New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam One Study Guide

by: Jacob Edwards

Exam One Study Guide 1030

Marketplace > Clemson University > BIO > 1030 > Exam One Study Guide
Jacob Edwards
GPA 3.2

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These will help
General Biology
Dr. William Baldwin
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in General Biology

Popular in BIO

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacob Edwards on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1030 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Baldwin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 294 views. For similar materials see General Biology in BIO at Clemson University.


Reviews for Exam One Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/06/16
 Biology is the study of life  There are seven properties of life o Order o Reproduction o Growth and Development o Energy Processing o Response to environmental stimuli o The ability of an internal system to regulate itself o Evolutionary Adaptations  Cells are the building block of life.  They are responsible for: o Regulating internal environment o Taking in and using energy o Responding to its environment o Developing and maintaining complex organization o Giving rise to new cells o They are enclosed by a membrane that regulates the passage of materials  There are two types of cells: o Prokaryotic Cells  These were the first to evolve  These cells are simpler and smaller than eukaryotes o Eukaryotic Cells  These cells contain membrane bound organelles, including a nucleus  Producers, Consumers and Decomposers o Plants are producers and provide food o Consumers eat plants and other consumers o Decomposers recycle organic matter back into the environment  Genes o Are the unit of inheritance o Are grouped into large DNA molecules called chromosomes o Control the activities of the cell o All forms of life use essentially the same code to translate info from DNA into  proteins o Diversity of life comes from different DNA sequences  Three Domains o Bacteria  This domain contains prokaryotes o Archaea  These prefer extreme environments such as the vents on the ocean floor o Eukarya  Includes plants, animals, and fungi  As well as single celled protists  Evolution o Explains the unity and diversity of life o Accounts for kinship and diversity o Uses natural selection as a mechanism o Species show “descent with modification” o Darwin inferred  Individuals with traits best suited to the environment are more likely to  survive and reproduce than those less­suited  Because of this more and more individuals will possess advantageous  traits  The result is called evolutionary adaptation, the accumulation of favorable traits over time  Scientific Method o Inductive reasoning  Observing a trend and generalizing what you think will happen next.   What appears to be fact? o Deductive reasoning  Using a fact from a set of facts to discern another fact o Scientific Theory  Is much larger than a hypothesis  General enough to generate new, specific, and testable hypotheses  Supported by a large and growing body of evidence o A hypothesis must be  Testable  Falsifiable  Matter o Anything that occupies space and has mass  Chemistry o The periodic table is arranged through atomic number o An element can be displayed in the following notation Atomic Mass (¿)6 o Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen make up 96% of most living organisms o A compound is two or more elements bonded together o A covalent bond occurs when the valence electrons are shared between elements  and will occur in nonmetals (The right side of the periodic table) o An ionic bond occurs between a metal and a nonmetal o A molecule is the smallest unit of a compound that still has all the same properties that the compound has o Electrons occur in energy levels called the electron shell o Charges on Protons, Electrons and Neutrons  Protons have a charge of +1  Neutrons have a charge of 0  Electrons have a charge of ­1 o Neutrons and protons reside in the nucleus of an atom and account for most of the mass. o The atomic mass is found by adding the protons + neutrons o The element displayed on the periodic table is an elements most common isotope. o An isotope is a version of an element with more or less neutrons than average and  thus is usually radioactive  Water o An amphipathic molecule forms partial charges on each side.  Water is a good  example of this. o Water forms hydrogen bonds o The universal solvent (Will dissolve all polar substances) o Hydrogen bonds allow water to be a liquid at room temperature o Takes a lot of energy to break bonds o Water will expand when it becomes a solid (Freezing) o High surface tension o Ionic  Pollution o Fossil fuels release CO 2 o Sulfur and NO  r2act with water to form acid rain o Acid rain has a pH less than 5.2 o Carbon dioxide dissolving in seawater lowers the ocean’s pH in a process called  ocean acidification  Functional group, Monomers, Polymers o A functional group affects the characteristics of a molecule o Each polymer is made up of a specific monomer  Carbohydrate: Glucose  Protein: Amino  Lipids: Fatty Acid  Nucleic Acid: Nucleotide o Monomers link to form monomers through dehydration reactions o Sugars belong to the carbohydrate group  Starch is linear, glycogen is not  Lipids o Lipids are insoluble and hydrophobic o Mostly made of Carbon and Hydrogen in nonpolar bonds o Not huge molecules o Vary in structure and function o A fat is a lipid made from glycerol and fatty acids o A fatty acid with one or more double bonds is a unsaturated fatty acid  These have one less hydrogen on the double bonded carbon o A fat with the max amount of hydrogen are saturated fatty acids o Steroids are lipids where the carbon skeleton contains four fuse rings o Cholesterol is a common component in animal cell membranes and is the starting  material for most steroids  Nucleotides o Made of nucleotides o Central Dogma  DNARNAProteins o Genes consist of DNA  Genes are inherited from parents  Directs cell activities o DNA is transcribed to RNA o RNA is translated to proteins o Nucleotides are made of three things  Phosphate  Nitrogenous Base  Sugar o Purines  Adenine  Guanine o Pyrimidines  Cytosine  Thymine o The sugar in DNA is Deoxyribose o The sugar in RNA is Ribose o In RNA Thymine is replace with Uracil  Proteins o Composed of different arrangements of a common set of twenty amino acid  monomers o A protein can have different functions ranging from  Structural  Contractile  Defensive  Signal  Receptor  Transport  Storage  Enzymes  Cells o Cell Theory  Each organism is made of cells  All cells have similar structures  Cells come from other cells o Four Basic Functions of cells  Plasma membrane provides optimal conditions on the inside of the cell  (Homeostasis)  Store information and pass it to the next generation of cells  Have chemical reactions to break down compounds (Metabolism)  Synthesis of Proteins  Cells size o Must be large enough to house DNA and organelles o Remain small enough for surface to volume ratio to allow adequate exchange with the environment o Membrane proteins are either attached to the surface or embedded o Some proteins are channels or pumps to transport molecules in or out  Cells o Prokaryote: Archaea and Bacteria o Endosymbiotic Theory  Mitochondria and Chloroplasts arose when a large eukaryote engulfed a  prokaryote and formed a symbiotic relationship o Nucleus  Formed by plasma membrane surrounding DNA o Ribosomes  Involved in protein synthesis  Made from RNA  Free ribosomes in the cytoplasm make proteins  Bound ribosomes in the ER make proteins packed in an organelle o Endomembrane system  Synthesis, storage of proteins o Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum  Makes enzymes  Important in synthesis of lipids, oils, phospholipids, and steroids o Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum  Makes additional membrane  Protein destined for secretion o Golgi Apparatus  Packs and ships protein o Lysosomes  Help remove and recycle damaged parts of a cell o Vacuoles  Store and eliminate excess water o Mitochondria  Convert chemical energy to ATP and carry out cellular respiration in most  eukaryotic cells  Have their own DNA and ribosomes o Chloroplast  For photosynthesis o Cytoskeleton  A network of protein structures  Microfilaments  Support cells shape and mobility  Intermediate filament  Reinforce shape and anchor organelles  Microtubules  Give cell rigidity o Cilia and Flagella  Wrapped in microtubule o Cell Junction  Tight Junction  Prevent Leakage  Anchoring Junction  Fasten cells together into sheets  Gap Junction  Channel allows molecules to flow between cells  Paracellular  Between cells  Transcellular  Cell to Cell o Plant Cell  Cell Wall  Made with Cellulose  Gap junction is called plasmodesmata o Animal Cells  Synthesize and secrete an extracellular matrix *** Make sure to know the function of each organelle in the cell***


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.