Exam #1 study guide
Exam #1 study guide Chem 101
Popular in General, Organic, and Biochemistry for the Health Sciences
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Chemistry
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabrielle Herman on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 101 at Ball State University taught by Khisamutdinov in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see General, Organic, and Biochemistry for the Health Sciences in Chemistry at Ball State University.
Reviews for Exam #1 study guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/06/16
1. Memorize the names and symbols of the first 38 elements, and elements with atomic numbers 47, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 78, 79, 80, 82, 86, 88, 92, and 94. 2. Know the names and chemical formulas for the following ions: – – – 2– ─ – + CH 3O 2 PO 4 H2PO 4 HPO 4 NO 3 NO 2 H 3 acetate ion phosphate dihydrogen hydrogen nitrate ion nitrite ion hydronium ion phosphate phosphate ion ion ion 3. Define atoms, elements, and compounds. Atom: o The smallest most fundamental unit of matter Element o A substance composed of one type of atom Compound o Made up of 2 or more elements 4. Name the three subatomic particles in an atom, their charges, and their location. Proton o Positive charge o In nucleus Neutron o Neutral charge o In nucleus Electron o Negative charge o In electron cloud 5. Define atomic number, mass number, and isotope. Atomic number o Number on the periodic table o How many protons each element has Mass number o The average mass of all natural occurring isotopes Isotope o Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons o Some are natural, others artificial 6. Know how to determine the atomic number, and mass number for a given isotope and write the isotope symbol. 7. Explain how the elements are arranged in the periodic table, and be able to classify them based on their location within the table. ***note the color code at the bottom 8. Know where the main group elements, transition elements, inner transition elements (lanthanides, and actinides), metals, nonmetals, metalloids, and noble gases are located in the periodic table. **** note question 7 9. Know the difference between macro- and micronutrients and their importance in biochemistry. Macronutrients o Humans require > 100 mg/day Examples Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S, Cl Micronutrients o Humans require <100 mg/day Examples V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Si, F, Se, I Role in nuclear medicine o Radioactive isotopes are usefull as tracers in diagnostics or treatment Building block elements: o H, C, N, O, F, P, S 10. Describe the nature of electrons and their ground state arrangement within atoms. Outside the nucleus within electron shells 11. Distribute electrons in atoms into shells, and classify electrons as valence or core electrons. Electrons are in onion-like layers around atom 2 o Max # of electrons in shell= 2n Valence electrons: o The electrons in the outer most shell 12. Define, cations and anions, and recognize how ions are formed so that they have complete (octets) in their valence shells. Cation o An ion with a positive charge: fewer electrons than protons Anion: o An ion with a negative charge: more electrons than protons Elements will either gain or lose the electrons in their valence shell to complete their outermost valence shell 13. Be able to determine the charges on ions formed from main group elements. 14. Define radioisotope and radioactive decay, and the different types of radioactive decay. Radioisotope: o Unstable isotopes o Atomic number 83 and greater Radioactive decay o 15. Know the difference between electromagnetic radiation and high-energy particles. Electromagnetic radiation o Longer wavelength, lower frequency o Shorter wavelength, higher frequency 16. Know the relationship between wavelength and energy for electromagnetic radiation, and for the electromagnetic spectrum. 17. Write balanced nuclear reactions correctly using appropriate nuclide symbols. 18. Define half-life, and know how to use the concept in calculating the fraction of radioactivity that remains after a time period. The time that it takes a sample of a radioisotope to decay to ½ of its original mass 19. Know the biological effects of radiation, and the penetrating power associated with radiation. Biological effect o Ionizing radiation dislodges a valence electron from an atom Gamma knife o Uses gamma rays to destroy tumors Penetrating power o α particles high energy, low speed penetrates paper o β particles less energy but light penetrates aluminum o x-ray penetrates thin lead o y-ray penetrates thicker lead 20. Know the ways in which radiation can be measured, and exposure to radiation monitored. Ways radiation can be measured o Amount of radioactive decay Becquerel Bq Curie Ci o Absorbed Dose Gray Gy Radiation absorbed dose Rad o Effective Dose Sievert Sv Roentgen equivalent man Rem Exposure to radiation monitored o Geiger Counter o Radiation Badge 21. Work odd-numbered additional exercises in text (answers available in Appendix B). These problems will not be graded.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'