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Study Guide for Thursday's exam (09/08/2016)

by: Gabriel Brooks

Study Guide for Thursday's exam (09/08/2016) BIO 1134 Biology 1

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > BIO 1134 Biology 1 > Study Guide for Thursday s exam 09 08 2016
Gabriel Brooks

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These notes cover Chapter 1-4. I provided predictable questions.
Biology 1
Evan Kaplan
Study Guide
Bio, Biology, 1, Dr., Evan, L., Kaplan, Mississippi, state, University
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriel Brooks on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1134 Biology 1 at Mississippi State University taught by Evan Kaplan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 171 views.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
Bio= life Ology= study of Biology study of life Science the study of the natural/physical world through observation, identification, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanations Examples of living things: animals, plants and microorganisms What makes something alive? Life is an organismic state characterized by capacity for metabolism, growth, reaction to stimuli and reproduction How many principles or characteristics of living organisms are there? 8 What are the 8 principles or characteristics of living organisms? 1. Use energy 2. Interact with the environment 3. Maintain homeostasis 4. Growth and Development 5. Genetic material has a blueprint 6. Organisms evolve 7. Promote survival and reproductive success 8. All species are related by an evolutionary history The overall structure of a protein will determine its function. True Living things start from lifeless matter into living matter interacting with the environment. Each level builds on the _________ level. Previous The smallest unit of an element; all matter is composed of this Atom A group of two or more atoms Molecule Structures or "organs" of the cell Organelle The simplest unit of life Cell An individual living thing made up of a collection of different organs Organism All organisms that interact with one another in a particular environment Community Interactions of a community of organisms with their physical environment Ecosystem A person who studies science Scientist The process to solve a problem or answer a question Scientific Method or Hypothesis Testing Name some components of the Scientific Method 1. Make observations 2. Ask questions 3. Form a hypothesis 4. Make a prediction 5. Test the prediction by experimentation 6. Data/ Results "Educated Guess" turned into a statement that allows you to make a prediction is a…. Hypothesis An accepted explanation of important natural phenomena that is supported through extensive and reproducible experimentation and evidence is a… Theory All organisms are composed of _______. This is anything that contains mass and occupies space. It can exist in 3 states: solid, liquid or gas. Matter Matter is made up of _________. Atoms What is a pure substance that is comprised of only one kind of atom? Element How many approx. naturally-occurring elements are there? 98 What are the smallest functional units of matter that can exist separately? Atoms Most living things are composed of 95% what? Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen Atoms are made up of small particles called? Subatomic particles What are the 3 subatomic particles? Protons Neutrons Electrons Protons and neutrons are located in the center of the atom, called the atomic nucleus. True Protons have a _______ charge. Positive Neutrons have a ______ charge. No Charge Electrons have a _______ charge. Negative Charge What orbits around the nucleus at various distances and are constantly in motion? Electrons Most atoms have 1 electron for every proton, but the number of ______ may vary. Neutrons Hydrogen has ______ Neutrons. 0 What distinguishes each chemical element? (It’s also known as the number of protons in each of its atoms.) Atomic Number Atoms with the same atomic number have the same _______ properties. Chemical Sum of masses of its protons and neutrons of a single atom? Atomic Mass of an Element * P+N number below letter with no decimal The mass of electrons is negligible and thus not included in the mass number. True The average mass of its protons and neutrons from all isotopes (forms) of the atom is the… Atomic Weight number below letter with decimal Cloud symbol refers to? Natural elements Rain drop symbol refers to… Liquid Asterick symbol refers to… New elements An element that has the same number of protons, but possess different numbers of neutrons is an… Isotope The nuclei of some isotopes are unstable and will break up into elements with lower atomic numbers. C14 is an example of an unstable isotope. True What has many applications in medical treatment, diagnosis, and biological experimentation? Radioisotopes While useful in research and medicine, the _____ emitted in radioactive decay is hazardous to life. Energy What determines how its atoms will react with other atoms? Characteristic number of electrons in each atom of an element The electrons of an atom circle around the nucleus in regions called… Orbitals Orbitals occupy… Electron shells or energy levels Atoms differ in the number of occupied energy levels. True The chemical behavior of an atom depends on what? Number of electrons in its outermost shell Unfilled shells make atoms… Non-stable or reactive What 4 elements have all unfilled vacancies in their outermost levels? Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Carbon Innermost shell can contain ____ electrons. 2 After innermost shell, the other shells can contain ____ electrons. 8 When an atom is shared, released or obtains electrons to fill the outer shell is known as what? Chemical Reaction When atoms interact with other atoms they form what? Molecules Two or more of the same atom linked by chemical bonds is what? Molecule (H2O is an example) When molecules are made or broken, new substances with new properties are produced. True The atoms in molecules are held together by chemical bonds. Name the 3 types of chemical bonds. Covalent Hydrogen Ionic Sharing of a pair of valence electrons between two atoms to fill the outermost level is called… Covalent Bonds Most substances are composed of electrically _______ groups of atoms that are tightly bound together. Neutral There can be a single covalent bond, double covalent bond, triple covalent bond and etc. True The sharing of electrons is not always _____. Equal Unequal sharing Polar Equal sharing Nonpolar In water, the shared electrons spend more time near the ________ atom. Oxygen Something that has gained or lost an electron is what? Ion What bonds are formed by electrical attraction between ions bearing opposite charges. Ionic Bonds When an atom loses an electron, it becomes positively charged ion called a _____. Cation The atom that gains electrons and becomes a negatively charged ion is called an... Anion If it loses an electron it has a ____ charge. Positive If it gains an electron it has a ____ charge. Negative What kind of bond is the strongest? Covalent Sharing of H+ atom? Hydrogen Bond Forcing of hydrophobic portions of molecules together in presence of polar substances is... Hydrophobic interaction In a chemical reaction, the starting materials are called? Reactants Weak attractions between atoms is… van der Waals attraction Occurs when one of more substances are changed into other substances by the making or breaking of chemical bonds… Chemical Reaction What is needed for a chemical reaction to occur? Energy and/or catalysts In a chemical reaction the end material is called… Product What is an example of a method describing what happens in a chemical reaction? How to make pancakes. Reactions require ____ for molecules to encounter one another. Help What is an essential molecule for life? Water What 3 states can water exist in? Solid, liquid and gas In a water molecule, electrons are not shared equally by the hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, therefore the electrons spend more time around ______, which makes water a polar molecule. Oxygen The oxygen end of a hydrogen bond has a _____ charge, while the hydrogen end has a _______. Negative Positive In polar molecules, the negative oxygen end is attracted to the positive hydrogen end of another water molecule. Which results in what kind of bond? Hydrogen Bond Which are the weakest bonds? Hydrogen Bonds Water molecules will be attracted to any other substances that has a _____. Charge Molecules that can be dissolved in water? Solution (sweet tea) Component that dissolves in the liquid? Solute (Sugar) Dissolving agent? (the liquid) Solvent (Tea) Any substance that has an affinity for water (water-loving)? Hydrophilic Hydrophilic molecules have ions and/or _____. Polar covalent bonds. Any substance that does not have an affinity for water (water-fearing)? Hydrophobic Hydrophobic molecules have ______ bonds. Nonpolar At any given time, most water molecules are bonded together giving water more structure than most other liquids. This is known as ________. Cohesion The amount of _____ present will effect water molecule movement and thus the formation of hydrogen bonds between water molecules. Energy Transformation of water from liquid to gas? Vaporization Heating a liquid _______ the average kinetic energy and increases the rate of vaporization. Increases When there is low energy water will ______. Freeze What is a key molecule involved in a chemical reaction? Water Macro means? Large What are the 4 categories of building blocks found in all living organisms or macro-molecules? 1. Lipids 2. Carbohydrates (sugars) 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids (DNA,RNA) All macro-molecules contain ________ as a component. Carbon Carbon is a critical atom that makes life possible. True Carbon has the ability to form ___ covalent bonds with other atoms. 4 Carbon can form both polar and non-polar bonds. True Carbon bonds are stable over a large range of…. Temperatures Most organic molecules and macro-molecules are comprised of what? Carbon, Hydrogen and other atoms Properties of a functional group include… Polarity Acidity Basicity The 4 class of macro-molecules are all large, chain-like molecules made up of smaller sub-units/molecules. True The small sub-units that make up macro-molecules are… Monomers The larger sub-units that make up macro-molecules… Polymer Macro-molecules can be broken down and put back together by what? Chemical Reactions Polymers are synthesized by a chemical reaction called… Dehydration Reaction Dehydration reaction need 2 things: Enzymes and Energy Polymers can be disassembled back down to their individual monomers by a chemical reaction called… Hydrolysis Reaction The bonds holding the monomers together are broken by the addition of ____. H2O Like dehydration, Hydrolysis also requires what 2 things? Enzymes and energy Which macro-molecule consists of the same number of oxygen and carbon molecules and twice as many hydrogens? Carbohydrates Carbs are the primary ____ source for most living things. Energy Formula for Carb? CH2O Carbs are the primary ____ source for most living things. Energy Carbs are not only used for energy, but also can be used as the foundation for more complex molecules. True What are the 3 main categories of Carbohydrates? 1. Monosaccharides 2. Disaccharides 3. Polysaccharides Which Carb is the primary energy source used by many organisms? Monosaccharides ex. glucose and fructose What are "2- sugar unit chains" called? Disaccharides ex. sucrose and lactose Disaccharides are a transport form of sugar. True What is long polymers of Monosaccharides? Polysaccharide ex. starch, glycogen, cellulose chitin What is a complex Polysaccharide made of glucose? Starch (plants- starch, humans- glycogen) What is a structural Polysaccharide found in plant cell walls? Cellulose What is a structural Polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans? Chitin Very diverse group of molecules, which have very different structures. They do not follow the specific idea of a monomer. The unifying feature of these is that they all have little or no affinity for water. They are non-polar and include fats, steroids, waxes. Lipids Although Triglycerides (or fats) are not strictly polymers, they are large molecules assembled from smaller molecules by _____________. Dehydration Reactions What are known as the 3 long fatty acids attached to a 3 carbon molecule? Triglyceride What is the function of a triglyceride? Storage of energy Phospholipids are a very important component of biological membranes. True What are some features of a phospholipid? 1. 2 fatty acid chains 2. one phosphate (-charge) Since water is a polar molecule, the polar end of the phospholipid is attracted to the positive ends of the water molecules. (Hydrophilic) True While the neutral end of the phospholipid molecule is non-polar, it is repelled by the polar water molecules. (Hydrophobic) True What speeds up and regulates chemical reactions in a cell? Biological Catalysts What are some functions of a protein? Defense Transport Structural Support Motion Storage


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