Biology 301 Chapters 11-12
Biology 301 Chapters 11-12 BIO 301
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah Notetaker on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 301 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Megan Gamble in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Ecology and Evolution in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/06/16
Bio 301 Chapters 11- Exam 1 information Chapter 11- population dynamics: Population- # of individuals of the same species within a given area Biological Species Concept: o Capable of successful reproduction o Formation of viable offspring (ex- female horse + male donkey = mule) Population Distributions- geographic area varies based on the type of organism. Population size- # of individuals Population structure- density/spacing, age (cohort) Spatial structure- pattern of density/spacing Fundamental niche- range of abiotic conditions under which an organism is capable of surviving. Realized niche- (smaller) range of abiotic and biotic factors under which an organism is capable of surviving. Population Distributions: o Geographic range- all areas/ lifetime o Abundance- total #/area o Density o Dispersions- spacing : clustered, evenly spaced, random o Dispersal- movement of individuals from one location to another Habitat corridors- favors the movement of individuals Patchy- can be a high or low quality environment Ideal free distribution- equal per capita benefit - 3 Models of Spatial Structure: Subpopulation- larger population is broken up into smaller groups 1. Basic metapopulation- large group of individuals of the same species that have the ability to interact w/ one another 2. Source sink metapopulation- certain high quality and low quality patches that individuals can move to 3. Landscape metapopulation- looks at the movement from high sources to the sink patches. Routes to the new habitat. Chapter 12: Discrete time model: uses a bin of time (year-annual). What is the change in the # of individuals during that time? -seasonal breeders o n= # of individuals in population Continuous time model- continuous with time (day-day). Change in the # of individuals over time, no seasonal pattern to reproduction o r= growth rate Density dependent factor: limit growth due to crowding o Space/shelter o Resources/food o Disease/parasites o Predation Density independent factors: reduces # of individuals but does not have to do with how many individuals are present. o Temperature o Precipitation o Catastrophic events Life table: can look at a population by different groups o Nx- # of individuals in each age groups o Sx- survival rate @ each age group o NxSx- # of surviving individuals to the next age group o Bx- # of births (Fecundity) o NxSxBx- # of new offspring produced o Census o Lx- survivorship
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