Exam One Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacob Edwards on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1030 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Baldwin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 294 views. For similar materials see General Biology in BIO at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Biology is the study of life There are seven properties of life o Order o Reproduction o Growth and Development o Energy Processing o Response to environmental stimuli o The ability of an internal system to regulate itself o Evolutionary Adaptations Cells are the building block of life. They are responsible for: o Regulating internal environment o Taking in and using energy o Responding to its environment o Developing and maintaining complex organization o Giving rise to new cells o They are enclosed by a membrane that regulates the passage of materials There are two types of cells: o Prokaryotic Cells These were the first to evolve These cells are simpler and smaller than eukaryotes o Eukaryotic Cells These cells contain membrane bound organelles, including a nucleus Producers, Consumers and Decomposers o Plants are producers and provide food o Consumers eat plants and other consumers o Decomposers recycle organic matter back into the environment Genes o Are the unit of inheritance o Are grouped into large DNA molecules called chromosomes o Control the activities of the cell o All forms of life use essentially the same code to translate info from DNA into proteins o Diversity of life comes from different DNA sequences Three Domains o Bacteria This domain contains prokaryotes o Archaea These prefer extreme environments such as the vents on the ocean floor o Eukarya Includes plants, animals, and fungi As well as single celled protists Evolution o Explains the unity and diversity of life o Accounts for kinship and diversity o Uses natural selection as a mechanism o Species show “descent with modification” o Darwin inferred Individuals with traits best suited to the environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than those lesssuited Because of this more and more individuals will possess advantageous traits The result is called evolutionary adaptation, the accumulation of favorable traits over time Scientific Method o Inductive reasoning Observing a trend and generalizing what you think will happen next. What appears to be fact? o Deductive reasoning Using a fact from a set of facts to discern another fact o Scientific Theory Is much larger than a hypothesis General enough to generate new, specific, and testable hypotheses Supported by a large and growing body of evidence o A hypothesis must be Testable Falsifiable Matter o Anything that occupies space and has mass Chemistry o The periodic table is arranged through atomic number o An element can be displayed in the following notation Atomic Mass (¿)6 o Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen make up 96% of most living organisms o A compound is two or more elements bonded together o A covalent bond occurs when the valence electrons are shared between elements and will occur in nonmetals (The right side of the periodic table) o An ionic bond occurs between a metal and a nonmetal o A molecule is the smallest unit of a compound that still has all the same properties that the compound has o Electrons occur in energy levels called the electron shell o Charges on Protons, Electrons and Neutrons Protons have a charge of +1 Neutrons have a charge of 0 Electrons have a charge of 1 o Neutrons and protons reside in the nucleus of an atom and account for most of the mass. o The atomic mass is found by adding the protons + neutrons o The element displayed on the periodic table is an elements most common isotope. o An isotope is a version of an element with more or less neutrons than average and thus is usually radioactive Water o An amphipathic molecule forms partial charges on each side. Water is a good example of this. o Water forms hydrogen bonds o The universal solvent (Will dissolve all polar substances) o Hydrogen bonds allow water to be a liquid at room temperature o Takes a lot of energy to break bonds o Water will expand when it becomes a solid (Freezing) o High surface tension o Ionic Pollution o Fossil fuels release CO 2 o Sulfur and NO r2act with water to form acid rain o Acid rain has a pH less than 5.2 o Carbon dioxide dissolving in seawater lowers the ocean’s pH in a process called ocean acidification Functional group, Monomers, Polymers o A functional group affects the characteristics of a molecule o Each polymer is made up of a specific monomer Carbohydrate: Glucose Protein: Amino Lipids: Fatty Acid Nucleic Acid: Nucleotide o Monomers link to form monomers through dehydration reactions o Sugars belong to the carbohydrate group Starch is linear, glycogen is not Lipids o Lipids are insoluble and hydrophobic o Mostly made of Carbon and Hydrogen in nonpolar bonds o Not huge molecules o Vary in structure and function o A fat is a lipid made from glycerol and fatty acids o A fatty acid with one or more double bonds is a unsaturated fatty acid These have one less hydrogen on the double bonded carbon o A fat with the max amount of hydrogen are saturated fatty acids o Steroids are lipids where the carbon skeleton contains four fuse rings o Cholesterol is a common component in animal cell membranes and is the starting material for most steroids Nucleotides o Made of nucleotides o Central Dogma DNARNAProteins o Genes consist of DNA Genes are inherited from parents Directs cell activities o DNA is transcribed to RNA o RNA is translated to proteins o Nucleotides are made of three things Phosphate Nitrogenous Base Sugar o Purines Adenine Guanine o Pyrimidines Cytosine Thymine o The sugar in DNA is Deoxyribose o The sugar in RNA is Ribose o In RNA Thymine is replace with Uracil Proteins o Composed of different arrangements of a common set of twenty amino acid monomers o A protein can have different functions ranging from Structural Contractile Defensive Signal Receptor Transport Storage Enzymes Cells o Cell Theory Each organism is made of cells All cells have similar structures Cells come from other cells o Four Basic Functions of cells Plasma membrane provides optimal conditions on the inside of the cell (Homeostasis) Store information and pass it to the next generation of cells Have chemical reactions to break down compounds (Metabolism) Synthesis of Proteins Cells size o Must be large enough to house DNA and organelles o Remain small enough for surface to volume ratio to allow adequate exchange with the environment o Membrane proteins are either attached to the surface or embedded o Some proteins are channels or pumps to transport molecules in or out Cells o Prokaryote: Archaea and Bacteria o Endosymbiotic Theory Mitochondria and Chloroplasts arose when a large eukaryote engulfed a prokaryote and formed a symbiotic relationship o Nucleus Formed by plasma membrane surrounding DNA o Ribosomes Involved in protein synthesis Made from RNA Free ribosomes in the cytoplasm make proteins Bound ribosomes in the ER make proteins packed in an organelle o Endomembrane system Synthesis, storage of proteins o Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Makes enzymes Important in synthesis of lipids, oils, phospholipids, and steroids o Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Makes additional membrane Protein destined for secretion o Golgi Apparatus Packs and ships protein o Lysosomes Help remove and recycle damaged parts of a cell o Vacuoles Store and eliminate excess water o Mitochondria Convert chemical energy to ATP and carry out cellular respiration in most eukaryotic cells Have their own DNA and ribosomes o Chloroplast For photosynthesis o Cytoskeleton A network of protein structures Microfilaments Support cells shape and mobility Intermediate filament Reinforce shape and anchor organelles Microtubules Give cell rigidity o Cilia and Flagella Wrapped in microtubule o Cell Junction Tight Junction Prevent Leakage Anchoring Junction Fasten cells together into sheets Gap Junction Channel allows molecules to flow between cells Paracellular Between cells Transcellular Cell to Cell o Plant Cell Cell Wall Made with Cellulose Gap junction is called plasmodesmata o Animal Cells Synthesize and secrete an extracellular matrix *** Make sure to know the function of each organelle in the cell***
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