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PSY 3310: Exam 1 Review

by: Kimberly Notetaker

PSY 3310: Exam 1 Review 3310

Marketplace > University of Texas at Dallas > psy > 3310 > PSY 3310 Exam 1 Review
Kimberly Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover the material for Exam 1.
Child Development
Emily Touchstone
Study Guide
Child, development
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Tuesday September 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3310 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Emily Touchstone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Child Development in psy at University of Texas at Dallas.


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Date Created: 09/06/16
THEORY Theories of Child Development:  Psychoanalytic Theories o Primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion. Behavior is just a characteristic of underlying workings of the mind. Early experiences with parents are emphasized » Freud’s Psychosexual Development Theory  Stage theory (5 stages) » Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory  Review stages  Cognitive Theories o Emphasis on conscious thought. Interactions with the environment are emphasized. Childhood experiences have important influences. » Piaget’s Developmental Stage Theory  Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational » Vgotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory  Culture and Social Interaction guide cognitive development.  Development follow child’s potential to learn. Zone of Proximal Development.  You can increase potential if you give the child help. » (Computers) Information-Processing Theory  Information comes in, it is processed, manipulated, and then acted upon.  Development does not occur in stages. Capacity for information grows.  Behavioral & Social Cognitive Theories o Development does not occur in stages. Behavior, environmental experiences, and cognition are the key factors in development. Strong emphasis on research – we study what can be directly observed and measured. Have to see it to believe it. » Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning  Behaviorism – we can scientifically study only what can be directly observed and measured.  Classical Conditioning – a neutral stimulus (bell) can produce a response originally produced by another stimulus (food). » Skinner’s Operant Conditioning  Operant Conditioning – the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence. » Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory  Observational learning – we observe and then we imitate the behaviors of others.  Ethological Theory - Behavior is strongly influenced by biology. - Human behavior is tied to evolution. - There are sensitive periods of development. » Lorenz (Mother Goose)  Imprinting – rapid, innate learning within a limited, critical period of time. New creatures become attached to the first moving object seen. » Bowlby (Attachment Parenting)  Success in human development is greatly weighted o whether or not infants experience positive attachment to caregiver during a critical period.  Ecological Theory » Brofenbrenner (role of the environment)  Microsystem – where the person lives  Mesosystem – relations between microsystems  Exosystem – links to social systems where the child has no active role but may be affected by (how mom’s job affects your life)  Macrosystem – culture  Chronosystem – how the system transitions overtime RESEARCH METHODS Methods for Collecting Data (know benefits and limitations) » Observation o Laboratory Research  Benefits: controlled environment, record findings more systematically  Limitations: unnatural environment, participants know they are being studied, sample not representative, intimidating, target behaviors not present in lab setting, unethical methods my be used to induce behaviors o Naturalistic Observation (Jane Goodell)  Benefits – record behaviors in context  Limitations – difficult to control factors » Survey & Interview o Person – person o Telephone o Mail o Internet (survey monkey, etc.) » Standardized Test o Uniform procedures for administration  Limitations: predictability, reliability, culture adaptability » Case Study (Shirley Ardell Mason) o Case studies are in-depth portrayals of people’s lives.  Benefits – you can learn about a person far beyond what can be measured  Limitations – psychologists rarely look for multiple opinions in cases » Physiological Measures o Physiology—how it works (vs. anatomy)  the body o How do we measure physiology?  EKG (heart activity)  EEG (brain activity)  EMG (muscle activity)  Respiration  Heart rate o Benefits – multimodal research capabilities Experimental Design: » Descriptive o Observe and record behavior o Limited when used alone » Correlational o Descriptive and predictive o Relationship between 2 events or characteristics o Correlational coefficient (-1 - +1); if no relationship  0 » Experimental o Experiments are carefully regulated o Independent vs. dependent variables o Experimental vs. control groups » Cross – sectional (Judith Walenstine – The Unexpected Legacy of Divorce) o Comparisons of different age groups o Can see changes over time without waiting for your participants to grow » Longitudinal o Study the same group of people over time o Expensive and time consuming **Statistical significance  The findings you got are better than chance Ethics in Research: » Informed consent: All participants must agree to participate knowing all possible risks. » Confidentiality: All data must be kept confidential. » Debriefing: Participants should be informed about the research. » Deception: Deception of the purpose of research will not be harmful to the participants. Minimizing Bias  Gender Bias o Drawing conclusions based on gender alone. o Magnifying conclusions to support gender bias.  Cultural & Ethnic Bias o Research should include children from a variety of backgrounds to achieve a representative sample. o **Ethnic gloss – using labels in a superficial way. It wrongly suggests cultural homogeneity. BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES Basic Cell Biology:  Cell  Nucleus  Chromosome  Gene/DNA Cell Duplication: » Mitosis: Cellular reproduction Genetics » Genotype: genetic identity » Phenotype: observable characteristics Genetic Abnormalities: - Cystic fibrosis - Diabetes - Hemophilia - Huntington Disease - PKU - Sickle-Cell Anemia - Spina bifida - Tay-Sachs Disease Chromosomal Abnormalities: chromosomes are arranged in 23 pairs. When there are additions or deletions from that number, the result is a chromosomal abnormality. - Trisomy 21 aka Down-Syndrome - Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY) – extra X chromosome - Fragile X – damage to the X chromosome (only present with boys) - Turner Syndrome (XO) – missing X chromosome - XYY Syndrome – extra Y chromosome Behavior genetics: investigates the influence of heredity in environment on individual differences in human traits and development  How do our genes shape our behavior? o Twin Studies  Identical twins had more similarities  But- shared environment o Adoption Studies  More similar to biological or adoptive parents? o Bouchard: Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart  Jim twins Epigenetic View - Development is the result of an ongoing, bi-directional interchange of heredity/environment o Diabetes o Other examples  Gambia study – mother’s diet (what mom ate mattered)  UC Davis – Environmental epigenetics symposium Prenatal Testing:  Ultrasound sonography  Nuchal translucency (measurement of the brain stem)  Triple screen / Quad screen  Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)  Amniocentesis PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT  Germinal Period o Conception and the first two weeks o Growth of a zygote o Blastocyst & trophoblast form o Zygote implants into the wall of the uterus.  Embryonic Period o 2-8 weeks after conception  Embryo forms  Digestive & respiratory  Circulatory system  Nervous system, brain, sensory receptors, skin  Organogenesis: the beginning of your organs; all of your internal organs are being formed during that Embryonic Period  Fetal Period o Months: 2 – 9 of pregnancy o Major growth occurs o Fetus becomes viable  around 24 weeks (point of viability) Risk Factors: - Incompatible blood types - Environmental Hazards  Teratogens o Terotogenic factors that can lead to birth defects  Dose susceptibility, time of exposure  Greatest potential for damage during Embryonic Period; most sensitive o Examples:  Prescription & nonprescription drugs  Category A (vitamins)  B (Tylenol, etc.)  C (tramadol, amlodipine, trazodone)  D (antipsychotic, seizure medication, etc.)  X (Accutane)  NAS (Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome)  Psychotic drugs - Maternal Diseases - Diet & Nutrition - Age (of parents) - (Maternal) Stress


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