COMPLETE Exam 1 Lecture Objectives
COMPLETE Exam 1 Lecture Objectives BIOL 2220
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This 48 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Hills on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2220 at Clemson University taught by John Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Lecture Objectives Overview 1. Define anatomy, and differentiate its many subdivisions. “Anatomy” comes from the Greek word “anatome” Means “dissect” Definition of Anatomy - Study of structure and the relationship among structures; study of parts - It is not about how the parts work or do but is a look at what the parts are - There are different approaches to study anatomy that are known as anatomical subdivisions Anatomical Subdivisions - Gross anatomy: o “Gross” means that something can be seen with the naked eye; Object is macroscopic o Looking at bones, muscles, heart, brain, organs etc. - Regional anatomy: o Refers to a specific region of the body such as the thoracic cavity, leg, abdominal cavity, etc. o Ex: Neck Looking at the musculature, blood vessel components, etc. of the neck - Systemic anatomy: o Refers to specific organ systems such as the muscular, skeletal, nervous, endocrine, and digestive systems o Ex: Cardiovascular system Looking at the auricles, ventricles, aorta, etc. of the heart - Surface anatomy: o Study of the form and markings on the surface of the body o Ex: Picture of hand Can see the blood vessels underlying the surface of the hand (Vasculature), tendons that are muscles that move the fingers, and abnormal features (Female suffering from rheumatoid arthritis) o Ex: Able to see the end of an arm where the bone is and watch as the muscles move and contract o Surface anatomy has led to the forensic reconstruction field: Because markings on the surface are due to things underneath the surface, this idea can be worked backwards Ex: If bones are found in the middle of a forest, it is possible to look at the features of a skull (For example) Placing of the right thickness of muscle and skin on top to reconstruct the head so that it looks like a real person - Microscopic anatomy: o Unable to see specimen without aid o Generally referring to specimen that are less than ½ mm Requires something to magnify specimen o 2 types of microscopic anatomy: a) Cytology: Study of cells Ex: Ovary in picture Primordial and Graafian cells shown b) Histology: Study of tissues Ex: Ovary in picture Epithelial, connective, and smooth muscle tissue are all present - Developmental anatomy: o Study of changes in anatomy from time when the egg is fertilized until death o Subdivision of developmental anatomy: Embryology Refers to the time the egg is fertilized until birtth Technically: Embryo term is used up through the 8 week post-conception and then fetus term is used after then—Some use alternative definition - Pathological anatomy: o Study of the change of structure due to disease - Radiographic anatomy: o First came about in the 1940’s during WWII with X-ray technology o Study of structure using specialized imaging technology 2. Identify the types of images formed by various types of medical imaging, and contrast the form of energy used to make these images. a) X-ray: Light energy o Passes short length light waves (Gamma radiation) through the body o As light waves are shot through the body, some light waves are absorbed while others pass through o The components of the body that absorb the most light energy glow the brightest – These are generally the hard parts of the body such as bones o Unable to see soft tissue with X-ray imaging b) CT Scan: Light energy o CT stands for computerized tomography o Uses light energy like X-rays but essentially X-rays are taken in sections o Ex: Picture of head If you start at the top of the head, you are able to change the depth and focus so that layering of X-rays is what is composed in the computer o Alternative explanation: An X-ray is a very large image and the computer is able to look at one thin piece; CT scans are able to section different parts of the general X-ray without overlap o Bones are very bright o Because a computer is being used, there is some shadowing in the picture for where the brain tissue is present Able to see the lenses because they are hard o CT scans are helpful in searching for brain tumors, nasal polyps, etc. c) Xenon CT: Light energy o Makes the resulting image more vivid than a CT scan o Xenon: Gas that gets radioactively labeled Radioactive substance is what gives off gamma radiation that gives the bright image of the body o Computer is used to determine how bright the image is o Process: The subject patient inhales the xenon gas lungs blood stream Delivered to tissues of the body that is most active which then accumulate the gas o Application ex: In the picture, a mild stroke is apparent since there is a blood supply reduction in the less bright areas of the brain (That particular part of the brain is less active than other parts that are healthy because of the stroke effects) d) DSR Scan: Light energy o DSR stands for Dynamic Spatial Reconstruction o The same light energy and X-ray technology is used in DSR scan but now pictures are being taken all the way around the body to give a 3D image instead of from one plane o Able to rotate around bits and pieces of the overall 3D image as well e) DSA: Light energy o DSA stands for Digital Subtraction Angiography o Angiography: Related to blood vessels o Process: Take 2 pictures First picture acts as a baseline A contrast medium is injected into the circulatory system so that is visible when the second picture is taken and only the blood vessels will be seen Subtract the first picture from the second picture to only show the blood vessels o Ex: Resulting bottom right picture shows how there is a leaker in the due to the patient suffering trauma o DSA can also be used to show thrombosis in vessels in the leg, arteries in the heart, etc. f) PET Scan: Light energy o PET stands for Positron Emission Tomography o Similar to Xenon CT but the patient is injected with a radioisotope instead of inhaling a gas o Like Xenon CT, the radioisotope will travel and be picked up by the most active cells o Able to look at metabolic processes o Used to look at soft tissue NOT bone o Ex: Picture showing drug for Parkinson’s disease Normal PET scan shown in top left Middle section shows an individual suffering from Parkinson’s disease (When certain parts of the brain called basal nuclei which fine tune muscle contractions are not functioning properly so the patient develops a palsy—tremors and shakes) Patient with Parkinson’s disease does not get as much activity in the basal nuclei in the brain and the drug works to help with symptomatic relief of the disease Evident in the bottom left image where there are brighter images indicating higher activity g) Ultrasound: Sound energy o Can be usually used on soft tissue in the body o Uses sound waves NOT light energy o Process: Have a transmitter and receiver in a particular device Sound waves go through soft tissue and bounces off the tissue Picked up by the receiver and sent to the computer to see how intense it is Soft tissue that absorbs more sound energy results in not as much being sent back to the receiver o 2D, 3D, and 4D ultrasounds are available h) MRI:Magnetic field o MRI stands for Magnetic Resonance Imagery o Process: Use of a wave of magnetic energy that passes through the body Ions in our body are charged Magnetic energy waves become polarized as they pulse through the body and force the ions to line up momentarily MRI uses hydrogen ions that are most prevalent in soft tissue filled with water (Hard tissue like bone tissue does not have as much water in it as soft tissues—Soft tissue is better for MRI’s) MRI’s are able to also use the computer to go back into the image and add in missing pieces such as the skull o Ex: Picture shows an MRI of the head Taken to look for sinus polyps—Comes up as little shadow i) MRS:Magnetic field o MRS stands for Magnetic Resonance Spectroscope o Uses the same basic setup and technology as an MRI—Uses a magnetic field pulse but instead MRS go after ions other than water o Ex: When looking at the kidney, MRS will go after the charged sodium ions o Ex: When looking at muscles, MRS will go after the charged calcium ions j) M2A o “Pillcam” M2A is a digital camera in pill form with a built in light source o As it is swallowed, it moves through the digestive tract and takes pictures o Patient must where a device for where the digital camera sends a signal to every time a picture is taken and then the pictures are stored on an SD card o Battery life on the camera is less than 18 hours so it generally burns out when it reaches the small intestine o Produces 3D colored pictures inside the body o Great alternative to having to have an endoscopy 3. Define physiology, and explain its relationship to anatomical structure. Physis is Greek for “function” Logos is Greek for “Study of” Physiology: Study of functions of body parts—Includes chemical and physical/mechanical processes The Big Integration - Structure can dictate function - Function can regulate structure - Parts of the body are based on their function and vice versa - Ex: Red blood cells shown in picture RBC primary purpose is to carry oxygen; They have no nuclei or cellular organelles in order for the pigment to bind to oxygen 4. Name the different levels of structural organization, and describe their relationships with one another. Chemical: - Lowest level - All of the chemicals that are essential to life and what roles they play in our body - *Levels below chemical organization include atomic and subatomic Cellular: - Multiple chemicals put together make up a cell - Ex: Lipids make up the plasma membrane; Proteins make up the cytoskeleton; Nucleic acids make up DNA - Cell: Structural and functional unit of life - Cells make new cells - Overall: Cells are comprised of a bunch of chemicals Tissue: - A combination of 2 or more cells working together for a particular task make up a tissue o Activities occurring within higher levels are occurring within the cell o Cells are collaboratively performing a special task - Ex: Nervous and connective tissue - Ex: Picture shows 300-400neuron cells that function together to make the nervous system work; Neurons all work together to send an action potential down a nerve; Neuroglia cells protect the nerve Organ: - A combination of 2 or more tissues put together make up an organ - Liver: Largest internal organ - Skin: Largest organ overall Organ system: - Put 2 or more organs together with a specific function makes up an organ system - Ex: Nervous and muscular systems Organismic: - All of these levels of organization allow us to define the individual to work - Organismic level = Human body 5. The processes in which living organisms participate define life. List and describe these processes. Limiting boundaries: - Skin separates the insides from the outside - Intact barrier that keeps things from getting into out body - Skin allows a different environment to be inside our body than for it to match the outside of our body Excitability: - Living things are excitable and have the ability to sense change within or around their bodies - Response to stimuli - Ex: Sun setting in the picture is an external stimulus that causes the body to respond and have the pupils dilate Conductivity: - Body can sense changes and can communicate these changes from one part of the body to another - Simply, conductivity has to do with connecting one part of the body to another Metabolism: - Sum total of all the chemical reactions that occur in our bodies - 2 subdivisions of metabolism: a) Catabolic: o Breakdown pathways o Ex: When one eats bread, chemical breakdown occurs where starches are broken down to monosaccharides b) Anabolic: o Build up things o Ex: Use amino acids to make proteins in order to build more muscle Digestion: - Once food is in the body, mechanical breakdown occurs first with chewing Chemical break down in order to get nutrients out of the food Excretion: - Elimination of waste - Waste include fecal matter, urine (Nitrogenous compounds), sweat, carbon dioxide (Excreted through exhalation) Movement: - Ex: Movement of skeletal muscle requires muscular contraction - Ex: Smooth muscle moves through digestive system - Ex: Pump blood through cardiovascular system via cardiac muscle Growth: - Increase in size o By growing more cells o By growing the sizes of the cells already present - For the most part, you are born with most of the muscle cells you will ever have – Generally, the size of the muscle cells are changed with age (Same with adipose tissue) Reproduction: - Cells reproduce themselves via mitosis - Reproduction of new individuals = procreation/making offspring *All of these components of life processes that livings carry out is to make it possible for reproduction to happen 6. What factors are needed for survival? Survival needs are required to be able to carry out life processes and they need to be in the right amount (Not too little or too much) Nutrients: - All chemical substances are used for energy and cell production - Get all the nutrients from the food we eat Oxygen: - Needed because it is an electron acceptor for cellular respiration - In order to produce enough ATP, oxygen is required - Extra: Atmosphere is composed of only 20% oxygen, and as one travels at higher in altitudes oxygen levels decrease Water: - Body is made up of 60-80% water Therefore, water is the most prevalent substance in the body - Water comes from fluids and food consumed - Able to take in water and lose water through sweat evaporation and urine, for example - Extra water taken in must be taken out Normal Body Temperature: - 37 degrees C (98.6 degrees F) - < 95 degrees F Metabolic activity slows down - > 99 degrees F Start to denature proteins in body - Go too high or too low normal body temperature Death Atmospheric Pressure: - Body requires the surrounding air to be pressurized or else breathing would not be possible *If we have all of these survival needs in optimal amounts, the body will exist in homeostatic condition 7. What is homeostasis? What is needed for homeostasis to occur? What do we call factors that can disrupt homeostasis? Homeostasis - Homoios is Greek for “Same” - Stasis is Greek for “Standing” - Homeostasis = “Standing Still” - Condition of stable internal body environment Body is never constant but is rather a dynamic equilibrium Requirements for Homeostasis - All of our survival needs are at an optimum for homeostasis to exist - When survival needs are at optimum o Therefore, optimum internal nutrition, optimum internal gases, optimum internal water, optimum internal temperature, and optimum internal pressure - There is a narrow range under which homeostasis will occur o Deviations from homeostasis Ill health (Ex: Fever, hangover) o Deviate too broadly Death Stress - Estresse is old French for “Narrowness” or “Drawn tight” - Causes homeostasis to be lost o Any stimulus causing an imbalance in the internal environment o Can be internal (within the body) and external stresses o All stimuli cause a response, not all disturb homeostasis - Again: o Not all stimuli are stresses but all stresses are stimuli o Not all stimuli cause a disruption but some of them do - Body has a tremendous resistance to stress Has mechanisms that respond o stress and get the body back to homeostasis Stress Regulation Mechanisms - Nervous System: o Detect changes and send changes throughout the body to counteract them o Sends electrochemical messengers o Includes a detector, integrator, etc. through brain or spinal cord - Endocrine System: o Chemical messages (hormones) can be sent to counteract homeostasis 8. Differentiate positive and negative feedback systems. Describe how each function to maintain homeostasis. Fedan is Anglo Saxon for “Food” Baec is Anglo Saxon for “Back” Systemais Greek for “System” Definition of Feedback Systems - Any circular situation where information about the status of something is continually reported to a central control region - There is a central control system in our bodies that play a role in feedback systems, which is usually the brain or spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS) - Some feedback systems don’t use the CNS Ex: Chemical messages are detected by a sensor that causes the secretion of a certain chemical Feedback Systems - Based on the picture, the flat gray bar at the bottom represents the body at homeostasis - A stimulus (Stress) that is applied causes a disruption in homeostasis Stress is detected by a receptor (Loss of homeostasis) Control center takes in information that stress has occurred Action carried out by an effector - Ex: If one sits on a thumb tack Balance is disrupted One’s reaction is to stand Regain composure and sit back down - Overall: Feedback systems have to do with a circular situation that is trying to restore homeostasis Negative Feedback - Where the effector is reversing the original condition - Ex: Thermostat—If a thermostat is set at a certain temperature, and the temperature goes above that temperature AC turns on and reverses the original condition to make it cooler - Ex: If blood glucose levels get too low Glycogen is broken down via catabolic reactions to release glucose Blood glucose level increases Positive Feedback - Where acceleration/intensification of the original condition occurs - Ex: Child birth—When the fetus grows, it puts stretch on the muscular wall of the uterus Signal is sent to the brain Secretion of oxytocin Muscle contraction More pressure put on the uterus More muscle contraction More release of oxytocin, etc. Cycle repeats and the only way to get back to homeostasis is to get rid of the stimulus (Fetus) completely and give birth to the baby - Ex: Consumption of alcohol affects the brain, causing one to want to consume more until the point where the body cannot have any more and the stomach gets rid of the original stimulus of alcohol via vomit Return to homeostasis Reviewof Chemistry 1. Define matter, and differentiate the forms in which it can occur. Cell: - Structural and functional unit of life - Carries out chemical reactions o Ex: The breakdown of glycogen to release glucose is a chemical reaction that occurs inside the cell Matter - Materia is Latin for “timber” or “substance” Definition of Matter - Anything that occupies space and has mass - Is composed of chemical elements - Body possesses matter and is composed of chemical elements Elements - Substances that cannot be decomposed into smaller substances by any ordinary/natural chemical reactions Chemical Elements - 118 chemical elements o 92 occur naturally o Others are manmade in particle accelerators where particles collide together to make an element even though it may not last long - Human body contains 24 chemical elements o O, C,H, and N Makeup 96% of body composition o O, C,H, N + Ca and P Makeup 99% of body composition - All of the other 24 elements in the body are called trace elements (18/24) o Ex: Generation of nervous impulses has to do with sodium and potassium States of Matter - Matter can exist in 3 different states Body possesses all of these states - Difference between one sate of matter and another is because of the speed of molecules that make up the matter - Molecules are constantly in motion whether it’s slow or fast - Solid: o Matter has a definitive form o Slowest form of molecule movement o Ex: Crystalline structure o Ex: Teeth and bones - Liquid: o If one takes a solid and increases the motion of the molecules that make up that solid, it will lose its definitive shape and become a liquid o Liquid has slightly faster moving molecules o Takes the shape of its container o Has a certain volume o Ex: Plasma in the blood that takes the shape of blood vessels, urine collected in the bladder takes the shape of the bladder - Gas: o If one takes a liquid and speeds up the motion of the molecules that make up that liquid, a gas will result o Doesn’t have a definitive shape or volume o Volume changes as the container that holds the gas changes o Ex: Air in lungs By changing the volume of the lungs, this changes the pressure of the gas (Air) that allows humans to breathe - Matter can change from one state to another: o Water: Subtract heat to slow down the molecular motion Formation of a solid (Ice) o Bones (Solid): Changing the pH condition Changes in molecular motion Bones becoming soluble Liquid form 2. Define energy, and differentiate the forms in which it can occur. En-ergon is Greek for “at work” Different forms of energy a) Potential: - Stored energy - Ex: Roller coaster car at the top of a hill represents potential energy b) Kinetic: - Energy in motion - Ex: When the roller coaster car starts going down the hill, the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy - Energy put into a system can be stored to use later When the stored energy is released, it is converted into kinetic energy that can be used c) Chemical: - Energy contained within bonds between elements (In the form of chemical bonds = Stored energy) - In order to release chemical energy, the chemical bonds need to be broken - Absorbing chemical energy Creation of a bond Creates potential energy - Breaking bonds Release of kinetic energy d) Electrical: - Results from the flow of charged particles - Ex: Battery o Has positive and negative ions Because they are attracted to each other, the ions create a current - Ex: In the body there are positive and negative ions also o Flow of ions creates electrical energy in the body e) Mechanical: - Energy that is required for movement - Ex: Wind turbine: o Wind blowing hits the turbine blade that causes it to spin (Wind sets the turbine into motion) Can convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy Powers houses f) Electromagnetic: - AKA radiant energy - Energy that travels in waves - Includes light, sound, and heat waves **Energy comes from chemical, electrical, mechanical, and electromagnetic energy Kinetic energy (Energy in action) g) Energy Conversions - First Law of Thermodynamics: o Energy can neither be created or destroyed o Energy is instead converted from one form to another - Second Law of Thermodynamics: o No energy conversion is 100% efficient o Some energy is going to be lost to the environment o Lost energy in the body makes heat, which helps maintain constant body temperature Metabolic processes are responsible for generating this heat h) Body system overall: Changes energy from one form to another all the time - Ex: Consumed food is converted to chemical energy, mechanical energy, etc. 3. How are atoms and elements related to one another? Atomosis Greek for “Indivisible” Definition of an Atom - The smallest unit of matter than can enter a chemical reaction - All elements of composed of atoms - Matter is composed of elements Elements cannot be broken down into anything smaller under normal reactions but they contain atoms that allow elements to react with other elements 4. List the subatomic particles. Identify their charges, relative sizes and location in the atom. Composition of anAtom - An atom is composed of a nucleus at the center where most of the mass of an atom is located - Nucleus: o Composed of protons (+) and neutrons (Neutral charge) - Outside the nucleus, electrons (-) revolve around the nucleus and are constantly in motion o In order to keep the electrons moving around the nucleus, there has to be the same number of protons as electrons Atomic Number - Number of protons that exist in an atom - # of protons = # of electrons - Increasing the atomic number More protons in the nucleus Increases the mass of the atom Atomic Mass - Sum of the number of protons + number of neutrons - Most of the mass of an atom is the nucleus - Increasing the atomic number More protons in the nucleus, which is part of the atomic mass but other part includes the neutrons - Isotope: o An atom that contains the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons o Ex: Isotope of Lithium Will contain 3 protons and 3 electrons but will have a different number of neutrons than a regular Li atom Periodic Table of Elements - Each element in the periodic table has an atomic number that gives the number of protons (And electrons) the atom possesses - Chemical symbols and atomic weights are also listed - Elements that have similar characteristics can be placed into columns Tells us how the element is going to react in chemical reactions o Some elements will donate or accept electrons while other elements share electrons Energy Levels - Orbitals/shells: o Regions in which the electrons move around the nucleus o Electrons are in constant motion o Each orbital has a maximum number of electrons it can hold Valence - The number of extra or deficient electrons in the outermost energy level - AKA: Electrons that in the outermost orbital/shell - If an orbital/shell is full like neon, the element is inert and not reactive (Includes the noble gases- Last column in the periodic table) - If an orbital/shell isn’t full, the element is reactive because it has a deficient or extra amount of electrons **All atoms want to have full outermost orbitals/shells Chemical Reactions - Combining or breaking apart of atoms forming new products with different properties from the originals - Ex: In the picture, a red liquid was mixed with a green liquid o Results in color changes that are different properties o Can see this is an exergonic reaction (Gives off energy), which causes it to bubble and boil so that the liquid is changed into a gas - Again: In chemical reactions, atoms combine that result in new substances that have different properties Chemical Reactions - Atoms always try to fill the outermost energy level o Accomplished by giving up, accepting, or sharing electrons with another atom - AKA: A chemical reaction is an interchange of electrons among atoms 5. Differentiate among, element, molecule and compound. Molecule - Combination of two or more atoms from a chemical reaction o Interactions of two or more atoms Molecule - Molecules do not have to be a combination of the same atoms Compound - Substance that can be broken down into two or more others by a chemical means - Always contain combinations of two or more different elements - All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds 6. Identify the types of bonds that can be formed between molecules. Explain why different molecules use different bonding. Chemical Bonding - Attractive forces that hold together the atoms of a molecule - Bonds have to form between atoms in order for the compound to be made Ionic: - Relates to the idea that opposites attract Ions of opposite charges are attracted to one another - Electrons in the outermost shell give an ionic charge - Atoms with a small excess number of electrons are attracted towards atoms that have a weak deficiency in electrons (Atoms that already have much more electrons in their outermost shell) - Ions: o Positively or negatively charged particles which result when an atom gains or loses electrons Cation: (+) Gives up electron = Electron donor; Will have more protons than electrons Anion: (-) Accepts electron = Electron acceptor; Will have fewer protons than electrons o In other terms: Ionic bonds will create ions that will have charges that are considered to be polar—Due to the positive and negative charges o Ex: In the picture There is 1 extra electron in the outermost (valence) shell in Na and 1 less electron in the outermost shell in Cl Due to ionic bonding, both atoms have full outer shells due to Na donating its electron to Cl (Acceptor) Covalent: - Share electrons between atoms in a chemical reaction Electrons will circle around both nuclei - More stable and common than ionic bonds - Ex: Carbon is capable of making 4 covalent bonds - Types: a) Single covalent bond: o Share 1 pair of electrons o Ex: C and H make a single covalent bond b) Double covalent bond: o Share 2 sets of electrons o Ex: 2 O molecules make a double covalent bond c) Triple covalent bond: o Share 3 pairs of electrons - Electrons are moving around atoms equally or unequally, which creates partial polar or non-polar covalent bonds *Ionic bonds are polar, and generally, polarity is not associated with covalent bonds Hydrogen: - Technically not a bond and is instead more of an attraction that is due to electronegativity - Ex: H2O o Water is composed of an O with 2 H around it o Electrons spend more time around O than H Creates H = partial positive charge and O = partial negative charge o Between water molecules: O are attractively held in place as a result (Due to hydrogen bonding between the O and H) - H usually attracts O and N - Hydrogen bonds are very weak, and again they are essentially electronegative forces that hold molecules together Summary: Covalent bonds are the strongest because they involve sharing electrons. Ionic bonds are weaker and involve sharing charges. Hydrogen bonds are the weakest and involve sharing partial charges. 7. Define chemical reaction, and list the various types of possible reactions. Making or breaking bonds Number of atoms remains the same but are rearranged Chemical formula example: 2 H2 + O2 2 H2O - Balanced equation - Left side of the arrow: Reactants - Right side of the arrow: Products - Products always have to have the same number of atoms as the reactants - Molecular formula= 2 H2O - Whole formula = Chemical equation Some reactants can go back the other way to the left of the arrow Seen in situations where things can be built up to be stored for later and then they can be broken down when needed Types of chemical reactions: a) Synthesis - Metabolism: Consisted of catabolic and anabolic reactions - Synthesis reactions are anabolic Building things up and making them better - 2 or more atoms or molecules are combined to form a bigger one - Ex: Amino acid + Amino acid combine to produce a protein b) Decomposition: - Catabolic Breaking things down - Bonds in large molecules are broken down to yield smaller substances **All things are based up synthesis and decomposition c) Exchange: - Part synthesis and part decomposition - Oxidation-reduction reactions o Important reactions that occur in the body o Have to do with an exchange of electrons o Where some atoms will donate an electron to something else o An atom that gives up and donates an electron = Oxidized o An atom that accepts and electron = Reduced d) Reversible: - End products can revert back to the reactants - Happens when neither the reactants or the products are very stable (Want to reach equilibrium) e) Exergonic: - Catabolic - Releases energy (Net energy is given off) - Products have less energy than the reactants - Cannot have any chemical reactions unless there is an input of some energy to make it happen f) Endergonic: - Anabolic Requires the input of energy - Products are at a higher level of energy than the reactants - Ex: Chemical energy stored in bonds Making something big between reactants 8. What factors limit the rate of chemical reactions? Explain how these are related to activation energy. Collision Theory - Explains how and why chemical reactions occur - All particles are in constant motion and continually collide with one another o Alternative explanation: All matter consists of elements and elements consist of atoms and all elements have those atoms in constant motion Atoms ultimately bump into one another - If collision provides activation energy, bonds are broken or formed o Alternative explanation: If the collision is strong enough to get the atoms close enough to interact with one another Activation energy is produced which allows bonds to be formed or broke Activation Energy - Collision energy is needed for a chemical reaction o All chemical reactions need to have an input of some energy in order to allow them to take place (That energy typically comes from a collision) - Activation energy: Amount of energy needed to rearrange the electrons of a molecule Velocity of colliding particles: - The faster particles are moving, the more impact, the higher the energy, and the greater the reactivity - Most experiments require heating substances because temperature is a measurement of molecular motion - Ex: Body temperature is kept at around 98 degrees F Keeps molecules in very fast motion which allows them to be very reactive Energy of colliding particles: - Energy isn’t just based on the speed of motion, it is also based on particle size - Smaller particle sizes are better Smaller things can move faster than bigger things and therefore have more energy - Big things moving slowly still impart energy though Concentration of colliding particles: - The more particles there are, the more collisions that will occur Catalysts: - Increase the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction - Ex: Body have biological catalysts, which are enzymes our bodies produce that are substances that speed up chemical reactions o Reactions without catalysts would cause the reactions to occur to slowly to keep humans alive Biochemistry 1. Define biochemistry. Chemical composition and reactions of living matter Looking at biological compounds (Compounds of living organisms) 2. Differentiate organic and inorganic compounds. List important compounds from each group. Inorganic: - Doesn’t contain carbon - Includes water, salts, acids, and bases - When salts, acids, and bases dissolve in water they dissociate into charged particles called ions - Charged particles in the human body are called electrolytes (Again, coming from the dissolving of salts such as NaCl, KCl, etc.) Organic: - Do contain carbon - Carbon has the potential for 4 covalent bonds, which means it won’t dissociate into electrolytes (NOT ionic) - Focus is on carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids Important Inorganic Compounds Water: - 60-80% of the mass of the human body is made up of water - Properties of water: a) High heat capacity: o Water is resistant to changes in temperature o This is important because of the body having a homeostatic body temperature Water makes it easier to maintain this homeostatic body temperature b) High heat of vaporization: o Water requires a lot of heat (And therefore energy) in order for it to turn from a liquid into a gas o Allowing water to evaporate from our bodies means that it also has cooling powers (Regulator of body temperature) c) Universal solvent: o Solution: Created when a solute dissolves into a solvent Solute: Substance being dissolved Solvent: What the substance is being dissolved in Ex: The solute in a saline solution is salt o Ionic molecules (Molecules made through ionic bonds) are able to dissolve in water o Polar compounds can dissolve in water, which means they have the ability to create ions which are able to then be transported by water (Since solvents also act as transport mediums) Important because for anything to be biologically active, it has to be in solution o Ex: Consumption of Food Food is moistened in the mouth in order to put it into solution and have enzymes break some components down Food moves to the stomach where gastric juice is secreted in order to allow different enzymes to work on different components Main idea: Food and its components are put into solution for these breakdown mechanisms to happen d) Hydrolysis/condensation: o Water allows the body to engage in hydrolysis and condensation reactions o Reminder: All of the metabolic activities of the body are either anabolic (Build up) or catabolic (Break down) Therefore, everything in our body goes through a synthesis (Anabolic) or decomposition (Break down) reaction o Condensation/Dehydration synthesis reaction: H O rem2ved If there are 2 reactants going through an anabolic reaction in order to build something up, water is removed o Hydrolysis reaction: H O 2dded If there is a substance that is to be broken down, water is split and added so that the OH goes to one side and the H goes to the other side e) Cushion o Water has tremendous cushioning potential that can be found between bones and joints (Sac of fluid is present so that bone don’t crush into each other, for example) o Cerebral spinal fluid surrounds the brain and the water acts a cushion to protect from head trauma Salts: - Substances that dissociate to form cations (+) and anions (-) which are electrolytes o AKA: Salts create electrolytes when they dissociate into solution - Important because the movement of charged particles produces electrical energy - Movement of charged particles are specifically necessary for electrical energy use in nerve pulses that transfer throughout the body and that also act as signals that cause muscles to contract - Again: Electrical energy is used for life processes - Salts can also be deposited into a matrix and build tissue such as bone and teeth (Create hard tissue substances) o Ex: If more diet is consumed from the diet than for what is needed at the time, it is put into bones and when it’s needed later it will be released from bone - Salt balance in our body is critical for life There is a very narrow homeostatic optimum for salt balance o Kidneys are responsible for regulating the ionic balance o If one were to go into renal failure, death can follow very quickly since it is very hard to re-establish salt balance after it is lost Acids: - Substances that dissociate - When acids dissociate, they increase the hydrogen ion concentration - Hydrogen ions have a positive charge so they have more protons This means that an acid is a proton donor since it gives up a hydrogen ion somewhere in another chemical reaction o AKA: Acids dissociate to produce H (+) - Acids through dissociation can also create electrical currents and produce electrical energy Bases: - Substances that increase the hydroxyl ion (OH) concentration- Typical chemistry definition - In terms of anatomy/physiology: A base is a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration, making bases proton acceptors 3. Identify the special properties of water (See question 2) 4. Explain the concept of pH, and discuss how the body maintains pH biochemically. pH: - Description of the level of acidity or alkalinity of a solution - Expressed on a scale from 0-14 o Based on concentration of hydrogen ions in solution in moles/liter (Dissociation of hydrogen ions in water) o p = negative log and H = hydrogen ion concentration o < 7 Acidic o > 7 Basic (Bases remove hydrogen ions so they shift the scale higher) o 7 = Neutral Is homeostatic: o Different parts of our body have different optimal pH’s Ex: Mouth pH is different than the stomach’s pH All parts have to have a homeostatic pH though in order to work properly o Homeostasis of pH is maintained by: a) Neutralization: Addition of an acid and base Water + Salt Water a neutral pH of 7 Summary: Combination of water and a salt results in a neutral solution b) Buffering: Process in which the addition of small amounts of acid or base do not result in a pH change Resists pH changes by either accepting or liberating hydrogen ions *Mechanisms are important because humans constantly flood the boy with acidic or basic foods (Predominantly acidic foods such as coke that is acidic due to its ingredients and carbonation, for example; Ex: Overindulgence in alcohol Acidosis Death) 5. Describe the building blocks and general structures of the important organic molecules. Carbohydrates: - Include sugars and starches - Body is composed of 60-80%water, which means that the cell is made up of 1-2% carbohydrates - Main function of carbohydrates is to be a source of energy - Glucose acts as the major player in energy production since it most easily enters glycolysis where it is then broken down to pyruvate TCA cycle Electron transport chain Ultimately making ATP for energy - Energy can come from sources other than glucose as well - Monosaccharides: o Smallest form of sugar; Individual units = simple sugars o Taste very sweet o Can be absorbed immediately across the wall of the digestive tract o Can be immediately used to provide energy directly from the blood stream o Simple sugars are named based on the number of carbons they contain: Pentose: Have 5 carbons Hexose: Have 6 carbons o Monosaccharides will always have a C:H:O ratio of 1:2:1 Ex: C 6 O12 6lucose - Disaccharides: o 1 monosaccharide + 1 monosaccharide via a dehydration synthesis reaction Polymerization to produce a disaccharide o Ex: Sucrose is 1 glucose + 1 glucose = table sugar o Ex: Lactose is 1 galactose + 1 glucose = milk sugar Many individuals suffer from lactose intolerance because as newborns we produce lactase that is the enzyme that breaks down lactose but as one ages and especially once one is weaned, the enzyme is usually no longer produced Issues when consuming dairy products containing lactose o Must be digested and broken down into monosaccharides before they can be absorbed across the wall of the digestive tract via hydrolysis reaction - Polysaccharides: o Additions of monosaccharides and disaccharides to produce polysaccharides via dehydration synthesis reactions o Must be digested and broken down into ultimately monosaccharides before they can be absorbed across the wall of the digestive tract via hydrolysis reactions o Unique characteristic: Don’t taste sweet like monosaccharides + NOT water soluble o Long chain polysaccharides are stored as starch in plants and as glycogen in animals o Glycogen: Created in animals when there is extra sugar not needed for energy yet Stored in liver and muscle Key to understand that glycogen consumed from animal sources must be broken down into their monosaccharide components and be rebuilt as glycogen in the human body Lipids: - Can exist in 1 of 2 states of matter Liquid or solid at room temperature - Solid = fat - Liquid = oil - NOT water soluble - Will dissolve in other lipids and organic solvents such as acetone and benzene - Neutral Fats (Triglycerides): o A triglyceride contains 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids (FA) o Non-polar so won’t dissolve in water o Function primarily as energy storage molecules Storage process: After the consumption of a meal, glycogen stores fill up first with glucose Excess glucose is stored as fat in adipose tissue Although glucose is used the most for energy since it is easiest and in simplest form, more energy can be obtained from lipids than out of sugar (20x more than out of glycogen) When energy is needed: Glucose from glycogen is broken down and used up first Then break down triglycerides in storage for energy o Lipids function in insulation: Ex: Pack kidneys in fat that are located on the back side in order to prevent major loss of body temperature o Lipids also protect organs via working as a cushion - Classes ofTriglycerides: a) Saturated: o 1 glycerol + 3 FA that have all single bonds (NO double bonds between 2 carbons) o Solid at room temperature o Predominantly found in animal fat o Saturated fat consumption tends to increase cholesterol levels in the body o Can tell from an evolutionary perspective that humans are supposed to have meat in the diet Vegetarians have an advantage though since they won’t consume as much saturated fat, which means that cholesterol won’t be as big of an issue b) Unsaturated: o Contains a single bond in 1 of the 3 FA’s that are esterified to the glycerol backbone o Oils at room temperature o Do not cause any increase in cholesterol because they don’t have any effect on cholesterol c) Polyunsaturated: o A triglyceride that has 2 or more bonds in the 3 FA’s esterified to the glycerol backbone d) Trans-fats: o Comes from a fat this is an oil that is composed of predominantly polyunsaturated triglycerides This oil form is solidified in a lab by simply flooding it with hydrogens Breaks the double bonds of the polyunsaturated triglyceride o This synthetic creation of trans fat was originally done in order to add more flavor in snack foods since lots of saturated fat tends to give more flavor People did not want the incorporation of lard as the source of added saturated fat so trans-fat was synthetically created to add the source of saturated fat for flavor o Trans-fat is a concern because it grossly increases cholesterol and therefore increases heart disease o Trans-fat can also be naturally found in animal sources such as ground beef e) Omega-3 Fatty Acids: o Polyunsaturated FA o Omega: Means at the far end of the FA chain Naming comes from starting at the end of the FA chain and counting the carbons backwards until you meet where the double bond is located Ex: Omega-3 FA have a double bond at the 3 carbon from the tail Ex: Omega-6 FA have a double bond at the 6 carbon from the tail o Shown to reduce cholesterol (Same with omega-6 FA—Shown later in research) o Predominantly found in fish oils: (Extra) The stomach is acts as a storage tank so the problem with pills is that it will sit in the stomach for a while before there is a signal for the stomach to empty into the small intestine so the oil will sit on top of the stomach Now other omega-3 FA sources in pill form are coming from krill - Phospholipids: o Structure: Take 1 FA away from the glycerol backbone on a triglyceride and substitute it with a phosphate results in a phospholipid In summary: 2 FA + phosphate on a glyceryl backbone o Have a non-polar component through the 2 FA that doesn’t like water o Have a polar component through the phosphate that likes water o When phospholipids are in solution Get a double layer of phospholipids because the polar/water loving component of the phosphate faces the outside towards the water and the non-polar/water opposing FA components face the inside away from the water Phospholipid bilayer makes up cellular membranes Amphipathic molecule Meaning molecule has polar and non-polar parts - Steroids: o Made from 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings o Fat based Fat soluble o Ex: Testosterone and progesterone Differene between the two hormones is 1 double bond and 1 hydrogen o Steroids are a form of signaling molecule (1 class of hormones) o Nervous system and endocrine system are involved in regulation Steroids are part of the endocrine system o Long-distance signaling molecules that are produced in one part and affect another part somewhere else - Eicosanoids: o Local signaling molecules Produced in one part of the body and affect that same place o Fat based o Triglyceride structure is what gets modified to produce eicosanoids Proteins: See question 6 and 7 Nucleic acids: See question 8 6. Describe how proteins obtain their 3-D structure, and discuss the roles proteins play within living systems. Proteins: - 10-30% of the mass of a cell is made up of protein Therefore, cells are predominantly water and protein - Proteins are composed of amino acids (AA) - When AA are linked together Results in a polypeptide - AA + AA are bonded together via peptide bonds—Function through a nitrogen - Proteins in the human body are made up of 20 AA - Some of those AA are only available from animal sources - Some proteins can’t be made in the body if a person is a strict vegetarian - Protein Structure: a) Primary Structure: o Linear sequence of all the AA that make up a protein Review: Linear AA chains make up a polypeptide b) Secondary Structure: o Because these AA have different charges associated with them (Positive or negative), all of these primary structures will twist as a result o 2 possible secondary structures: 1. Betapleated sheet:For example- Found in straight hair 2. Alpha helix: For example- Found in curly hair c) Tertiary Structure: o Secondary structure coils enough so that the AA get close enough to each other and they twist even more to give a 3D shape o Possess active sites where specific substrates can fit Makes up a functional protein, for example (One type of protein) d) Quaternary Structure: o If there is more than 1 peptide chain linked together Complex protein >1 polypeptide chain= Quaternary structure o Ex: Hemoglobin Consists of 4 peptide chains = complex protein with 4 subunits that all wrap around = quaternary structure - Types of Proteins: o Structural/Fibrous: Give form to body parts Most abundant protein in the body is collagen that gives form o Regulatory: Regulate processes generally as a hormone (In addition to the steroid-based hormones as well) o Contractile: Ex: Myosin and actin in muscle o Immunological: Antibodies that fight infection or disease o Transport: Carrier molecules known as transport proteins Ex: Hemoglobin carries oxygen o Catalytic: Enzymes that are proteins that function as biological catalysts and speed up chemical reactions 3D shape causes the enzyme to have an active site that will bind to and only certain substrates When a substrate binds to the active site Induces the activation energy to allow that reaction to occur Enzymes do not get consumed in the reaction (Still have the reaction when the reaction is complete) Overall Process: Enzyme binds with specific substrate Forms enzymes- substrate complex Substrate to form product + enzyme available to be used again Ex: Picture shows a decomposition reaction 7. Explain the function of enzymes and how this function is lost through denaturation. Denaturation: Loss of a protein’s 3D shape Change pH or temperature too much outside of the optimal range Denaturation Loss of function of the protein/enzyme Structural proteins are relatively stable and don’t denature very often while functional proteins tend to denature more easily 8. Differentiate DNA from RNA Nucleic Acids: - Largest molecules in the body - Comprised of nucleotides (ATCG that are either a purine or pyrimidine) that are bound to a pentose sugar via phosphate bonds - Summary: Nucleic acid is made up of a phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar, and nucleotides (Nitrogenous bases) - DNA: o Genetic material located in the nucleus of the cell o Nuclear material contains code segments called genes that indirectly code for the production of proteins o Sugar = Deoxy ribose o Double-stranded molecule o AT and GC complementary nucleotide pairing that are held together by hydrogen bonds - RNA: o Ribonucleic acid o Sugar = Ribose o Single-stranded molecule o T (Thiamine) is replaced by U (Uracil) Means RNA will have a different nucleotide configuration AU and GC complementary nucleotide pairing o DNA codes for the production of proteins indirectly via coding for RNA o Process: DNA stays in the nucleus but sends a messenger to ribosomes tht make RND Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): - Adenine is bound to a phosphate in which 2 additional phosphates are attached - Important because ATP is the currency of energy in our bodies - Energy is release when a bond is broken: o When a phosphate is cleaved off ATP Produce energy (Typically 1 phosphate is broken off and then a phosphate is added back on to use ATP molecule over again) Cell Structure 1. Summarize the cell theory. Cella is Latin for “store room” or “chamber” Definition of a Cell - Basic living, structural, and functional units of all organisms - Cells contain all of the chemicals that work together - There are about 200 different types of cells in the body and 1 x 10 cells total - Smallest cell is 2 microns - Largest cell is the nerve cell and is more than a meter in size Part of the spinal cord where the nerve cell extends all the way down into the leg - There are different cell structures Function determines the structure of the cell and structure determines the function of the cell Cell Theory: Cell is the structural and functional unit of life - In order for something to be considered living, it has to be made up of a cells - Activity of an organism is the combined results of individual and aggregated cells o Organisms are the combined results of the individual cells performing the tasks - Activity of cells depends on subcellular composition Principle of Complementarity o Different cells perform different tasts because the activity of the cell is based on the composition of the cell o Ex: Some cells are rich in mitochondria, which means they will produce a lot of energy o Ex: Some cells possess cilia that will make the cells work as filters - Cells are responsible for the continuity of life o Cells make new cells o Cells divide and replace themselves o Specialized cells called gametes are required for sexual reproduction to occur - Again: Cells are made up of chemicals 2. Identify the major structural components of a cell. Plasma membrane: - Limiting boundary - Important because the plasma membrane allows the inside of a cell to have a different composition than outside the cell AKA cells have an internal environment - Regulates what can move into or out of the cell because it can limit su
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