dose  Sievert  Sv  Roentgen equivalent man  Rem  Exposure to radiation monitored o Geiger Counter o Radiation Badge 21. Work odd-numbered additional exercises in text (answers available in Appendix B). These problems will not be graded.


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